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328 History of Savannah. a f *^ J - W ^ 

this distinguished Georgian; and a beautiful county in the upper portion 
of the State perpetuates a family name which, for a century and a half, 
has been here saluted with gratitude and honor. 

With the close of the eighteenth century our connection with the 
preparation of this memorial volume ends. During the sixty-seven 
years which have intervened since that memorable evening when Ogle- 
thorpe, having posted his sentinels, sought the friendly shelter of the 
pines upon Yamacraw Bluff, scarcely an incident of moment appertain- 
ing to Georgia as a colony, in revolution, or as a State, can be men- 
tioned with which the history of Savannah is not either directly or re- 
motely associated. Here was the source from which the streams of pop- 
ulation flowed in all directions. Here was located the depot of supplies. 
Hither did all look for support, for protection, for the enforcement of law, 
and for the dissemination of all things needful. In this little metropoli- 
tan town and provincial capital dwelt the trustees' agents, the royal gov- 
ernors, and the early presidents of the youthful commonwealth. Here 
were regularly convened the Upper and Lower Houses of Assembly, the 
Colonial Legislatures, the Revolutionary Conventions, and the delibera- 
tive bodies which gave to Georgia her primal constitutions and laws un- 
der a republican form of government. Here were the first treaties of 
amity and commerce solemnized with the Indians, and here were import- 
ant agreements consummated for the extinguishment of the title of the 
Aborigines to the granted lands. Here were measures inaugurated con- 
templating and compassing a separation of Georgia from the mother 
country and the erection of the province into the dignity of an independ- 
ent State. Here occurred the first passage at arms with the king's forces, 
and before the fortifications which environed the town was bloodiest bat- 
tle delivered. 

Famous in arms, in politics, in religion, in commerce, and in the lib- 
eral professions are many who here dwelt, and devoted their best ener- 
gies to the development and salvation of Georgia. First on the roll of 
honor we salute the founder of the colony — renowned alike in the field, 
in the council chamber, and in legislative halls, — the embodiment of loy- 
alty and valor, — the model of manly grace and courtesy, — giving tone 
and character to his people and age. And near him stand the aged Col- 


Retrospective. 329 

onel William Stephens, — faithful to king and trust, — the eloquent White- 
field— the Brothers Wesley— the elder Habersham— the venerable Tomo- 
chi-chi, — the saintly Bolzius, — the self-sacrificing Zouberbuhler, and the 
gifted but unstable Zubly. Then pass in succession the royal governors, 
— the dictatorial Reynolds, — the gentle and learned Ellis, and the capa- 
ble Wright— loyal to Crown and province, attended by the members of 
their respective councils, generally the best representatives of the citizen- 
ship of Savannah. The scene shifts, and amid the storms of the Revo- 
lutionary period we behold the manly forms, hear the courageous voices, 
and admire the heroism of Noble Wimberley Jones, Archibald Bulloch, 
John Houstoun, Edward Telfair, the Brothers Habersham, Samuel El- 
bert, Lachlan Mcintosh, Button Gwinnett, Lyman Hall, George Walton, 
William Ewen, John Wereat, Jonathan Bryan, William Gibbons, Joseph 
Clay, Richard Howley, Nathan Brownson, John Adam Treutlen, John 
Glen, John Milledge, James Jackson, James Screven, John Martin and 
their companions, — patriots all,— who have bequeathed memories of de- 
votion, of valor, and of self-sacrifice of which any people might be proud. 
In that struggle there were friends, such as Howe, Pinckney, Lincoln, 
D'Estaing, Dillon, Noailles, Jasper, Pulaski, Wayne, White, Huger, and 
others scarcely less distinguished, who contributed freely of their blood 
and services to the heroic memories of place and period. 

The war ended, there ensued in the city of Oglethorpe an era of ex- 
panding prosperity, of increasing civilization, of refinement, of hospital- 
ity, of augmenting wealth, of religious and educational progress, of indi- 
vidual manhood and municipal integrity which, as the curtain descended 
upon the eighteenth century, gave ample promise of peace, stability, 
honor, confidence, reputation, and good fortune in the years to come. 


33o History of Savannah. 



Visit of Aaron Burr— Severe Storm in 1804 — First City Seal— War of 1S12 — Plans 
for Defending the City— Rejoicing over Naval Victories— Reception to President Mon- 
roe — Yellow Fever Epidemic of 1820 — Tour of General Lafayette — His Reception in 
Savannah — Building of Fort Pulaski -Death of ex-President Jackson — Mexican War 
— Death of Colonel Mcintosh— Visit of ex-President Polk — Death of President Taylor 
— Reception to ex-President Fillmore — Yellow Fever Epidemic — Destructive Gale in 
September, 1854. 

THE history of Savannah from the time its site was selected as the 
home of the English colonists in 1733 to the close of the preced- 
ing century with all its wealth of stirring events, its trials, triumphs, and 
progress has been unfolded in the preceding chapters. It possesses 
peculiar interest to the student of history as the colonial starting 
point of a State that has given dignity and fame to American civiliza- 
tion, and new elements of truth and power to augment the wealth of the 
world's history. Through many changes has been recorded the march of 
the community from the first rude and crude settlement to the hamlet, 
the village, the town, the city. In the simple and homely phases of life 
which have been depicted there is a pathos and a glamour of tenderness, 
but under all circumstances illumined by the loftiest patriotism and the 
most exalted manhood which makes the earliest past of Savannah a proud 
heritage worthy to be studied for inspiration even by a generation to 
whom electricity is the supreme agency. 

The first eleven years of Savannah's history as an incorporated city 
has been traced in preceding pages. It was a period of quiet city life, 
made memorable by the visit of the first president of the United States 
and the destructive fire of November, 1796. At the beginning of the 
present century the city contained probably 6,500 inhabitants, as the cen- 
sus taken two years previous gave the city a population of 6,226, of 
which only 237 were negroes. The financial losses the city had experi- 
enced in 1796 by the fire had well nigh been recovered when the present 

Visit of Aaron Burr. 331 

century began, and from this time forward although no great advance 
was made either in wealth or population, the people for several years en- 
joyed a period of reasonable prosperity ; the city had emerged from the 
effects of the Revolutionary struggle and was beginning to assume com- 
mercial importance. 

At a meeting of the city council held on July 13, 1801, the yearly 
salaries of the city officials were fixed as follows : Recorder, usual fees ; 
treasurer, $400 and fees; clerk of council, $350 and usual fees; clerk of 
the mayor's court, usual fees; marshal, $350 and usual fees; sheriff, 
clerk of market, and surveyor, usual fees; messenger, $150 and usual 

Vice-President Aaron Burr visited the city on the 20th of May, 1802, 
coming from Augusta. He was received on his way to the city by mili- 
tary and civil officials and companies of volunteer soldiers. Charles Har- 
ris, Edward Harden, and Richard Dennis welcomed him on behalf of the 
corporation, and B. Bullock, James Houstoun, and George W. Troup on 
behalf of the citizens of Savannah. On the Monday following his arrival a 
festival was given in his honor, which, said the Columbian Museum and 
Advertiser, was never equaled on any former occasion for brilliancy of en- 
tertainment, the number and respectability of the company, and the har- 
mony which prevailed. Two medals were presented to the corporation 
by the vice-president, one descriptive of the arms of the United States 
on one side, and on the other the bust of President Jefferson. The other 
medal commemorated the capture of General Burgoyne by General Gates 
on one side, and on the other the bust of the capturing general. The 
vice-president remained three or four days, and during his stay his head- 
quarters were on South Broad street, between Whitaker and Barnard 
streets, the home of his neice Mrs. Montmollin. It has been said the 
purpose of his visit was of a private nature and related to the settlement 
of an unfortunate family quarrel. 

From nine o'clock in the morning until ten at night on the 8th of 
September, 1804, Savannah was visited by a storm which raged with 
destructive fury, causing widespread ruin and devastation. The inhabi- 
tants dared not venture out of their dwellings, but in many cases they 
were forced to flee to avoid being crushed in the ruins of their own 
houses. Hutchinson plantation and the rice plantations around the city 

33 2 History of Savannah. 

were inundated, causing over one hundred negroes to be drowned. 
Trees in every part of the city were blown down, and also several houses. 
The wharves were all torn up and many of the storehouses erected at 
the foot of the bluff were either totally destroyed or so much damaged as 
to render valueless everything within them. Eighteen vessels in the har- 
bor were thrown upon the wharves and several were totally destroyed. 
Several persons were injured by the falling houses or chimneys and three 
died of the injuries received. The exchange, the filature, jail and court- 
house on the bluff, with twenty-six business houses under the bluff were 
injured and their stock of goods swept away. The steeple of the Pres- 
byterian Church, on the southwest corner of Whitaker and President 
streets, fell in a southwesterly direction, crushing in a house and cutting 
off a portion of a bed on which lay a sick man, but fortunately he was 
not injured. Strange to say the bell in the steeple was found unbroken 
and afterwards hung in the steeple of the Independent Presbyterian 
Church, where it remained until 1824, when a larger bell was presented 
to the congregation. 

The first seal used by the city of Savannah was presented by Alder- 
man Samuel Stirke, and it is unfortunate that no trace or imprint of it 
can be found. It was probably used for several years, as we find no 
record of a new one being provided until January 14, 1805, when a res- 
olution was adopted by the council instructing the clerk to " procure a 
screw-press for the city seal the expense of which will be defrayed by 
the council." Little use seems to have been made of the seal, however, 
as no impress of it has been found. 

Little of historic note occurred in Savannah in the opening years of 
the present century. The city made little progress in population or 
wealth, and the quiet town life of the people was barren of matters of 
great importance, with the exception of the movement to advance the 
educational interest of the city, and this feature of Savannah's history is 
fully treated in another portion of this volume. 

The period of the War of 18 12 was one of turmoil and excitement 
in the history of Savannah. The city's proximity to the sea made it 
liable to assault at any hour, and although it was not attacked, the people 
were kept constantly on the alert. The events which culminated in hos- 
tilities between the United States and England were clearly understood 

War of 1812. 333 

and closely watched, and when human agency seemed unavailing to avert 
the coming conflict a notice appeared in the Savannah Republican of 
January 28, 18 12, asking the people on Thursday next to meet in the 
Roman Catholic Church "to beseech the Father of Mercies to avert from 
this nation the calamities which threaten it." From this time forward 
meetings were often held by the citizens to discuss the means for pro- 
tecting the city. The military companies of the city were in fine condi- 
tion, and composed of the best young men of Savannah, who were some- 
what anxious to engage in practical warfare. Interest in the approach- 
ing struggle was intensified by the arrival in the city of Major- General 
Thomas Pinckney of the Southern Division of the army. He arrived on 
Monday June 22, 1 8 1 2, accompanied by Colonel Morris, his aid-de-camp. 
He was greeted by the Chatham Artillery and the Rangers who repaired 
to his lodgings and fired a salute of welcome. On the day following his 
arrival, the general, in company with several other gentlemen, took a view 
of the city boundaries for the purpose of advising the best means for de- 
fending the city. According to his suggestions the committee of super- 
intendence of fortifications, appointed by the city council, composed of 
Aldermen Proctor, Charlton, and Duke, determined upon a plan of forti- 
fication for Fort Wayne and called the citizens to send laborers to prose- 
cute the work. 

In the summer of 1812 war was declared, and on the twenty-fifth of 
June the news was brought to Savannah. General Pinckney immedi- 
ately thereafter left the city and work was soon after begun upon plans 
he suggested for the fortification of Savannah, the committee of superin- 
tendence, composed of Aldermen J. B. Reed, G. V. Proctor, and T. U. P. 
Charlton, causing the following advertisement to appear in the city paper: 
"Whereas, Major General Thomas Pinckney has determined to cause to 
be built immediately on the Scite of Fort Wayne such works as are 
deemed advisable, and will adopt such other measures recommendatory 
of its enlargement, as in his judgment may seem proper. And whereas 
the Major-General has recommended to the City Council, to direct their 
attention to the erection of such works on the south common agreeably 
to a plan pointed out and explained as of great importance to the pro- 
tection of the City. 

" Resolved that the Committee of Council appointed for the purpose 

334 History of Savannah. 

of superintending the works intended to be erected in this city by the 
corporation and the citizens of Savannah, Thereby adopt the General's 
recommendation and now call upon the citizens to contribute their aid 
and furnish the laborers subscribed by them, to commence the works to 
be erected on the south common, which will be under the direction of 
Captain McRae as engineer." 

In carrying out the plan suggested by General Pinckney a line of de- 
fenses was thrown up extending from the marsh on the east, at the foot 
of Broughton street, to the west side of Lafayette square, thence diverg- 
ing to Liberty street lane, thence crossing Bull street to Spring Hill, 
thence along the high ground east of Ogeechee Canal and terminating 
at the foot of Fahm street. The line was very irregular and unusually 
full of salients and re-entering angles. 

The Savannah volunteer companies, Chatham Artillery, Savannah 
Volunteer Guards, Republican Blues, and Georgia Hussars, and other 
companies which organized for the war were constantly on duty. The 
Savannah Guards, Republican Blues and other Savannah volunteer com- 
panies comprising the first regiment of Georgia militia, under the com- 
mand of Lieutenant-Colonel James Johnson, were mustered into the ser- 
vice of the United States for local defense. The enemy not approaching 
Savannah, however, this service continued only one month. Early in 
the war half of the Savannah Guards and Republican Blues were sent on 
an expedition against St. Augustine, Fla., but before arrangements for 
the assault were made Florida was purchased by the United States. 

Every victory of the American arms in Northern waters was hailed 
with joy in Savannah. The victories of Captain Isaac Hull in the cap- 
ture of the British frigate Gaerriere, of Captain John James Jones in the 
capture of the sloop-of-war Frolic, and of Commodore Decatur in the 
capture of the British frigate Macedonian, in the latter part of the year 
1812, caused the city council to designate the 1st of January, 1813, as a 
day to be set apart for the citizens of Savannah to give "expression of 
their gratitude to the Supreme Being for the aforesaid signal victories 
and the high sense they entertain of the gallant conduct of the said naval 
commanders, their officers and crews, and also for the general joy which 
these naval victories have produced upon our citizens." 

A meeting of the citizens of Savannah was held in the Exchange on 

War of 1812. 


June 2, 181 3, for the purpose of raising funds to be appropriated to the 
defense of the city. Hon. William Stephens was made chairman of the 
meeting, and James M. Wayne, secretary. Four thousand dollars was 
the amount deemed necessary to effectually defend the city from the at- 
tack of the enemy. John Bolton, James Johnston, John Cumming, James 
Bilbo, Frederick Herb and John Eppinger, jr., were appointed a com- 
mittee to co-operate with a committee of the city council to raise this 

A "committee of vigilance" was appointed by the council on July 20, 
1813, to consist of an alderman and two or more respectable citizens 
from the different wards of the city, to carry into effect the act of the As- 
sembly against idle or disorderly persons having no visible estate or law- 
ful employment in the city or who may hereafter come here." 

The British brig of war, Epcrvior, carrying eighteen guns was 
brought into the Savannah River by the United States sloop-of-war, Pea- 
cock, Lewis Warrington, commander, in May, 1814. When captured the 
Epervior had on board $1 10,000, which was confiscated and distributed 
according to law. In commemoration of the event the council passed the 
following resolution : 

"Whereas, another victory has added to the glory, the lustre, and re- 
nown of the American Navy, the Mayor and Aldermen of the city of Sa- 
vannah are anxious on this, as they have been on other occasions of sim- 
ilar triumphs to pay the tribute of respect to unparalleled skill and valor 
of the heroes of the ocean. Be it therefore unanimously resolved, that 
the mayor and aldermen of the city of Savannah do feel sincere gratitude 
and respect for the distinguished conduct and noble services of Captain 
Warrington, the gallant officers and crew in the late victory over the 
British sloop of war Epervior." 

The victory of Captain Porter, commander of the Essex, over the 
British frigate Phczbe and the sloop-of-war Cherub, was another occasion 
in commemoration of which, on the 22d of July, 18 14, the city council 
gave expression to the following preamble and resolutions: 

"Whereas, another great and brilliant exploit has bestowed on the 
skill, courage, Self Devotion and Patriotism of the hero Porter, his officers 
and crew, a splendour and glory never before acquired under similar cir- 
cumstances and given a reputation to the American Navy which neither 

336 History of Savannah. 

vaunts nor misrepresentations of the enemy can prevent carrying fear 
and terror to his thousand ships, and whereas this glorious achievement 
united to the noble efforts of the illustrious Porter, his officers and crew, 
to promote the fame and the interest of their Country in their long, per- 
ilous and unexampled cruise demand not only heartfelt gratitude of every 
citizen of the Republic, but particularly of every public body and de- 
partment of the Country. Be it therefore unanimously resolved by the 
mayor and aldermen of the city of Savannah that for and in behalf of 
themselves, and their Fellow Citizens of Savannah, the}' beg leave most 
respectfully to tender to Captain David Porter, late of the Essex Frigate, 
his officers and crew this high opinion of his skill, Perseverance and Pa- 
triotism evinced throughout the long and perilous cruise of the Essex, as 
well as the sincere profound and unaffected gratitude with which they 
have been inspired by the great glorious and unexampled skill and her- 
oism displayed by Captain Porter, the brave officers and gallant Seamen 
in the unequal contest of the Essex with the British Frigate Phoebe and 
the Sloop of War Cherub." 

The aldermen elected on September 14, 1814, were John B. Norris, 
Isaac Fell, T. U. P. Charlton, J. B. Read, R. Mackay, George Jones, J. 
Hersman, H. Mcintosh, E. Harden, Alexander S. Roe, M. McAllister, 
Th. Bourke, William B. Bullock. A committee of vigilance was selected 
composed of Aldermen Roe, Charlton, and Morris who were charged to 
"guard against the introduction of suspicious characters into the city, and 
to have weekly returns from all taverns, lodging and boarding-house 
keepers of the numbers of names and business of such persons, and to 
act towards them as the law and ordinances direct, and they are required 
to aid in ascertaining the earliest information of the approach of the en- 
emy by land or water and are empowered to appoint a secretary to re- 
cord proceedings. Resolved, that the sum of five hundred dollars be and 
is hereby appropriated and put at the disposal of the committee for the 
public good." This committee, however, was discharged in December 
following, as the arrival of Brigadier- General Floyd with a large military 
force near the city persuaded the council the city was amply protected 
against the attack of the enemy. This feeling of security soon after gave 
place to fresh alarm, and in January, 181 5, the council requested Com- 
modore Hugh G. Campbell, then in command of the flotilla stationed off 

Return or Peace. 337 

Savannah to sink vessels at any point he deemed expedient to obstruct 
the river. The victory of General Jackson at New Orleans in February 
following, made such action unnecessary, and the president's proclama- 
tion of peace on February 28th dispelled all fears, and was the cause of 
rejoicing among the people. 

Saturday the fourth of March, 18 15, was designated by the council 
as "a day for innocent amusement and recreation, in consequence of the 
ratification of the Treaty of Peace, with Great Britain, founded on a Basis 
of perfect reciprocity and honorable to this Nation resolved that the board 
having heretofore devoted all the means and energies in the prosecution 
of just war, now hails the return of Peace and Amity and Commerce which 
it is hoped will follow this gratifying event, and declare itself equally de- 
voted to the Maintenance of Peace and Friendship with the subjects of 
Great Britain. Always having had in view the sacred and patriotic duty 
of considering in the scope of its authority, all persons 'enemies in war, 
in peace friends.' " 

The return of peace was most grateful to the people of Savannah who 
for three years had been in a state of anxiety and suspense which had 
prostrated all avenues of prosperity. Mementoes of the War of 1 8 1 2 are 
still to be found in Savannah, in the naming of its squares and streets, 
several bearing the names of naval heroes or victorious battles, as Chip- 
pewa and Orleans squares, Hull, McDonough and Perry streets. 

James Monroe, the fifth president of the United States, visited Savan- 
nah on May 8, 18 19, and was received with that hospitality for which the 
city has always been noted. He remained while in the city at the home 
of William Scarborough on West Broad street. A public ball was given 
in his honor in a building erected for the occasion in Johnson square. 
He remained for five days, and on the last day of his visit he enjoyed a 
novel excursion to Tybee on the steamboat City of Savannah, the first 
steamship ever built in the United States. On the same day a public 
dinner was given in his honor in a booth built for the occasion. The 
features of this important event were thus described in a Savannah jour- 
nal : "The booth was ornamented with wreaths and branches of laurels. 
At the head of the table was an arch composed of laurels beautifully 
decorated with roses, so disposed as to form the name of James Monroe. 
The company having dined, the following toasts were announced from 

338 History of Savannah. 

the chair accompanied with appropriate music from the stand. During 
the giving of toasts, the Dallas fired salutes, her commander having 
obligingly tendered his services for the occasion. On the president re- 
tiring from the table a grand national salute was opened which made the 
welkin ring. The regular toasts were : 

" I. Our country? In her infancy she is mighty in the first class of 
nations, what will be the meridian of her life? 

" 2. The Federal Union. May the head be accursed that shall in- 
sidiously plot its dissolution, the arm withered that shall aim a blow at 
its existence. 

" 3. The Constitution of the United States, framed by the wisdom 
of sages, may our statesmen and our posterity regard it as the national 
ark of political safety never to be abandoned. 

"4. The military, naval, legislative and diplomatic worthies of the 
Revolution. It is our duty and delight to honor them and to tell their 
deeds with filial piety. 

"5. General George Washington, revered be his memory! Let our 
statesmen and our warriors obey his precepts, our youth emulate his vir- 
tues and services, and our country is safe. 

"6. The cession of the Floridas — Honorable to the administration 
and useful to the United States, it completes the form of the Republic. 

" 7. Major-General Andrew Jackson — The hero of New Orleans, the 
brave defender of his country and vindicator of its injured honor. 

" 8. Adams, Jefferson, and Madison — They have withdrawn from 
public duty, and illustrious by their virtues, and services, carry with 
them a nation's gratitude. 

"9. The navy. Imperishable fame accompanies the Star Spangled 
Banner. In the last war we coped with Britain on the ocean ; now we 
hear of no search, no impressment. 

" 10. The army. Our pillar of protection on the land; their valor 
and patriotism won the victories of York and of Erie, of Chippewa, and 
of Niagara. 

- "II. The militia — Yet the bulwark of our country. Invincibles 
fell before them in the battle of Baltimore, and of Plattsburg, of the 
Thames, and of New Orleans. 

" 12. Concord between the North and the South, the East and the 

Visit of President Monroe. 339 

West. May unanimity till the end of time, falsify the timid fears of those 
who predict dissolution. 

" 13. The American fair — May they always be mothers to a race of 

" The following informal toasts were proposed : 

"By president of the United States. — The people of the United 
States. They constitute but one family, and may the bond which unites 
them together as brethren and freemen be erernal. 

"By John C. Calhoun, secretary of war — The freedom of the press, 
and the responsibility of public agents. The sure foundation of the 
noble fabric of American liberty. 

" By Major-General Gaines — The memory of Jackson, Tattnall, and 
Telfair. The choice, the pride, and ornament of Georgia. 

"By Mr. Middleton — The memory of General Greene, who con- 
quered for liberty. 

" By Major- General Floyd — Our Country — May its prosperity be 
as lasting, as its government is free. 

" After the president and secretary of war had retired the following 
toasts were proposed : 

" By the mayor — The President of the United States. 

"By William Bullock, esq., vice-president — Mr. Calhoun, secretary 
at war. The distinguished statesman, the virtuous citizen. 

" By General John Mcintosh. — Peace with all the world as long as 
they respect our rights — disgrace and defeat to the power who would 
invade them. 

" By Colonel James E. Houstoun — The memory of General Lachlan 

" By General Mitchell — The late war — a practical illustration of the 
energy of our republic. 

"After the mayor retired, James M. Wayne, mayor of the city. By 
Colonel Marshall — The governor of the State of Georgia — a virtuous 
man and zealous chief magistrate. 

" After the vice-president retired, William B. Bullock — Our re- 
spected citizen. 

"By Colonel Harden — The assistant vice-presidents of the day — 
Charles Harris, Mathew McAllister and John Eppinger, esqs. 

34° History of Savannah. 

" By John H. Ash — Colonel James Marshall, a skillful officer, and the 
friend of his country. 

" By Major Gray — We are a free and happy people, and while enjoying 
every blessing let us not forget the great Author from whom all good 

" By Josiah Davenport — The union of our country. May the last 
trump alone dissolve it." 

In 1820 Savannah experienced the horrors of a conflagration far sur- 
passing in violence and destruction the fire that occurred in 1796. It 
commenced on the morning of January n, and before the flames were 
extinguished four hundred and sixty-three houses, exclusive of outbuild- 
ings, were destroyed. With the exception of the Planters' Bank, the 
Episcopal Church and three or four other brick buildings, every house 
between Broughton and Bay streets was destroyed, the loss being esti- 
mated at four million dollars. At this time Savannah did not contain 
more than 7,500 persons, and the distress caused by the fire was felt by 
every one. The Georgian of January 17, 1820, was largely devoted to 
a description of the scenes and incidents of the great conflagration, and 
the following extract from this journal gives a vivid picture of the fearful 
desolation wrought by the fire: "The city of Savannah, after a lapse of 
twenty-four years has again experienced the horrors of a conflagration, 
far surpassing in violence and destruction the melancholy fire in 1796. 
The buildings then were of little value compared to those recently lost. 
The genius of desolation could not have chosen a spot within the limits 
of our city, where so widespread a scene of misery, ruin and despair 
might be laid, as that which was recently the center of health and indus- 
try, now a heap of worthless ruins. On Tuesday morning, between the 
hours of one and two o'clock, an alarm of fire was given from the livery 
stable of Mr. Boon, on the trust lot of Isaac Fell, esq., situated in Bap- 
tist Church square, in the immediate vicinity of Market square, around 
which the buildings were almost exclusive of wood. They were in a 
most combustible state, from a long continuance of dry weather. When 
the conflagration reached Market square, a heavy explosion of gun-pow- 
der added greatly to the general destruction. For the information of 
readers at a distance the principal streets of the city run parallel with the 
river nearly east and west, beginning at Bay street, one side of which 

Great Fire of 1820. 341 

only is built up at the distance generally of about three or four hundred 
feet from the top of the bluff, beneath which runs the river. These 
streets are intersected by others at right angles and at regular intervals, 
spacious squares are left open into which the property rescued from the 
flames was hastily thrown. Broughton street, the most considerable in 
the city, runs parallel with Bay street, above described and five smaller 
streets and lanes thickly built are comprehended between those two 
streets. Ninety- four lots were left naked, containing three hundred and 
twenty-one wooden buildings, many, often double tenements, thirty-five 
brick, four hundred and sixty-three buildings, exclusive of outbuildings. 
The estimated loss is upwards of four millions. The fire was extinguished 
between twelve and one o'clock the next day, and if possible the scene 
became more painfully distressing. Wherever an open space promised 
security from the flames, property of every description had been depos- 
ited in vast heaps. Some were gazing in silent despair on the scene of 
destruction, others were busily and sorrowfully employed in collecting 
what little was spared to them. Alas, never did the sun set on a gloom- 
ier day for Savannah, or on so many aching hearts. Those whose avo- 
cations called them forth that night, will long remember its sad and sol- 
emn stillness, interrupted only by the sullen sound of falling ruins. Dur- 
ing the .excitement while the heart of the city was wrapped in flames, 
each one was too busy for reflection, but when the danger was past and 
the unfortunate sufferers had leisure to contemplate the extent of their 
losses, a generous mind may conceive, but it is impossible to describe 
their feelings of despair." 

Generous was the aid that flowed from Northern and Southern cities 
to the distressed people of Savannah after the fire of 1820, while the gen- 
erosity of those in the afflicted city who were in position to render as- 
sistance was characteristic of a naturally kind hearted and generous peo- 
ple. Before, however, the people had recovered from the effects of this 
great disaster they were confronted by a death dealing pestilence which 
was the most severe blow that had yet befallen the city by the sea. On 
the fifth of September a vessel arrived from the West Indies having yel- 
low fever on board. A few days after several cases were reported in the 
city. The dread disease spread rapidly, and on the 6th of November fol- 
lowing two hundred and thirty- nine persons had been stricken down. 

34 2 History of Savannah. 

When the fever began its relentless sway the population of the city was 
7>5 2 3» which was quickly reduced by flight, there being only 1,494 per- 
sons in the city at the end of October. Among those who remained the 
loss of life was fearful, but was mostly confined to the foreign population 
which had come the previous winter and had not become thoroughly 

During the early years of Savannah as an incorporated city, the 
mayor served without salary, but as the duties of the office increased, re- 
muneration for his services seemed to impress the "city fathers" as just 
and proper, and in 1821 a committee was appointed'to prepare a bill en- 
titled " An. ordinance for allowing the mayor a salary annuallv." 

The recovery from the effects of the fire of 1820 and the ravages 
of yellow fever was slow. The financial conditions of the city had 
become much depressed and it took several years of hard persistent 
work to regain what in a few hours had been swept away by the fire, 
fire, and the losses caused by the suspension of all business during the 
visitations of the yellow fever epidemic. The holiday spirit of the peo- 
ple had become somewhat regained in 1825, and the occasion of General 
La Fayette's visit during this year was made a season of the most impos- 
ing civil and military displays ever witnessed in Savannah. 

The tour of General LaFayette in the United States during 1824 and 
1825" was made a national event. Everywhere the "Nation's Guest" 
was received with an enthusiasm, which has been accorded to few menr 
in the world's history. From the time of his arrival in New Ofliar>s in 
August, 1824, until he landed at the east bluff of Savannah on the 19th 
of March, 1825, the papers of this city had contained full accounts of his 
triumphal tour. His reception in Savannah was fully chronicled by the 
local papers as the following description of this interesting occasion fully 
shows : "Almost up to the last hour the time of the probable arrival of 
our venerated Guest was but conjectural; opinions were various as to the 
moment at which he might, be expected, and all the preparations for giv- 
ing eclat to the visit were confined to little more than a week. How 
well the time was improved the detail of the circumstances attending it 
will shew ; it was a labour of affectionate respect, in which all appeared 
to join with heart and hand. As the time approached, the interest pro- 
portionately increased. The stages and packets, particularly from the 

Visit of General La Fayette. 343 

South, were crowded with passengers. The Liberty County Troop of 
Light Dragoons, under the command of Captain W. M. Maxwell, and 
the Darien Hussars, Captain Charles West, had early evinced their anx- 
ious desire to do honour to the occasion, and had reached town on the 
Tuesday preceding. On Friday evening all appeared to be in a buzz of 
expectation, and numerous parties were collected in almost every spot 
on Bay street and elsewhere ; every one with a face of pleasure and ex- 
pectation. At half past five o'clock on Saturday morning, by a signal 
from the Chatham Artillery, the Military were warned to repair to their 
several parade grounds. The line was formed at eight o'clock, soon after 
which, there being no appearance of the Boat, the troops stacked their 
arms and were dismissed until the arrival. At an early hour the French 
and American flags were hoisted on the Exchange steeple, the Revenue 
Cutter Gallaiin, Captain Matthews, was also decorated with flags, and 
the Merchant Vessels were dressed in the same manner. On Bay street, 
on each side of the entrance to the city from under the bluff, were placed 
two French brass pieces, one of which, tradition informs us, was received 
in this country by the same vessel that brought over LaFayette ; they 
were manned by a company of masters of vessels, and others who vol- 
unteered for the occasion. The resort to the Eastern part of the bluff 
was general at an early part of the morning, continuing to increase dur- 
ing the day ; and at the time of the arrival was crowded with ladies and 
citizens at every point which could command a view of the landing. A 
temporary landing was erected at the wharf, consisting of a flight of steps 
and a platform At an early hour the committee of recep- 
tion deputed from the Joint Committee, together with Colonels Brailsford 
and Randolph, aids of his excellency Governor Troup, proceeded to Fort 
Jackson in three barges, decorated with flags, rowed by seamen in blue 
jackets and white trowsers, under the command of Captains Nicolls, 
Campbell, and Dubois. The first notice of the arrival of the welcome 
vessel was by a few strokes of the Exchange Bell. A few minutes after 
the volume of smoke which accompanied her was perceptible over the 
land ; she was then about twelve or fifteen miles off, but rapidly ap- 
proaching. The intelligence, 'The boat's in sight,' spread with electrical 
rapidity, and the bustle which had in some measure subsided, recom- 
menced and every one repaired to the spot where his landing was to take 

344 History of Savannah. 

place. Tiie troops were immediately formed and marched to the lower 
part of Bay street, where they were placed in position on the green in 
front of the avenue of trees, their right on East Bay. A more gallant 
and splendid military display we have never seen; the effect was beauti- 
ful, every corps exceeded its customary numbers; many who had not 
appeared under arms for years, shouldered them on this occasion, and 
the usual pride of appearance and honourable emulation was ten times 
increased by the occasion. 

"Those who knew the Volunteer Companies of Savannah will believe 
this to be no empty compliment. As the Steamboat passed Fort Jackson 
she was boarded by the Committee of Reception. On their ascending 
the deck, the General was addressed by their chairman, George Jones, 
Esq. The boat now came up in gallant style, firing by the way, and a 
full band of music on board playing the Marseillaise Hymn and other fa- 
vourite French and American airs. Her appearance was imposing and 
beautiful,. to which the splendid and glittering uniforms of the officers 
from South Carolina who attended the General greatly added. As the 
Steamboat came up to her anchorage a salute was fired by the Revenue 
Cutter Gallatin, Captain Matthews. General LaFayette was now assisted 
into the first barge accompanied by the Committee and others, the other 
boats being occupied by the remainder of the suite. As the boat reached 
the shore the excitement in every face increased. A line was then 
formed from the landing place on the wharf, facing inwards, composed of 
the mayor and aldermen of the city, the clergy, the judge and officers of 
the District Court, the Superior Court, and the Court of Oyer and Ter- 
miner, the Union Society, deputations from the Hibernian Society, with 
their badges and banners; from the St. Andrew's Society with their 
Badges, and from the Agricultural Society with their badges, and citi- 
zens. The officers and gentlemen who accompanied the General in the 
Steamboat from Charleston, besides the governor of that State, were 
Colonel Huger, Major-General Youngblood, General Geddes, Adjutant- 
General Earle, Colonel Keith, Colonel Butler, Colonel Chesnutt, Colonel 
Brown, Colonel Clonnie, Colonel Fitsimmons, Colonel Taylor, Major 
Warley, Major Hamilton, Captain Moses, and Messrs. Bee and McCloud; 
Colonel Huger and Major Hamilton alone accepted the invitation of the 
committee to land and participate in the ceremonies of the procession. 

Visit of General La Fayette. 345 

. . . As the General placed his foot upon the landing-place a salute 
was fired by the Chatham Artillery in line on the Bluff, with four brass 
field-pieces, four and six-pounders, one of which was captured at York- 
town. He was here received by William C. Daniell Esq., mayor of the 
city. Six cheers were now given by the whole of the citizens, who were 
assembled on the gratifying occasion ; for which the General expressed 
his grateful acknowledgments to those nearest him. Supported by the 
mayor and attended by the committee of reception, he now ascended 
the bluff, followed by his suite, the Members of the Corporation, the So- 
cieties and Citizens. Here he was again enthusiastically cheered. On 
arriving at the top of the Bluff, on the green, he was presented to Gov- 
ernor Troup, by whom, in the most cordial manner, he was welcomed to 
the soil of Georgia. LaFayette replied in feeling terms. The General 
was then introduced to several Revolutionary soldiers ; among those 
present were General Stewart, Colonel Shellman, Eb. Jackson, Sheftall 
Sheftall, and Captain Rees. The utmost animation appeared to sparkle 
in the eyes of the General at this time. This was particularly the case 
when the latter, addressing him with a cordial grip of the hand, said, ' I 
remember you, I saw you in Philadelphia,' and proceeded to narrate 
some trifling incidents of the occasion ; to which the General replied, 
'Ah, I remember! ' and taking Captain Rees's hand between both of 
his, the eyes of each glistening with pleasure, they stood for a few mo- 
ments apparently absorbed in recollections of the days of their youth. 
The officers of the brigade and of the regiment were then introduced. 
Whilst these introductions were going on a salute was fired along the 
whole line of infantry. The General and suite, together with the gov- 
ernor and suite, the Revolutionary officers, mayor, committee of recep- 
tion, guests, General Harden and suite, Colonel McAllister, and the field 
officers from the adjoining Counties proceeded on foot down the front of 
the line in review. After passing the troops the General ascended the 
carriage prepared for his reception, and the procession moved in the fol- 
lowing order : 

" 1 st. F. M. Stone, Marshal of the City, with staff of office. 

" 2d. Divisions of the Georgia Hussars, Liberty and Mcintosh Troops 
of Cavalry, Jas. Barnard first Marshal with Staff. 

"3d. General LaFayette and Governor Troup, in a Landau drawn by 
four grey horses. ** 

346 History of Savannah. 

"4th. The Mayor of the City and Colonel Huger, in a second Carriage, 

" 5th. G. W. LaFayette and Mr. LeVasseur in a third carriage. 

" 6th. Revolutionary officers in a fourth carriage. 

" 7th. Brigadier General, the suites of the Governor and the General. 
J. Habersham, second Marshal and Staff. 

" 8th, The Committee of Council of the Citizens and of Officers. 

"9th. Aldermen. 

" 10th. The Reverend Clergy, Judges, Officers of the United States 
Consuls, Officers of Courts, H. Cope, third Marshal, with Staff, E. Bour- 
quin, fourth Marshal. 

" nth. The Union, The Hibernian, The St. Andrew's, and Agricult- 
ural Societies in ranks of eight, Citizens in ranks of eight. Sam. M. Bond, 
fifth Marshal, Jos. S. Pelot, sixth Marshal. 

" 1 2th. Divisions of the Georgia Hussars, Liberty and Mcintosh 
Troops of Cavalry. 

"13th. Field Officers of other Regiments. 

"14th. Officers of the Army and Navy. 

"15th. Company Officers of the first and other Regiments. Lieuten- 
ant Colonel, Chatham Artillery, United States Troops, Savannah Volun- 
teer Guards, Georgia Volunteers, Republican Blues, Savannah Juvenile 
Guards, Major and Regimental Staff. • 

" The procession moved up East Broad street, to Broughton street, 
from thence to West Broad street, from thence to South Broad street, 
down that street to Abercorn street, and through Abercorn street to 
Oglethorpe square. When the procession began to move, a third salute 
was fired by the Marine Corps which we have heretofore mentioned. 

The procession moved as prescribed in the arrangements of the 
day, and about half past five o'clock in the afternoon he arrived at the 
lodgings appropriated for him at Mrs. Maxwell's, the same in which Gov- 
ernor Troup resided. The time of his landing was at three o'clock ; so 
that the reception and procession took up about two hours and a half. 
The troops then filed off to the South Common and fired a National sa- 
lute, after which they returned to the quarters of the General to whom 
they paid the marching salute. 

"During the passage of the procession, the windows and doors, as well 
as the spacious streets through which he passed, were crowded to excess; 

Visit of General La Fayette. 347 

and the expression of enthusiastic feeling was repeatedly displayed by all, 
from the highest to the lowest. He was saluted by the ladies from every 
place affording a view of the procession, by the waving of handkerchiefs; 
which he returned by repeated and continued inclination of the head, 
bowing in acknowledgment. At sundown another salute was fired by 
the Marine Volunteer Corps. Such was the inspiring and joyful spec- 
tacle produced by the reception of General La Fayette in our City." 

During General LaFayette's visit to Savannah he laid the corner-stones 
of the Greene and Pulaski monuments, the former in Johnson and the 
latter in Chippewa squares. The corner-stone of the Greene Monument, 
in commemoration of the event, bears the following inscription : " This 
corner-stone of a monument to the memory of Major-General Nathanael 
Greene, was laid by General LaFayette at the request of the citizens of 
Savannah, on the twenty- first of March, A. D. 1825." Upon the other 
was : " On the twenty-first day of March, A. D. 1825, was laid by General 
LaFayette, at the request of the citizens of Savannah, this foundation 
stone of a monument to the memory of Brigadier Count Pulaski." 

The house in which General LaFayette was entertained during his stay 
in the city still stands. It faces Oglethorpe square and is. now the resi- 
dence of Mrs. H. W. Thomas. It was built in the early part of the pres- 
ent century, and still presents much of the appearance it did when LaFay- 
ette was a guest beneath its roof. 

In 1 83 1 was commenced the erection of Fort Pulaski, the most im- 
portant defense of the city against hostile approach by sea, commanding 
as it does the mouth of the Savannah River. It is situated fourteen miles 
from the city, on Cockspur Island, and was named in honor of Brigadier- 
General Count Pulaski. The site for it was selected by Major Babcock, 
of the United States Engineer Corps, about 1827-8, and work was begun 
upon it by Captain Manfield, United States engineer, at the time stated. 
It was completed in 1847, at a cost of a million dollars, but was never 
occupied by troops until in January, 186 1, when it was taken possession 
of by Confederate troops by order of Governor Brown. 

The erection of permanent barracks in Savannah began to be dis- 
cussed in the winter of 183 1. The mayor and aldermen presented to 
Congress a memorial which the War Department favorably received, and 
immediately issued orders to find suitable quarters within the city for 

348 History of Savannah. 

troops during the summer months with the view of ascertaining the 
healthfulness of the location. The theater was secured for such purpose, 
and here a detachment of the regular army was quartered during the 
summer of 1832. This venture convinced Captain Merchant, who with 
fifty- five men was stationed here, that Savannah was a most desirable 
location for the erection of army barracks, and in October, 1832, he made 
a report to the War Department to this effect. During the next session 
of Congress an appropriation of $30,000 was made for a site and the 
building of a barracks. They were constructed about 1832-5, and covered 
two blocks and the lane between, extending from Liberty to Harris 
streets, and from Bull to Drayton, fronting on Bull street. 

The period from 1830 to 1840 witnessed the inauguration of some of 
the most important events in the history of Savannah, as the formation 
of the poorhouse and hospital society, the Georgia Infirmary, and the 
Central Railroad incorporation. The last named enterprise has had a 
most important bearing on the destinies of Savannah. The first sixty- 
seven miles of the road was completed in 1838, and gave a wonderful im- 
petus to the commerce of the city. Improvements began on every hand. 
In 1839 there was scarcely a building adapted for commercial purposes 
untenanted. Stores and counting houses arose at every turn, and the 
little city with its 1 1,000 inhabitants in 1840 was supreme in the Sea Isl- 
and cotton, rice and lumber trades. Steam- mills were put into operation, 
steam packet lines were established, and, to keep pace with the commer- 
cial growth of the city, means of culture for the inhabitants were not 
neglected as is evidenced by the formation in 1839 of the Georgia His- 
torical Society, which from that time to the present has been one of the 
most beneficent institutions of the city. 

The 4th of July, 1845, was observed by the citizens of Savannah as 
a day of mourning for Andrew Jackson, the late president of the United 
States. In commemoration of the life, services, and character of this illus- 
trious soldier and statesman an eulogy was pronounced by Matthew Mc- 
Allister at the Independent Presbyterian Church. Francis M. Stone was 
chief marshal of the day and had charge of the procession in which the 
following civil and military officers, organizations, societies, and com- 
panies took part: 

The United States troops, and volunteer companies of the city of Sa- 




- ■ 

•-' Lr&i-rnan 



Mexican War. 349 

vannah, commanded by Colonel White, the orator and committee of ar- 
rangements, the reverend clergy, judges and officers of the Superior 
Court, justices and officers of the Inferior Court and Court of Ordinary, 
judge and officers of the Court of Common Pleas and Oyer and Ter- 
miner, the mayor and aldermen, and all officers deriving their appoint- 
ments from the city, justices of the peace, foreign consuls and officers, 
the collector and other officers of the customs, officers and soldiers of the 
Revolution, officers of the revenue marine, officers of the militia, the 
Union Society, the Medical Society, the Library Society, the Hibernian 
Society, the St. Andrew's Society, the German Friendly Society, the 
Georgia Historical Society, the Catholic Temperance Society, the Me- 
chanics' Temperance Society, the Agricultural Society, Georgia Chapter 
No. 3 and Masonic Lodges of Savannah, the Independent Order of Odd 
Fellows, the United Ancient Order of Druids, teachers of public schools 
and their pupils, teachers of Sabbath-schools and their pupils, the pilot of 
the port of Savannah, captains and officers of vessels and marines. 

When hostilities between the United States and Mexico commenced in 
1846, a call was made upon Georgia for a regiment of soldiers to be sent to 
the seat of war. All the infantry volunteer companies of the city offered 
their services to the State to make up the regiment, but only one com- 
pany could be taken and it was decided by lot which it should be. The 
lot fell upon the Irish Jasper Greens, which was accepted and formed a part 
of the regiment, which, under the command of Colonel Henry R. Jack- 
son, shared the honors won by American soldiers on the plains of Mexico. 
The Jasper Greens were composed of the following named officers and 
men : J. McMahon, captain ; G. Curlette, D. O'Conner, lieutenants; John 
Devaney, M. Carey, P. Martin, sergeants ; Leo Wylly, M. Feery, P. Tier- 
ney, T. Bourke, Owen Reilly, corporals ; William Baudy, W. D. Burke, 
P. Bossee, Francis Camfield, J. Chalmers, P. Clark, P. Cody, John Coffee, 
William Coffee, John Coulihan, Elijah Coudon, Joseph Davis, Dennis 
Dermond, Michael Downy, Michael Duggan, Francis Datzner, Charles 
Farrelly, Thomas Fenton, David Fountain, James Fleeting, James Flynn, 
William P. Fielding, James Feely, P. Gerrin, Moses Gleason, O. B. Hall, 
Michael Hoar, Timothy Howard, R. M. Howard, E. W. Irwin,' John Kee- 
gin, Humphrey Leary, W. S. Levi, David Lynch, Michael Lynch, L. 
Mahoney, Henry Moury, John Makin, Bryan Morris, James McFehilly, 

350 History of Savannah. 

Hugh Martagh, Henry Nagle, Daniel Nichels, M. M. Payne, George 
Perminger, Thomas Pigeon, John Reagan, Francis Reeves, R. Richard- 
son, J. Rinehart, B. Rodebuck, R. M. Robertson, J. D. Ryan, Thomas 
Ryan, John Sanderlyn, Michael Shea, Peter Seizmel, David Stokes, C. F. 
E. Smyth, R. L. S. Smith, Patrick Shiels, Patrick Tidings, Daniel F. 
Fowles, J. W. Warden, James Waters, Michael Weldon, John Whaling, 
James Waters, jr., Jacob Zimmerman, privates; William Gatehouse, 
George Gatehouse, musicians. 

In May, 1847, Daniel Webster, accompanied by his wife and Miss 
Sutton, visited Savannah and was accorded a public reception in John- 
son square. The citizens gave him a public dinner at the Pulaski House, 
and he was also similarly entertained by the bar of Savannah ; at the lat- 
ter Hon. M. Hall McAllister, and Hon. William Law presided. The 
distinguished orator and jurist was highly gratified with his reception, 
and made a feeling speech of thanks. 

Col. James S. Mcintosh, of Savannah, one of the heroes of the Mex- 
ican War, died in October, 1847, °f wounds received in the battle of El 
Molino del Rey on the 8th of September, 1847. His remains were 
brought to Savannah, where his funeral obsequies were held on Satur- 
day, March 18, 1848. The Savannah paper of March 20, 1848, gives the 
following notice of the services: 

" Our fellow-citizens generally on Saturday forsook their usual avo- 
cations to mingle around the bier of the veteran soldier, the gallant leader 
of the Third Infantry, and acting brigadier-general in more than one 
well fought battle on the plains of Mexico. The Music of the Military, 
at an early hour of the forenoon, summoned the Members of the respec- 
tive Volunteer Corps, attached to the First Regiment, and their full ranks 
attested the admiration of the Citizen Soldier for the character of the 
warrior who now rested from his labors. 

" The National Banner was displayed at half-mast at the Garrison and 
on the Chatham Light Artillery Armory — and all the shipping in Port 
displayed their colors also at half-mast. The following corps formed as 
a battalion on the Bay. The Georgia Hussars — Captain Bailey. The 
Chatham Light Artillery — Captain Stephens. The Republican Blues — 
Captain Anderson. The Savannah Volunteer Guards, Captain Richard- 
son The Irish Jasper Greens — Captain M'Mahon. The German Vol- 
unteers, Captain Stegin. The Phoenix Riflemen, Lieutenant Polin. 

Visit of Ex-President Polk. 351 

" Under the command of Colonel Knapp the battalion proceeded to 
the residence of Major Wm. J. Mcintosh, where the mortal remains of 
his gallant brother reposed. The veteran lay in a leaden coffin, inclosed 
in one of Mahogany, with the following inscription : Colonel Jas. S. Mc- 
intosh, Fifth Regiment, United States Infantry, died first October, 1847. 
of wounds, received in the battle of El Molino del Rev, Mexico, eighth 
September, 1847. The American flag was thrown as a pall over the cof- 
fin, and the sword with the dress of the deceased, (pierced by eight bul- 
let holes), which was worn by him at the fatal battle of El Molino del Rey, 
rested upon the coffin. Reverend Rufus White of St. John's Church, as- 
sisted by Edward Neufville D.D., officiated at the house, and read the 
funeral service of the Episcopal Church. Escort, Clergy— Pall Bearers, 
W. B. Bullock, Judge J. M. Wayne, Major Wade, U. S. A., Lieutenant 
Colonel Law, Colonel Williams, Colonel J. W. Jackson, Captain Stephens, 
Major Talcott, U. S. A., Family, Colonel John G. Park, and Major M. D. 
Huson, the Commander on the part of the State in charge of the body 
from Mexico— Officers of the Army and Navy, Brigadier- General White 
and Staff, Committee from the Floyd Rifles and Macon Volunteers un- 
der Captain Conner ; Officers of the First Regiment— Grand Marshal not 
on Duty — Mayor and Aldermen — Citizens. 

" On entering the old Cemetery, the services at the grave were per- 
formed by Reverend Rufus White. After the coffin was deposited in the 
vault which contains the remains of General Lachlan Mcintosh, a patriot 
of the Revolution, three volleys were fired over the grave of the warrior 
by the Rifles and the four Companies of Infantry. The battalion then 
returned to the Bay, and the Companies were dismissed to their respec- 
tive commands. Thus has the grave closed over the remains of one who 
in life we cherished as a gallant citizen, ready at any moment to lay down 
his life for his Country." 

Saturday, March 10, 1849, was made memorable in the municipal his- 
tory of Savannah by the arrival in the city of ex-President James K. Polk. 
He was received by the mayor and aldermen of the city and a commit- 
tee of twenty-one citizens. He came by boat from Charleston and was 
accompanied by his wife, nieces, and Hon. Robert J. Walker, ex-secre- 
tary of the treasury. The battalions composed of the Hussars,, Lieu- 
tenant Blois ;' the Blues, Captain Anderson; the Guards, Captain Rich- 

35 2 History of Savannah. 

ardson ; the Irish Jasper Greens, Captain Wylly; the German Volun- 
teers, Captain Stegin ; and the Phoenix Riflemen, Captain Mills, turned 
out in honor of his presence. He remained from Saturday evening until 
Monday morning, when the Republican Blues escorted him to the Cen- 
tral Railroad depot, whence he proceeded to Macon. 

In August of the following year the people of Savannah, in common 
with the people all over the country, mourned the death of the chief mag- 
istrate of the nation, Zachary Taylor, whose victories in Mexico had so 
shortly before won the hearts of the American people. The mayor and 
aldermen adopted suitable measures for the commemoration of his death, 
which were carried out on Thursday, the 8th oi August. W. W. Oates 
was made chief marshal of the day, and a committee of arrangements, 
composed of R. R. Cuyler, W. Thorne Williams, F. S. Barton, William Law, 
W. P. White, W. B. Felmaine, J. L. Locke, Alderman J. Lippman, Rob- 
ert Habersham, E. J. Hardin, A. R. Lavvton, Chas. S. Henry, Geo. Schley, 
R. D. Arnold, Aldermen R. H. Griffin and M. Cumming was appointed. 
A procession was formed, composed as follows: The escort of volunteer 
companies, chief marshal, the standard of the United States, the orator and 
committee of arrangements, the reverend clergy, teachers of public schools, 
the mayor and aldermen and their officers, judges and officers of the Su- 
perior Court, justices of the Inferior Court and their officers, judge of the 
Court of Common Pleas, and Oyer and Terminer and officers, magistrates 
and officers of the city and county, foreign consuls, officers of the United 
States, collector and officers of the customs, military and naval officers of 
the United States, brigadier-general of the First Brigade and staff, major 
of cavalry and staff, field staff and company officers First Regiment, the 
Union Society, the Medical Society, the Library Society, the Hibernian 
Society, the St. Andrew's Society, the German Friendly Society, the 
Georgia Historical Society, the Irish Union Society, Temperance Soci- 
eties. During the march of the procession the Chatham Artillery fired 
minute-guns to the number of sixty-five, the age of the deceased, and at 
sunset a national salute was fired. Banks, public buildings, stores and 
private dwellings were draped in mourning, and during the ceremonies 
all business was suspended. Francis S. Bartow delivered the funeral 
eulogy on the public life and character of the illustrious dead at the new 
Methodist Church in St. James square. 

Visit of Ex-President Fillmore. 353 

The present custom-house was erected in 1850, under plans designed 
by John S. Norris. The customs had been collected for several years 
previous to the erection of the present building in the Exchange. 

On the 22d of April, 1S54, ex-President Fillmore, accompanied by 
Hon. John P. Kennedy, arrived in Savannah. They were received at the 
Central Railroad depot by a large concourse of citizens, the Chatham Ar- 
tillery firing a salute as the train came in. The reception ceremonies 
were held in the extensive warehouse of the Central Railroad, after which 
the distinguished guest and suite were honored by a civic and military 
escort to quarters provided at the Pulaski House. " On Saturday, the day 
following his arrival, the ex-president," says the Georgian of Tuesday 
April 25th, "visited Bonaventure." "On Sunday morning he attended 
Christ Church, Reverend Bishop Elliott, officiating. In the afternoon he 
attended the Independent Presbyterian Church, and listened to a sermon 
from Reverend Chas. Rogers, in the absence of the Pastor, Reverend Doc- 
tor Preston. In the evening he attended the Unitarian Church, Rev- 
erend John Pierpont, Junior, to which denomination we believe he is at- 
tached as a member. Yesterday from ten to eleven o'clock a public levee 
was held at the Pulaski House. The citizens without distinction paid 
their respects to the ex-President. At eleven o'clock by invitation of 
Captain Hardie, Mr. Fillmore and suite visited the Steamship the Key 
Stone State. He was welcomed by a salute of twenty-one guns. Af- 
terwards the Steamer Seminole was placed at his disposal — the ex-Presi- 
dent and his friends viewing the scenery down the river. Dinner fol- 
lowed, and many toasts were enjoyed on board the Seminole. The Boat 
returned to the city at an early hour of the evening, in time to attend 
the ball, where, there was a large gathering. On Tuesday morning the 
party departed for Charleston accompanied by several citizens." 

The year 1854 was an era of extraordinary calamity. Throughout 
the civilized world its history is written in pestilence, war, and disasters 
of the most fatal and appalling character. The fields of Eastern Europe 
were strewn with the dead of contending armies who fell by the sword 
and by pestilence. Over our own country swept two fatal epidemics, 
the cholera in the North and West and the fever in the South, while dis- 
asters at sea, collisions on land, tornadoes and conflagrations added to the 
destruction of life and property in a degree perhaps unparalleled in any 

354 History of Savannah. 

previous year. Savannah was severely scourged by yellow fever. The 
disease made its appearance on the I2th of August in the eastern district 
of the city among the Irish population in Washington ward. Here the 
sickness was confined to a limited space for a week or ten days, be- 
fore its epidemic character had been sufficiently developed to excite gen- 
eral apprehension. It soon, however, spread over a larger surface in the 
eastern district, after which it extended with great rapidity through the 
center of the city westward, spreading from St. Julien to South Broad 
street and reaching to the extreme western limits of the town. By the 
first of September the epidemic was diffused in every direction, and the 
mortality reached its maximum height about the 12th of that month, on 
which day fifty-one interments were reported. For several days there 
was little abatement observable in the sickness or number of deaths, and 
it is very certain that but for the exertions of the mayor of the city, the 
medical faculty, the Board of Health, the clergy, the Young Men's Be- 
nevolent Association, organized about that time, and the many benevo- 
lent citizens who devoted themselves to the alleviation of the general 
suffering among all classes of the citizens, the list of mortality would have 
been increased to a still more frightful figure. The decline of the sick- 
ness began about the 20th of September. During the week ending on 
the 26th of that month the deaths from all diseases numbered 12 1, being 
68 less than the previous week, and 79 less than the week ending on the 
1 2th. when the mortality reached 210. From the 26th the number of 
deaths gradually decreased until the 29th of October, the date of the last 
report of the Board of Health, when only one death by yellow fever was 

The epidemic continued about nine or twelve weeks and during that 
time the mortality from all diseases reached upwards of one thousand, 
and the number of sick during the same period, including the dead, was 
at least five thousand. The census taken by the Young Men's Benevo- 
lent Association when the sickness was at its height gave a white popu- 
lation of 6,000, being only one-third of the permanent white population. 
Of the 6,000 who remained in the city a very large majority were sick, 
while many of those who had left had been sick and had recovered, or 
were attacked after leaving the city. The medical faculty and the clergy 
were conspicuous in their devotion to the plague stricken city, most ol 


4 ^IXOi 

Epidemic of Yellow Fever. 355 

them remaining at their post of duty while several fell while battling with 
the disease. Ten physicians and three medical students were numbered 
with the dead while many others were sick. Of the clergy three died 
and every one of their number who remained was attacked. Of the 
editorial corps, all of whom remained at their posts until attacked, two 

The fearful ravage of yellow fever was not the only calamity the 
people of Savannah were called upon to endure in 1854, for on the 10th 
of September of this year a severe storm fell upon the city which wrought 
great havoc. Hutchinson and Fig islands were covered with water, a 
number of houses were washed away, and several persons were drowned. 
Most of the trees on South Broad street were blown down, buildings 
were unroofed, shipping in the river was driven upon the wharves, and 
the large dry-dock parted from its mooring, floated up the river, and 
damaged several vessels. Never had the people of Savannah been more 
sorely tried. Disease, tempest, and tides had united to complete the work 
of destruction. The deplorable condition of the people strangely appealed 
to the sympathy of the benevolent all over the country and contributions 
of money to the extent of nearly sixty thousand dollars, and of provisions 
poured in from every quarter. The thanks of the people for this timely 
and generous assistance were expressed at a meeting of the city council, 
when Alderman Screven offered the following resolutions which were 
unanimously adopted : 

" Whereas, by the dispensation of Providence, this city has been af- 
flicted with an epidemic of the most fatal character, and its inhabitants 
during its prevalence have been the recipients of the munificence and 
benevolence of various public bodies, charitable associations, and indi- 
viduals. Be it therefore resolved that the thanks of this body are due, 
and are hereby tendered to the corporate authorities of our sister 
cities for the sympathy they have manifested in the afflictions of this 
city, and for their generous contributions in aid of its suffering and des- 
titute inhabitants. Resolved, that the thanks of this body are due, and 
are hereby tendered to all benevolent and other associations and to in- 
dividuals who have in any manner contributed to the relief of the af- 
flicted in this city. Thanks to the resident physicians for their noble 
conduct during the epidemic ; to transient physicians for their profes- 

356 History of Savannah. 

sional gallantry when our physicians were falling in our midst, victims 
to the faithful discharge of duties. Thanks to the devoted clergy who, 
without exception, pursued their holy calling. Thanks to the Young 
Men's Benevolent Association." 

The progress of the city from 1855 to the beginning of the war was 
of the most satisfactory character in its social, religious, business, and ma- 
terial interests. The great political questions which agitated the country 
during this period largely engrossed the public attention, and the events 
immediately preceding i860 and during the years of the war are so im- 
portant that a separate chapter has been devoted to this period of the 
city's history. 


Exciting Event in i860 — Secession of South Carolina — Rejoicing in Savannah — Call 
tor a State Convention— Governor Brown's Order— Seizure of Fort Pulaski— State Con- 
vention in Savannah— Unfurling of the Confederate Flag— Departure of the Oglethorpe 
Light Infantry — Death of General Bartow — Defenses of Savannah — General Lee in Sa- 
vannah—Attack on Fort Pulaski— Surrender of the Garrison— Naval Assault on Fort 
McAllister— Sherman's March from Atlanta— Proclamation by the Mayor — The Fed- 
eral Army before Savannah— Fort McAllister Attacked by a Land Force— Graphic Ac- 
count of the Assault and Its Capture— Plans for Evacuating the City— General Sher- 
man's Demand for the Surrender of Savannah— Evacuation of the City— How the City 
was Surrendered— General Sherman's Order— Confiscation of Cotton — Destructive Fire 
of January, 1865 — Return of Peace and Prosperity. 

IN Savannah, as well as all over the country, political affairs monopo- 
lized a large share of the public attention from 1855 to i860. Na- 
tional politics, before the latter year closed, had reached the point of rev- 
olution. The people of the South and North were beginning to assert 
themselves away beyond their leaders, who had worked them up to the 
extremity where discussion and persuasion ceased to have any weight or 
effect. Savannah had enjoyed a career of business prosperity for a few 
years preceding the war, but when the first sound of war's alarms was 

The War Period. 357 

heard throughout the land the march of progress diverged from its ac- 
customed course. Building operations were, to a great extent, discon- 
tinued, and business in seme of its departments was paralyzed to a greater 
or less extent. 

In the present quiet and peaceful days in Savannah it is hard to realize 
the intensely excited state of public feeling in the latter part of i860. 
That the two sections were on the verge of open rupture all felt, but few 
appreciated the magnitude of the struggle that was to take place. Still 
the hum of preparation was heard on every side, and the ranks of the va- 
rious volunteer companies were crowded with new members. There was 
an eager restlessness that filled every soul, and while the older citizens 
may have felt some forebodings for the future, there can be no doubt that 
the great mass of the people thought the time for argument had passed 
and were ready to maintain what they believed to be their rights at the 
hazard of their lives. 

The newspapers of Savannah were faithful chroniclers of these times. 
Every move of the diverse populations of the Union was recorded and 
every changing shade of public opinion. For months, and until the in- 
auguration of Lincoln, all eyes were turned upon Charleston, S. C. It 
was the theater of exciting events, and even local affairs were lost sight 
of in view of the contest between that State and the Federal authorities. 
The diplomatic movements of the distinguished agents and commission- 
ers of the State, and afterward of those of the Confederate States were 
carefully noted and criticised and furnished occasion for some fierce out- 
bursts against the North. The resignations of Cobb, Floyd, Thompson, 
and Thomas were occasions eagerly seized for an eulogy upon these 
statesmen, and the formation of the provisional government of the Con- 
federacy, and the organization and assembling of troops kept the public 
constantly on the qui vive. 

The announcement of the secession of South Carolina in December of 
i860 was hailed with almost as much delight in Savannah as in Charles- 
ton. A secession flag bearing the representation of a large rattlesnake, 
with the inscription " Don 7 Tread on trie" was unfurled from the top of 
the Green Monument in Johnson square, while the newspapers were filled 
with calls for meetings to ratify the course ol South Carolina. The old vol- 
unteer companies, the Chatham Artillery, Savannah Volunteer Guards, 

358 History of Savannah. 

Republican Blues, Georgia Hussars, Phoenix Riflemen, Irish Jasper 
Greens, Oglethorpe Light Infantry, De Kalb Riflemen, and German Vol- 
unteers, promptly tendered their services for any duty that might be re- 
quired of them. 

A call for a State convention to be held in Savannah was issued in 
December, i860, and throughout the State was received with ready re- 
sponse. An election for delegates to this convention was held in Savan- 
nah on January 2, 1861, and resulted in the selection of Francis S. Bar- 
tow, John W.Anderson, and Colonel A. S. Jones, all of whom favored im- 
mediate secession and separate State action. 

When the news of the evacuation of Fort Moultrie and the occupa- 
tion of Fort Sumter by United States troops, under Major Anderson, 
reached Savannah the excitement reached fever heat. The evident in- 
tention of the United States government to gain possession of all the forts 
commanding the harbors of the Southern States determined Governor 
Joseph E. Brown to take the bold step of seizing the fortifications of the 
United States built upon Georgia soil to prevent their occupation by the 
Federal government. At this time the First Volunteer Regiment of Sa r 
vannah was the only military organization larger than a company at his 
command, and accordingly an order was transmitted to Colonel A. R. 
Lawton, then in command of the regiment, directing him at once to take 
possession of Fort Pulaski, "and to hold it against all persons." The full 
text of this memorable document was as follows: 

" Headquarters, Georgia Militia, 
" Savannah, January 2, 1861. 

" Col. A. R. Lawton, Commanding 1st Regiment, Georgia Vols. , Savannah : 
"SlR, — In view of the fact that the government at Washington has, as 
we are informed on high authority, decided on the policy of coercing a 
seceding State back into the Union, and it is believed now has a move- 
ment on foot to reinforce Fort Sumter, at Charleston, and to occupy 
with Federal troops the Southern forts, including Fort Pulaski in this 
State, which if done would give the Federal government in any contest 
great advantage over the people in this State ; to the end therefor that 
this stronghold which commands also the entrance into Georgia may not 
be occupied by any hostile force until the convention of the State of 

The War Period. 359 

Georgia, which is to meet on the 16th instant, has decided on the policy 
which Georgia will adopt in this emergency, you are ordered to take pos- 
session of Fort Pulaski as by public order herewith, and to hold it against 
all persons, to be abandoned only under orders from me or under com- 
pulsion by an overpowering hostile force. 

"Immediately upon occupying the fort you will take measures to put 
it in a thorough state of defense as far as its means and ours will permit ; 
and for this purpose you will advise with Captain Claghorn, Chatham 
Artillery, who has been charged with all matters relating to ordnance 
and ordnance stores, and their supply. 

"You will farther arrange with Captain Claghorn a series of day and 
night signals for communicating with the city of Savannah, for the pur- 
pose of calling for reinforcements, or for other necessary purposes. And 
you will arrange with Mr. John Cunningham, military purveyor for the 
time being, for the employment of one or more steamboats, or other 
means of transportation by land or by water that may be necessary, and 
for other supplies (except for ordnance stores, for which you will call up- 
on Captain Claghorn) as may be required. 

"If circumstances should require it the telegraph will be placed under 
surveillance. I think from our conversations you fully understand my 
views, and, relying upon your patriotism, energy, and sound discretion 
in the execution of this important and delicate trust, I am sir, very re- 
spectfully, Your obedient servant, 

"Joseph E. Brown, 
"Governor and Commander-in-Chief." 

"Upon the issue of this order," says Colonel Charles H. Olmstead in 
his history of the First Georgia Regiment, published in the Savannah 
Neivs of May 5, 1886, "the city was in a fever of excitement. Here at last 
was the first step in actual war — a step that placed State and central gov- 
ernment in open antagonism, the beginning whose ending no man could 
foretell. There may have been faint hearts that trembled in view of re- 
sulting possibilities, but among the military of Savannah the order was 
received with unbounded enthusiasm Dissatisfied ones there were, but 
only because they were not among the chosen few who were to carry 
out the orders of the governor. 

"At an early hour on January 3, 186 1, detachments from the Chat- 

360 History of Savannah. 

ham Artillery, Captain Joseph S. Claghorn, the Savannah Volunteer 
Guards, Captain John Screven, and the Oglethorpe Light Infantry, Cap- 
tain Francis S. ^Bartow, marched to the wharf at the foot of West Broad 
street and embarked on board the steamer Ida to take possession of Fort 

" Truth compels the statement that the expeditionary force carried 
enough baggage to have served for a division later in the war. Every 
soldier had his trunk or valise, his cot and his roll of bedding, while to 
every three or four there was a huge mess chest large enough for the 
cooking outfit of a full regiment. The recollection of all these things 
brings a smile now, but there is only proud exultation as those who took 
part in the stirring event recall the generous enthusiasm, the fervid pa- 
triotism, that glowed in every heart. Alas ! how many of those noble 
young hearts were soon to beat no more ; how many gallant youths who 
on that bright morning gloried in the honor of serving our mother, 
Georgia, were soon to ' illustrate' her by their death. Some led the way 
in the first shock of arms upon the plains of Manassas ; some in the fierce 
seven days' grapple around Richmond ; some at Sharpsburg, at Freder- 
icksburg, at Gettysburg, at the Wilderness, at Murfreesboro, at Chicka- 
mauga, at Kenesaw, at Atlanta, at Franklin, at Nashville, and some at 
the last fatal struggle at Sailor's Creek. 

"In due time Fort Pulaski was reached; its garrison, one elderly 
United States sergeant, made no defense, and the three companies of the 
first volunteer regiment marched in with drums beating and colors fly- 
ing, and so for them a soldier's life began. 

"The armament of the fort at that time consisted of but twenty old- 
fashioned long 32-pounders mounted upon cast-iron carriages, rusty 
from age and lack of care, the magazines were nearly empty, a few solid 
shot were all the projectiles that could be found. And yet the little gar- 
rison felt ready to meet the entire navy of the United States, for which, 
by the way, we looked for at every high tide. The duty of the hour called 
for hard, vigorous work, and it was refreshing to note the alacrity with 
which this citizen soldiery turned their hands to everything, from scrap- 
ing the rust from gun carriages to polishing the casemates. There was an 
individuality in each man, that marked characteristic of the Southern 
soldier that afterwards, upon so man)' battlefields held grimly to posi- 

The War Period. 361 

tions, from which, by all the rules of warfare, the Confederates should 
have been swept. All the routine of garrison duties was promptly inau- 
gurated by Colonel Lawton, whose West Point training and army life 
here served him in good stead. Guards were regularly mounted, drills 
at the heavy guns began at once, and a rigid system of military discipline 

"In course of time the first three companies were relieved from this 
duty and others took their places, until every command in the city, in- 
cluding the Georgia Hussars and Savannah Artillery, had again and 
again served at this excellent school of military instruction. True, it 
was long ere an enemy appeared before the walls of Pulaski, but the les- 
sons learned in garrison life there were fit preparation for active service 
on other fields. Meanwhile military spirit ran high in the city, and dur- 
ing the first part of 1861 several new companies were formed and added 
to the regiment under the provisions of the act above quoted. Among 
these were the Pulaski Guards, the Irish Volunteers, Company B Irish 
Jasper Greens, the Forest City Rangers, the City Light Guard, the Wash- 
ington Volunteers, the Coast Rifles, the Montgomery Guards. Each 
and all were full companies, and did valiant service throughout the war." 

In the meantime the people in Savannah were kept in a state of ex- 
cited feeling. The adoption of the ordinance of secession by South Car- 
olina caused a spontaneous feeling among the people of* Georgia that 
they should take the same stand with their sister State. A large gath- 
ering of the citizens of Savannah was held at the Masonic Hall, on the 
corner of Bull and Broughton streets, at which eloquent speeches were 
made in favor of secession, and a series of resolutions advocating such a 
course were adopted, and when a short time thereafter in January. 1861, 
the ordinance of secession was adopted by the State of Georgia in no 
quarter of the State was it hailed with more delight than in Savannah. 
All now prepared for the conflict which they saw was inevitable. The 
State convention reassembled in Savannah on the 7th of March, 1861, 
and after adopting a constitution for the State adjourned. The day fol- 
lowing this assembling the flag of the Confederate States was thrown to 
the breeze from the custom-house by Major W. J. Mcintosh, and a salute 
of seven guns — one for each State in the Confederacy — was fired in honor 
of the occasion. 


362 History of Savannah. 

After the Confederacy had been brought into existence, orders were 
rapidly issued from its capitol at Montgomery in reference to the mar- 
shaling of the forces of the South. One of the first orders appointed 
Colonel A. R. Lawton to a brigadier-generalship, and his connection with 
the first regiment was severed. Under his orders Fort Jackson and 
Oglethorpe Barracks were seized and occupied by Savannah soldiers. 
The vacancy occasioned by the promotion of General Lawton was filled 
by the election of Hugh W. Mercer, to the colonelcy of the First Regi- 
ment. At the same time Lieutenant-Colonel Stiles having resigned to 
enter the service with the Savannah Volunteer Guards, of which corps 
he was also an officer, Major W. S. Rockwell was elected lieutenant- 
colonel, and Charles H. Olmstead, major. Edward Lawton succeeded to 
the adjutantcy. 

The Oglethorpe Light Infantry of Savannah, under command of 
Captain Francis S. Bartow, was the first of the Savannah companies to 
respond to President Davis's call for troops. They departed from the 
city on May 21, 1861, for Richmond, being escorted to the cars by the 
volunteer companies of the city and a large concourse of citizens, who 
little dreamed that in a few short weeks they would be mourning the 
death of the company's gallant captain. Such, however, was the case, 
for the same dispatch which told of the victory at Manassas on the 22d 
of July, 1 86 1; brought the sad news of General Bartow's death. His re- 
mains were brought to the city on the 27th of July, and his funeral was 
one of most solemn and imposing spectacles ever witnessed in Savannah. 
General Bartow's l remains lie buried in Laurel Grove Cemetery. 

1 General Bartow was born in Savannah on the 6th of September. 1816. After grad- 
uating at Franklin College, at Athens, Ga., in 1835 he began the study of law in the 
office of Berrien & Law of Savannah, and afterwards attended the law school at New- 
Haven, Conn. After his admission to the bar he became a member of the law firm of 
Law, Bartow & Lovell of Savannah. He was elected to the State Senate and served 
several times in the House of Representatives. In i860 he took a decided stand in favor 
of secession. He 'represented Chatham county in the State convention which carried 
Georgia out of the Union, and was selected by the convention to represent his native 
State in the Confederate Congress which met in Montgomery, Ala., and was chosen chair- 
man of the military committee. Soon after his' arrival in Virginia with the Oglethorpe 
Light Infantry, of which he had been captain from 1857. he was appointed colonel of 
the Eighth Georgia Regiment, and at the first battle of Manassas was commanding a 
brigade composed of the Seventh, Eighth, Ninth, and Eleventh Georgia and the First 

The War Period. 363 

During the summer of 1861 the First Regiment was scattered to 
various points along the Georgia coast. They helped to build and equip 
the numerous fortifications with which the coast was lined. They were 
stationed at Forts Pulaski and Jackson and at other points on the Savan- 
nah River, on Tybee Island, at Causton's Bluff, Thunderbolt, Green 
Island, and St. Catherine's Island. During the war there were three lines 
of defense adopted to protect Savannah, and a fourth begun but aban- 
doned after an inconsiderable amount of work had been done. The first 
or exterior line of defense was constructed early in the war, to protect 
the coast from attack by the Federal navy, and to prevent the landing 
of troops. This line extended from Causton's Bluff, four miles east of 
Savannah, to the Ogeechee River, and embraced the following points, 
at which works were erected : Greenwich, Thunderbolt, Isle of Hope, 
Beaulieu, and Rosedevv. Detached works were also constructed on 
Whitmarsh, Skidavvay, and Green Islands, but these latter works were 
only occupied a portion of the time, and towards the close of the war 
were mostly abandoned. The general character of the works at the 
points mentioned were water batteries, constructed of earth and reveted 
with sand-bags, sods, and facines, with traverses, bomb-proofs, etc. The 
armament of these works generally consisted of heavy ordnance en bar- 
bette. Where rifle guns and columbiads could not be procured smooth 
bore 42 and 60- pounders were employed. The river batteries, located 

Kentucky Regiments. During the forepart of the battle his command suffered heavily, 
and at noon when it became necessary for the left of the Confederate army to fall back to 
its original position occupied early in the morning his regiments also retired. During 
this movement General Bartow rode up to General Beauregard, the general command- 
ing and said : " What shall now be done ? Tell me, and, if human efforts can avail, I will 
do it." General Beauregard pointing to a battery at Stone Bridge, replied : ''That bat- 
tery should be silenced." Seizing the standard of the Seventh Georgia Regiment and 
calling upon the remnants of his command to follow him, he led the van in the charge. 
A ball wounded him slightly and killed his horse under him. Still grasping the stand- 
ard, and rising again, he mounted another horse, and waving his cap around his head 
cheered his troops to come on. They followed. Another ball pierced his heart and he 
fell to the ground, exclaiming to those who gathered around him, " they have killed me, 
but never give tip the field," and expired. His d\ing injunction was obeyed. His 
command proceeded on the charge and silenced the battery under the protection of 
which the enemy had hurled the missile of death into the heart of one whose fall 
plunged a struggling nation into mourning. — Abridged from a sketch in the '' Historical 
Record of Savannah." 

364 History of Savannah. 

at and around Fort Jackson, were intended for the protection of the 
main water approach and to constitute the extreme left of the above men- 
tioned line. Prominent among the works referred to was Fort Bartow 
at Causton's Bluff. This was the largest and most complete work on the 
entire coast, and the character of the work and labor expended in its 
construction attested the importance attached to this position as a salient 
point on this line, and, so to speak, the key to Savannah. This was a 
bastioned work inclosing an area of seventeen acres, with glacis, moat, 
curtains, and in fact every appointment complete, bomb-proofs and sur- 
geon-rooms under ground, with advanced batteries and rifle pits in front 
near the water line. The other works on this line were not from this 
character deserving of special notice. Fort Bartow was pronounced by 
some of the ablest Southern officers a splendid work and recognized by 
all as the most important in the defenses of Savannah. This work was 
constructed by Captain M. B. Grant, of the Engineer Corps, who also had 
immediate charge of a considerable portion of the work around the city. 
Fort McAllister, located on the south side of the Ogeechee River at 
Genesis Point, was an inclosed work, of about one acre, detached and iso- 
lated, irregular in form, but compactly built, and adapted to its isolated 
condition and surroundings. The armament of this work was heavy, and 
the gallant and successful defense repeatedly made here against the en- 
emy's ironclads, and at the last against one of Sherman's corps from the 
land side, have given it a name and place in the history of Savannah's 
defenses, that is imperishable and preeminently grand. Though a little 
and insignificant earthwork it was by location and circumstances called 
upon to act a giant's part. On this exterior line there were no other 
points deserving special notice. 

The second line constructed was what was known as the interior line 
of defense. This line was almost semi-circular in contour, and distant 
from the city on an average of three-fourths of a mile, its left resting at 
Fort Boggs, next to the rice lands on the Savannah River, its right rest- 
ing at a point a little south of Laurel Grove Cemetery, and on the low 
lands of the Springfield Plantation. This line, as the term interior signi- 
fies, was to resist any direct assault upon the city should a force succeed 
in passing the exterior line. This line consisted of detached lunettes at 
regular intervals, constructed with mutual flank defense, and having sec- 

The War Period. 365 

tors of fire, covering the entire space in front of the line, all growth hav- 
ing been cut away for a half mile in advance. The curtains were not of 
the same heavy character as the lunettes, but consisted of rifle pits and 
covered ways for direct communication. Abatis were constructed in 
front of many of the lunettes. No portion of this line was ever subjected 
to an attack, and there was nothing to create or give distinction to any 
special lunettes. There were, however, on this line certain works which 
should be mentioned, viz : 

Fort Boggs, on the left of the line, was a bastioned work, inclosed 
(commonly known as a Star Fort), about an acre and a half in area. It 
was situated on the bluff, in a commanding position, and would have 
proved a very strong and important work had it been attacked. 

Fort Brown, near the Catholic Cemetery, was a point of some im- 
portance on this line, more, however, from its early location and con- 
struction than any special merit. 

The bombardment and capture of Port Royal in November of 1861 
occasioned great alarm in Savannah as it was feared that the large Fed- 
eral fleet employed there would next attack the city, yet the people did 
not despair of successfully combating the enemy. But with the Federals 
intrenched in Port Royal it was deemed impracticable with the resources 
at command to defend all the outlying islands of the Georgia coast. 
Among others Tybee Island was evacuated and Fort Pulaski became the 
outwork of the line of defense. About this time Colonel Mercer was 
promoted to a brigadier-generalship and the following changes were 
made in the field officers of the First Regiment: Major Charles H. Olm- 
stead was made colonel, W. S. Rockwell retained the lieutenant-col- 
onelcy, and Captain John Foley, of the Irish Jasper Greens, was promoted 
major, H. M. Hopkins was appointed in place of Edward Lawton pro- 

General Robert E. Lee, then commanding the military district of 
South Carolina, Georgia and Florida arrived in Savannah on the 1 ith of 
November, 1,861, and remained until the February following. During 
his stay he visited Fort Pulaski and gave minute instructions for protect- 
ing the garrison from the lire of shells from Tybee Island. At this time 
rifled cannon of large caliber had not been tested and their penetrative 
power was of course unknown, and even General Lee did not think the 

366 History of Savannah. 

walls of Fort Pulaski could be broken at the distance the Federals were 
stationed, saying one day to Colonel Olmstead, while looking at the near- 
est point on Tybee Island occupied by the Federals, some 1700 yards 
distant, " ColoneL they will make it pretty hot for you here with shells, 
but they cannot breach your walls at that distance." 

"The garrison," says Colonel Olmstead in the article previously 
quoted from, " went vigorously to work to carry out the orders of Gen- 
eral Lee. Pitts and trenches were dug on the parade to catch rolling 
shells, huge traverses were built between the guns en barbette, and all the 
casemate doors in the entire circuit of the fort were protected by heavy 
blindages of ranging timber." 

" In the month of January, 1862, there were signs of great activity 
among the enemy, who succeeded in establishing a battery upon the 
banks of the Savannah upon the north, between the fort and the city, and 
also in commanding the channel of the river on the south by gunboats 
from Wilmington River and St. Augustine Creek. After this but one 
expedition from the city reached the fort. Commodore Tattnall, with 
his little fleet of river steamers, fought his way down bringing two barge 
loads of provisions for the garrison, and then fought his way back again 
in the style that came so naturally to that single-hearted brave old gen- 
tleman. From that time the isolation of the fort was complete. 

"The garrison thus invested consisted of about four hundred men and 
officers, comprising the German Volunteers, Captain Stegin; Oglethorpe 
Light Infantry (Company B), Captain Sims ; Washington Volunteers, 
Captain McMahon ; Montgomery Guards, Captain Guilmartin, of the 
First Volunteer Regiment of Georgia ; and the Wise Guards, Captain 

"This latter command was from the vicinity of Oglethorpe, Ga. They 
were unused to heavy artillery service, but when it became apparent 
that the fort would be attacked and needed reinforcements, they had 
volunteered to come to our aid. Captain McMullen was just such a man 
as might have been expected to perform such an action, and he was well 
seconded by his Lieutenants Montfort, Blow and Sutton. The memory 
of this service should be treasured by the First Regiment. All during 
the months of February and March the isolation of the fort continued, 
and during these months it was made plain that the enemy were hard at 



The War Period. 367 

work behind the ridge of sand hills that border the shore of Tybee Is- 
land. There was no sign of working parties during the day time, but at 
night a faint hum would come across the waters of the south channel 
nearly a mile away, telling of activity and preparation." 

Early in April the Federals had erected eleven sand batteries upon 
Tybee Island, these batteries distributed along a front of 2,550 yards, 
mounted by thirty-six heavy guns — ten heavy rifle cannon among them 
— and a number of mortars. These guns were well protected. The 
farthest was 3,400, and the nearest 1,650 yards from the fort. 

Early on the morning of the 10th of April General David Hunter, 
commanding the besieging force, sent, under a flag of truce, an order 
" for the immediate surrender of Fort Pulaski to the authority and pos- 
session of the United States," to which Colonel Charles H. Olmstead, 
commandant of the fort, sent the following laconic and brave response : 

"Headquarters, Fort Pulaski, April 10, 1862. 
" Major-General David Hunter, Commanding 011 Tybee Island: 

"SIR, — I have to acknowledge receipt of your communication of this 
date, demanding the unconditional surrender of Fort Pulaski. 

"In reply I can only say that I am here to defend not to surrender it. 
"Your obedient servant, 

" Charles H. Olmstead. 
" Colonel First Volunteer Regiment of Georgia Commanding Post." 

" Upon the receipt of this reply by the Federal commander, orders 
were immediately issued for the commencement of the bombardment. 
The first shell was fired from Battery Halleck at a quarter past eight 
o'clock, and soon all the Federal batteries, including Stanton, Grant, Lyon, 
Lincoln, Burnside, Sherman, Scott, Sigel, McClellan and Totten, were en- 
gaged. " The garrison," says Colonel Olmstead in an admirable account 
of the bombardment, " went to their work with enthusiasm, and in a few 
minutes the roar of artillery, the screaming of shot and bursting of shells 
made hideous that lovely April morning. All day long the firing con- 
tinued with damage to the fort that was painfully apparent to its defend- 
ers. Indeed it was noticed early in the morning that one rifle shot strik- 
ing the wall under an embrasure while still intact, had bulged the bricks 
inward in the interior. A sample of the power of the new projectile that 
we were unprepared for. 

368 History of Savannah. 

"A few men were wounded, but, thanks to the labor that had been be- 
stowed upon the defenses and shelters, they were very few. At night- 
fall the firing slackened and opportunity was had for examining into the 
injury received by the fort. It was appalling, nearly all of the barbette, 
guns and mortars bearing upon the position of the enemy had been dis- 
mounted, and the traverse badly torn, many of the casemate guns were 
in a similar plight and the line of officer's quarters and kitchen were 
wrecked, but most serious of all was the condition of the southeast angle 
of the fort. 

"There the fire of the enemy had been concentrated with a view to 
making a breach, and it needed but one look to convince that an hour or 
two longer of such pounding would most certainly accomplish what was 
intended. The whole outer surface of the wall had been battered away 
and nearly filled the moat, and what was left standing between the piers 
of three casemates was shaken and trembling. The danger of the posi- 
tion was that this wall once down the same projectiles that had done 
the mischief there would have free sweep across the parade against the 
wall of the main service magazine on the opposite angle of the fort. 
During the night the firing continued at short intervals, and in the early 
morning was commenced with great rapidity again. 

" One by one the guns of the fort were disabled, until there were only 
two or three that could be brought to bear at all upon the batteries that 
were doing us most injury. The walls of the injured casemates were 
soon shot away entirely, and now solid shot and shell were pounding up- 
on the traverses that protected the entrance to the magazine. About 
two o'clock in the day an officer reported that a shell had penetrated 
through the traverse and exploded in the alley- way of the magazine. 

" Then it appeared to the commanding officer that longer resistance 
would be useless, and the signal of surrender was given. 

""General Gillmore came to treat for the surrender, and the following 
terms were agreed upon : 

"ARTICLE i. The fort, armament and garrison to be surrendered at 
once to the forces of the United States 

" ARTICLE 2. The officers and men of the garrison to be allow r ed to 
take with them all their private effects, such as clothing, bedding, books, 
etc. This not to include private weapons. 

The War Period. 369 

"ARTICLE 3. The sick and wounded under charge of the hospital 
steward of the garrison to be sent up under a flag of truce to the Con- 
federate lines; and, at the same time the men to be allowed to send up 
any letters they may desire, subject to the inspection of a Federal officer. 

"Signed the eleventh day of April, 1862, at Fort Pulaski, Cockspur 

" Col. First Vol. Reg't of Ga. Comd'g Fort Pulaski. 

" Q. A. GlLLMORE, 

" Brig. Gen. Vols. Comd'g U. S. Forces, Tybee Island. 

" Among the wounded was one of two brothers from Berrien, Ga. 
He was badly mangled, it was plain that he could not live, and the dis- 
tress of his brother at the prospect of leaving him was pitiful. Adjutant 
Matthew H. Hopkins had received a wound in the eye, and, in accord- 
ance with the terms of surrender, was entitled to be sent to Savannah. 
With a magnanimity which did not surprise those who knew his true 
heart, he relinquished his right to release, and chose the lot of a prisoner 
of war in order that the brothers might not be separated." 

The garrison surrendered numbered 365 men and 24 officers, and was 
composed of the following companies : German Volunteers, Captain John 
H. Stegin; Washington Volunteers, Captain John McMahon; WiseGuards, 
Captain M. J. McMullen ; Oglethorpe Light Infantry, Company B, Cap- 
tain F. W. Sims ; Montgomery Guards, Captain L. J. Guilmartin. The 
following constituted the field and staff officers : Colonel Charles H. Olm- 
stead, commanding post; major, John Foley; adjutant, M. H. Hopkins; 
quartermaster, Robert Erwin ; commissary, Robert D. Walker; surgeon, 
J. T. McFarland ; sergeant, Major Robert H. Lewis ; ordnance sergeant, 
Harvey Lewis ; quartermaster's sergeant, William C. Crawford; quarter- 
master's clerk, Edward D. Hopkins; commissary clerk, E. W. Drummond. 

The captured garrison was removed by steamer to Port Royal and 
from thence by the steamer Oriental to Governor's Island, New York. 
The officers were confined at Columbus and the men in a fort on the same 
island known as Castle William. In the course of two months the offi- 
cers were sent to the prison on Johnson's Island, near Sandusky, O., and 
the men to Fort Delaware. In September, 1862, a general exchange of 
prisoners was effected and the Fort Pulaski officers returned to Savannah. 

17° History of Savannah. 

The conduct of Fort Pulaski's garrison during the trying days of the 
siege was most heroic, and the people of Savannah, of whom nearly all 
were natives, have no reason but to feel a justifiable pride in their deeds. 
Although three thousand shot and shell were thrown into the fort only 
four were seriously wounded and some fourteen slightly, while the Fed- 
erals had several killed and wounded. On the second day of the bom- 
bardment, when the enemy's fire was hottest, occurred an incident, which 
for cool and undaunted bravery is especially deserving of mention. The 
halyards of the flag of the fort having been cut away by the incessant 
firing of the enemy, Lieutenant Christopher Hussy, of the Montgomery 
Guards, and John Latham, of the Washington Volunteers, immediately 
sprang upon the parapet, exposed to a rain of shot and shell, and seizing 
the flag carried it to a gun-carriage at the northeastern angle of the fort, 
where they rigged a temporary staff, from which the flag proudly floated 
until the surrender. " When," says Colonel Jones in his historical sketch 
of the Chatham Artillery, " the heroic memories of the momentous strug- 
gle for Confederate independence are garnered up, and the valiant deeds 
recorded of those who in their persons and acts illustrated the virtues of 
the truly brave under circumstances of peculiar peril and in the hour of 
supreme danger freely exposed themselves in defense of the national em- 
blem, let the recollection of this illustrious incident upon the parapet of 
Fort Pulaski be perpetuated upon the historic page, and the names of 
these two courageous men be inscribed upon the roll of honor." 

The reduction of Fort Pulaski and subsequent movements of the Fed- 
erals led to the opinion that Savannah was to be attacked, but after results 
showed that the feints of the enemy in that direction were only intended 
to distract the attention of the Confederate military commanders who 
would thus be led -to keep a large force here while hostile operations 
were conducted elsewhere. The military authorities in Savannah believ- 
ing the city would be attacked laid plans to defend it to the last extrem- 
ity, and that their work in this direction met the heartiest approval of the 
citizens, the following preamble and resolutions adopted by the city coun- 
cil on the 29th of April, 1862, clearly shows : 

"WHEREAS, A communication has been received from the command- 
ing general stating that he will defend this city to the last extremity, and 
whereas, the members of the council unanimously approve of the deter- 
mination of the commanding general, therefore be it 

The War Period. 371 

44 Resolved, That the council will render all that is in their power to 
sustain the general and to carry out his laudable determination." 

The district of Georgia at this time was commanded by Brigadier- 
General A. R. Law ton, but in May following General Lawton was or- 
dered with five thousand men to report to General Lee in Virginia, and 
shortly after departed. He was succeeded in command of the district by 
General Hugh W. Mercer, who remained until Lieutenant-General W. 
J. Hardee assumed command in 1864, a short time prior to the evacua- 
tion of the city. General Mercer was a lineal descendant of the heroic 
Mercer of Revolutionary memory, who, in the darkest hour of his coun- 
try's hopes, fell mortally wounded while leading the van at the battle of 

Fort McAllister is so inseparably associated with the record of valor- 
ous deeds of Savannah soldiers, that a history of the military operations 
in connection with the defense of this famous military post is necessary. 
It is situated about sixteen miles from Savannah, on Genesis Point, on the 
right bank of the great Ogeechee River, and was among the first of the 
numerous earthworks constructed for the defense of the city, being in- 
tended as a stronghold from which to dispute a passage up the river. 

It was first attacked on June 29, 1862, when four gunboats tested 
the strength of its works and the efficiency of its garrison then composed 
of the De Kalb Riflemen under the command of Captain A. L. Hartridge. 
This attack was unsuccessful, and only two men were wounded. The 
fort was again made a target of by several vessels on the 2d of No- 
vember of the same year, the Emmett Rifles, Captain George A. Nicoll, 
being in command of the garrison. This attack was followed by another 
on the 19th of November, when the Republican Blues, under Lieutenant 
George W. Anderson, assisted the Emmet Rifles in defending the fort. 
At this time three men of the garrison were wounded. On this occasion 
the enemy again encountered a repulse which was but a prelude to others 
more signal. 

On the morning of the 27th of January, 1S63, the Federal ironclad 
Montauk, accompanied by three gunboats, a mortar schooner and a tug 
opened fire upon the fort. 

The Montauk was armed with one fifteen-inch and one eleven-inch 
Dahlgren gun. For five hours and a half the big guns of the Montauk 

37 2 History of Savannah. 

hurled their heavy projectiles against the sand parapet of the fort. De- 
spite this formidable demonstration, however, the earthworks were com- 
paratively uninjured and none of the garrison was injured. "To this 
bombardment," says Colonel Jones in the historical sketch of the Chatham 
Artillery, " remarkable historical interest attaches, because, on this oc- 
casion, a fifteen-inch gun was first used in the effort to reduce a shore 
battery; and the ability of properly constructed sand parapets to resist 
the effect of novel projectiles, far supassing in weight and power all 
others heretofore known, was fairly demonstrated. To the honor of this 
little fort and the praise of its heroic defenders let these facts be recorded 
and perpetuated." 

Not satisfied with the experience of their repeated attacks, the Fed- 
erals, with the Montauk, four gunboats, and a mortar boat again began to 
bombard the fort early on Sunday morning of February 1st of the same 
year. After a six hours' contest the enemy for the fifth time was com- 
pelled to retire from the contest vanquished and discomforted. During 
the engagement Major John B. Gallie, commandant of the fort, was 
struck on the head and instantly killed, and seven others of the garrison 
were slightly wounded. Upon the death of Major Gallie the command 
of the fort devolved upon Captain George W. Anderson, who bravely 
continued the fight. This signal victory was made the subject of the fol- 
lowing complimentary order from General Beauregard, commanding the 
Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida : " The thanks of the 
country are due to this intrepid garrison who have thus shown what brave 
men may withstand and accomplish despite apparent odds. Fort Mc- 
Allister will be inscribed on all the flags of all the troops engaged in the 
defense of the battery." 

The last naval attack upon Fort McAllister was made on the 
3d of March, 1863. The enemy appeared early on that day with 
a formidable fleet consisting of four ironclads, five gunboats, and two 
mortar schooners. The terrible conflict which followed the commence- 
ment of the engagement was graphically and fully detailed in the Savan ■ 
nah Republican of March 11, 1863, from which we make the following 
extract : " About a quarter before nine o'clock the fort opened on the 
Passaic with a rifled gun, the eight and ten-inch Columbiads following 
suit, to which the Montauk replied, firing her first gun at nine o'clock. 

The War Period. 


She was followed by her associates in quick succession. The fire on both 
sides was continued for seven hours and a half, during which the enemy 
fired two hundred and fifty shot and shell at the fort, amounting to about 
seventy tons of the most formidable missiles ever invented for the de- 
struction of human life The fort fired the first and last shot. 

The enemy's mortar boats kept up a fire all night, and it was evidently 
their intention to renew the fight the next morning, but finding that the 
damage done to the fort the day before had been fully repaired, and the 

garrison fully prepared to resist, declined Notwithstanding 

the heavy fire to which the fort was subjected, only three men were 
wounded : Thomas \V. Rape, and W. S. Owens of the Emmett Rifles, 
the first on the knee and the latter in the face; James Mims of Company 
D, First Georgia Battalion, Sharpshooters, had his leg crushed and an- 
kle broken by the fall of a piece of timber while remounting a Colum- 
biad after the fight The night previous to the fight Lieu- 
tenant E. A. Ellarbe, of the Hardwick Mounted Rifles ; Captain J. L. 
McAllister, with a detachment consisting of Sergeant Harmon and Pri- 
vates Proctor, Wyatt, Harper, and Cobb, crossed the river and dug a 
rifle-pit within long rifle range of the rams and awaited the coming fight. 
During the hottest part of the engagement an officer with glass in hand 
made his appearance on the deck of the Passaic. A Maynard rifle slug 
soon went whizzing by his ears, which startled and caused him to right- 
about face, when a second slug, apparently, took effect upon his person, 
as with both hands he caught hold of the turret for support, and imme- 
diately clambered or was dragged into a port-hole. It is believed that 
the officer was killed. The display on the Passaic the day following, 
and the funeral on the Ossabaw the Friday following gave strength to 
the opinion. As soon as the fatal rifle shot was fired the Passaic turned 
her guns upon the marsh and literally raked it with grape shot. The ri- 
flemen, however, succeeded in changing their base in time to avoid the 
missiles of the enemy. Not one of them was hurt. Too much credit 

cannot be bestowed upon the daring act of a few brave men 

Captain George W. Anderson, of the Republican Blues, commanded the 
fert on this trying occasion, and he and his force received, as they de- 
served, the highest commendation. Captain George A. Nicoll of the 
Emmett Rifles, Captain J. L. McAllister, Lieutenant W. D. Dixon, and 

374 History of Savannah. 

Sergeant T. S. Flood (the latter was sick at the hospital when the fight 
commenced, but left his bed to take part in the fight), Corporal Robert 
Smith and his squad from the Republican Blues, which worked the rifle 
gun, Lieutenant Quin of the Blues, Sergeant Frazier, Lieutenant Rock- 
well, and Sergeant Cavanaugh, Captain Robert Martin and detachment 
of his company, who successfully worked a mortar battery, Captain 
McCrady, and Captain James McAlpin were entitled to and received a 
large share of the honors of the day." 

This brilliant victory drew from Brigadier- General Mercer, command- 
ing the district of Georgia, a general order complimenting the garrison 
for their heroic defense, stating that the " brigadier-general command- 
ing again returns his hearty thanks to the brave garrison, and expresses 
the confident hope that this heroic example will be followed by all under 
his command. For eight hours these formidable vessels, throwing fif- 
teen-inch hollow shot and shell, thirteen-inch shell, eleven-inch solid 
shot, and eight -inch rifle projectiles — a combination of formidable mis- 
siles never before concentrated upon a single battery — hurled an iron 
hail upon the fort ; but the brave gunners, with the cool efficient spirit 
of disciplined soldiers, and with the intrepid hearts of freemen battling 
for a just cause, stood undaunted at their posts, and proved to the world 
that the most formidable vessels and guns that modern ingenuity has 
been able to produce are powerless against an earthwork manned by 

patriots to whom honor and liberty are dearer than life 

As a testimonial to the brave garrison, the commanding general will be 
solicited to direct that ' Fort McAllister, March 3, 1863/ be inscribed 
upon their flags." This request General Beauregard complied with in a 
general order, staging that he "had again a pleasant dut3 r to discharge — 
to commend to the notice of the country and the emulation of his officers 
and men the intrepid conduct of the garrison of Fort McAllister, and the 
skill of the officers engaged on the 3d of March, 1863." 

This was the last naval attack upon this battery. So far it had 
proved itself an overmatch for all that had been sent against it. Seven 
times had the Federals been repulsed before its Bermuda covered para- 
pets. After the engagement of the 3d of March the fort was consider- 
ably strengthened, especially its rear defenses, and its armament increased 
by the addition of some heavy and light guns. Late in 1S64 its battery 

The War Period. 375 

consisted of one ten-inch mortar, three ten-inch Columbiads, one eight- 
inch Columbiad, one forty-two-pounder gun, one thirty-two-pounder 
gun, rifled, four thirty-two pounder guns, smooth bore, one twenty-four- 
pounder howitzer, two twelve-pounder mountain howitzers, two twelve- 
pounder Napoleon guns, and six six-pounder bronze field guns. The 
fort was finely equipped to resist a naval attack and to defend the Great 
Ogeechee River. It was never intended to resist a serious or protracted 
land attack. 

The destructive march of General Sherman's army from Atlanta to 
the defenses of Savannah occupied the time from the middle of Novem- 
ber until the early part of December, 1864. The merits of this military 
movement it is not our purpose to discuss. That the methods employed 
in this predatory march were in many instances unnecessary and cruel 
the conservative military leaders of the world have long ago admitted. 
That the objective point of General Sherman's expedition was Savannah 
was fully realized by the people of this city early in his campaign. 
Everyeffort was made to guard the city from attack. The patriotism of 
the people was fully aroused, and they freely responded to the following 
spirited address of the mayor : 

" Mayor's Office, ) 

"Savannah, November 28, 1864. 5 

"FELLOW CITIZENS, — The time has come when every male who can 
shoulder a musket can make himself useful in defending our hearths and 
homes. Our city is well fortified, and the old can fight in the trenches 
as well as the young; and a determined and brave force can, behind en- 
trenchment, successfully repel the assaults of treble their number. 

"The general commanding this division has issued a call for all men of 
every age, not absolutely incapacitated from disease, to report at once to 
Captain C. W. Howard at the Oglethorpe Barracks, for the purpose of 
organizing into companies for home defense. I call upon every man not 
already enrolled into a local corps to come forward at once and report to 
Captain Howard. Organization is everything. Let us emulate the noble 
example of our sister cities of Macon and Augusta, where the whole male 
population is in arms. By manning the fortifications we will leave free 
the younger men to act in the field. By prompt action a large local 
force can be organized from our citizens above the military age, and from 
those who have been exempted from field service. 

37 6 History of Savannah. 

" No time is to be lost. The man who will not comprehend and re- 
spond to the emergency of the times is foresworn to his duty and to his 
country. R. D. ARNOLD, Mayor.'' 

On the ioth of December, 1864, Sherman's army enveloped the west- 
ern and southern lines of the defenses of the city, and with this date the his- 
tory of the siege of Savannah properly commences. Although every ef- 
fort had been made to concentrate a large force for the defense of Savan- 
nah, such was the pressure upon the Confederacy and so reduced the 
troops that at the inception and during the siege there were not more than 
ten thousand men fit for duty in the Confederate lines around the city, and 
against this small number was brought to bear the Federal army consist- 
ing of some sixty thousand infant^', fifty- five hundred cavalry and a full 
proportion of artillery. This large force completely enveloped the west- 
ern lines erected for the defense of the city, extending from the Savannah 
River at Williamson's plantation to the bridge of the Atlantic and Gulf 
Railroad across Little Ogeech'.-e. The Confederate line, according to 
Colonel Jones in his "Siege of Savannah," was subdivided and commanded 
as follows: "The right, extending from the Savannah River at William- 
son's plantation to within about one hundred feet of the Central Railroad 
crossing, garrisoned by the Georgia militia and the State line troops, was 
under the command of Major- General Gustavus W. Smith. Twenty 
guns were in position on his front. 

"The batteries at the Central Railroad and Louisville Road crossings, 
and extending from that point to the head of Shaw's dam, were com- 
manded by Major-General Lafayette McLaws. Twenty-nine pieces of 
artillery were posted on his front. "** 

"Lieutenant-General William J. Hardee was in general command 
with his headquarters in the city of Savannah. For holding this long 
line less than ten thousand infantry, dismounted cavalry, and artillerists 
were assembled ; and for the space of ten days this little more than a 
thin skirmish line confronted, at close quarters, Sherman's investing army 
over sixty thousand strong. 

"The light artillery companies were distributed as the necessities of 
the line demanded, and were either actively engaged in handling the guns 
in position, or were posted at such convenient distances in the rear that 
they could move immediately to any designated point in their respective 
fronts. Only two of them were held in reserve park. 

The War Period. m 

"Lieutenant-Colonel Charles C. Jones, jr., was chief of artillery. 

" On Major- General Smith's front Captain R. W. Anderson acted as 
chief of artillery of that division. Captain J. A. Maxwell was detailed 
as chief of artillery on Major-General McLavvs' front, and Captain John 
W. Brooks acted in a similar capacity in Major- General Wright's divi- 

" By assignment of the general commanding, Major Black of his staff 
was designated as inspector on Major- General Smith's front; Colonel 
George A. Gordon, volunteer aid, inspector on Major- General McLaws' 
front; and Lieutenant- Colonel S. B. Paul, of the lieutenant-general's 
staff, inspector on Major-General Wright's front." 

So judiciously was the strength of the Confederate line located that 
the Federals failed to attack it, and with the purpose of securing an out- 
let to the sea by an avenue other than the Savannah River, General 
Sherman turned his attention to Fort McAllister, which, if it could be 
captured, opened up communication with an expectant fleet. 

The fort at this time was in command of Major George W. Anderson, 
the garrison consisting of the Emmett Rifles, Captain George A. Nicoll ; 
Clinch Light Battery, Captain W. B. Clinch ; Companies D and E., 
First Georgia Reserves, the first company commanded by Captain Henry, 
and the second by Captain Morrison. The whole force of the garrison 
was about one hundred and fifty men. 

Against this small body of men in an absolutely isolated condition 
and without the least possible chance of support or relief from any quar- 
ter, the Second Division of the Fifteenth Army Corps of the Federal army, 
consisting of seventeen regiments, under, the command of Brigadier-Gen- 
eral Hazen, was sent by order of General Sherman on December 13, 
1864. General Hazen advanced at once to the assault, moving with his 
whole force against the fort and in a short time effected its capture with 
a loss to his command of one hundred and thirty-four officers and men 
killed and wounded. Major Anderson who was in command of the fort 
furnished a graphic account of this assault to Colonel C. C. Jones, jr., for 
publication in his " Historical Sketch of the Chatham Artillery," from 
which we take the following: 

"About eight o'clock A.M. [December 13, 1864,] desultory firing 
commenced between the skirmishers of the enemy and my sharpshooters. 

378 History of Savannah. 

At ten o'clock the fight became general, the opposing forces extending 
from the river entirely around to the marsh on the east. . . . Re- 
ceiving from headquarters neither orders nor responses to my telegraphic 
dispatches I determined, under the circumstances, and notwithstanding 
the great disparity of numbers, between the garrison and attacking forces, 
to defend the fort to the last extremity. The guns being en barbette, the 
detachment serving them were greatly exposed to the fire of the enemy's 
sharpshooters. To such an extent was this the case that in one instance, 
out of a detachment of eight men, three were killed, and three more 
wounded. The Federal skirmish line was very heavy and the fire so close 
and rapid that it was at times impossible to work the guns. My sharp- 
shooters did all in their power, but were entirely too few to suppress this 
galling fire upon the artillerists. In view of the large force of the enemy 
— -consisting of nine regiments, whose aggregate strength was estimated 
between 3,500 and 4,000 muskets, and possessing the ability to increase it 
at any time should it become necessary — and recollecting the feebleness 
of the garrison of the fort, numbering 150 effective men, it was evident, 
cut off from all support, and with no possible hope of reinforcement, 
from any quarter, that holding the fort was simply a question of time. 
There was but one alternative — death or captivity. 

" Late in the afternoon the full force of the enemy made a rapid and 
vigorous charge upon the works, and succeeding in forcing their way 
through the abatis, rushed over the parapet of the fort carrying it by 
storm, and by virtue of superior numbers, overpowered the garrison ) 
fighting gallantly to the last. In many instances the Confederates were 
disarmed by main force. The fort was never surrendered. It ivas cap- 
tured by overwhelming numbers. 

" I am pleased to state that in my endeavors to hold the fort, I was 
nobly seconded by the great majority of officers and men under my com- 
mand. Many of them had never been under fire before, and quite a 
number were very young, in fact mere boys. Where so many acted 
gallantly it would be invidious to discriminate, but I cannot avoid men- 
tioning those who came more particularly under my notice. I would 
therefore most respectfully call the attention of the general commanding 
to the gallant conduct of Captain Clinch, who when summoned to sur- 
render bv a Federal captain responded by dealing him a blow on the 

The War Period. 379 

head with his sabre (Captain Clinch had previously received two gun- 
shot wounds in the arm) immediately a hand to hand fight ensued. 
Federal privates came to the assistance of their officer, but the fearless 
Clinch continued the unequal contest until he fell bleeding from eleven 
wounds (three sabre wounds, six bayonet wounds and two gun-shot 
wounds), from which after severe and protracted suffering he has barely 
recovered. His conduct was so conspicuous, and his cool bravery so 
much admired, as to elicit the praise of the enemy and even of General 
Sherman himself. 

" First Lieutenant William Schirm fought his gun until the enemy 
had entered the fort, and, notwithstanding a wound in the head, gallantly 
remained at his post discharging his duties with a coolness and efficiency 
worthy of all commendation. 

" Lieutenant O'Neal, whom I placed in command of the scouting party 
before mentioned, while in the discharge of that duty and in his subse- 
quent conduct during the attack, merited the honor due to a faithful and 
gallant officer. 

" Among these who nobly fell was the gallant Hazzard, whose zeal 
and activity was worthy of all praise. He died as a true soldier to his 
post, facing overwhelming odds. The garrison lost seventeen killed and 
thirty-one wounded." 

Speaking of the gallant fight of these Confederate heroes in their de- 
fense of Fort McAllister, Colonel Jones in his " Siege of Savannah," 
justly says: "Among the golden deeds wrought by Confederates in their 
gigantic struggle for right, property, home, and national independence, 
the defense of Fort McAllister against seven naval attacks and their final 
assault will be proudly reckoned. The heroic memories of this earth- 
work will be cherished long after its parapets shall have been wasted into 
nothingness by the winds and rains of the changing seasons. Utterly 
isolated, cut off from all possible relief — capture or death the only alter- 
native — the conduct of this little garrison in the face of such tremendous 
odds, was gallant in the extreme." 

After the fall of Fort McAllister the Federals had full command of the 
Great Ogeechee River, and General Sherman was enabled to establish a 
convenient base of supplies for his army. Reinforcements could be had 
and heavy guns could be procured with which to prosecute the siege of 

380 History of Savannah. 

Savannah. That the Confederates could much longer hold the town was 
impossible and the early evacuation of the city became a necessity. The 
only line of retreat now open to the Confederates was by boats to Screv- 
en's ferry landing, and thence into South Carolina. All hope of success- 
fully coping with the enemy was rightly abandoned by General Hardee 
and he concluded to evacuate the city and thus save his command to the 

Orders were issued for the immediate construction of suitable pon- 
toon bridges. The line of retreat selected by the engineers involved the 
location of a pontoon bridge extending from the foot of West Broad street 
to Hutchinson Island, a distance of about one thousand feet, a roadway 
across that island in the direction of Pennyworth Island, a second pon- 
toon bridge across the Middle River, another roadway across Penny- 
worth Island, and a third pontoon bridge across Back River, the further 
end of which rested on the Carolina shore. 

The work of building the bridges and constructing the roads was 
placed in charge of Lieutenant-Colonel Frobel. On the evening of the 
17th of December the first of the bridges was completed, and by half- 
past eight on Monday the 19th following the remaining bridges were 
completed and the route in readiness for the retreat of the Confederate 

In the meantime, on the 17th of December, General Sherman de- 
manded the surrender of Savannah and its dependent forts. This demand 
was addressed to General Hardee and conveyed to the latter officer under 
a flag of truce. In his letter General Sherman said: "I have already 
received "guns that can cast heavy and destructive shot as far as the heart 
of your city, also I have for some days held and controlled every avenue 
by which the people and garrison of Savannah can be supplied, and I am 
therefore justified in demanding the surrender of the city of Savannah 
and its dependent forts, and shall await a reasonable time your answer 
before opening with heavy ordnance." To this demand General Hardee 
in part replied : " Your statement that you have for some time held and 
controlled every avenue by which the people and garrison can be sup- 
plied is incorrect; I am in free and constant communication with my de- 
partment. Your demand for the surrender of Savannah and its depen- 
dent forts is refused." 

The War Period. 381 

Notwithstanding the defiant attitude of General Hardee and the ap- 
parent attitude of the Confederate forces to continue in the defense of the 
city, the work for preparing the way of retreat went steadily on. To 
deceive the enemy, on the 19th and 20th of December the Confederate 
artillery and infantry fire was heavier than it had been on any other pre- 
vious days. The work of spiking the guns and destroying of ammuni- 
tion was silently and skillfully done, and on the evening of December 20 
the evacuation of the city began, and by three o'clock of the following 
morning the rearguard of the Confederate army had passed over to 
Hutchinson Island and the evacuation of the city was complete. 

General Hardee in speaking of the successful retreat of the garrison, 
remarked the day after the evacuation to Colonel C. C. Jones, jr., chief 
of artillery during the siege, " that while sadly deploring the loss of the 
city he was persuaded nothing had been neglected which could have con- 
tributed to the honor of our arms ; and that under the circumstances he 
regarded the safe withdrawal of his army from the lines around Savan- 
nah as one of the most signal and satisfactory exploits in his military ca- 

The intention of General Hardee to evacuate the city with his com- 
mand was known to the civil authorities of the city, and on the night 
of December 20, when the troops had begun their successful retreat, Dr. 
R. D. Arnold, mayor of Savannah, and Aldermen Henry Brigham, J. F. 
O'Byrnc, C. C. Casey, Henry Freeman, Robert Lachlison, Joseph Lipp- 
man, J. L. Villalonga and George W. Wylly met in the Exchange and 
resolved that the council should repair to the outer defenses of the city 
before daylight to surrender the city and secure such terms as would se- 
cure protection to the persons and property of the citizens. The history 
of events which closely followed this meeting is admirably told in Lee and 
Agnew's" Historical Record of Savannah," from which the following ac- 
count is taken: 

' " The council dispersed to assemble at the Exchange at a later hour 
where hacks would await to convey the members to the outer works. 
As they came out of the Exchange a fire was observed in the western 
part of the city, and by request Messrs. Casey, O'Byrne and Lachlison 
went to it with a view of taking measures lor its suppression. The fire 
was caused by the burning of a nearly completed ironclad and a lot of 

382 History of Savannah. 

timber near the mouth of the Ogeechee Canal which had been fired by 
the retreating troops. The wind was blowing to the west, and after ob- 
serving that no danger to the city need be apprehended from the flames, 
these gentlemen returned to the Exchange where the other members of 
the council had assembled and were in a hack prepared to start. They 
stated that other hacks had been provided, but General Wheeler's cav- 
alry had pressed the horses into service. Mr. O'Byrne procured his 
horse and buggy and conveyed Mr. Casey to the junction of the Louis- 
ville road with the Augusta road — about half a mile beyond the Central 
Railroad depot — and leaving him there returned for Mr. Lachlison who 
had walked in that direction. The party in the hack, meanwhile, had 
come up to Mr. Casey, and taking him up drove up the Louisville road. 
Mr. O'Byrne met Mr. Lachlison, and with him returned to where Mr. 
Casey had been left, but not finding any of the party there concluded 
they had gone up the Augusta road, and proceeded up it, hoping to 
overtake them. They advanced but a short distance when they heard 
the report of a gun and a minnie-ball whistled between them. They 
halted, and were then ordered by the picket to turn around, (they had 
unawares passed the enemy's picket and had not heard the command to 
halt), and come to them. They did as commanded, and after informing 
the officer of the picket who they were, were conducted to Colonel Bar- 
num to whom they stated the object of their mission. He then con- 
ducted them to General John \V. Geary. They told him that the city 
had been evacuated, and that they, having started with the mayor and 
council to surrender it; but becoming separated from them, would assume 
the authority of consummating a surrender. General Geary at first did 
not believe them, and questioned them very closely. After becoming 
satisfied that they were what they assumed to be, he consented to receive 
the surrender. The aldermen then asked that the lives and property of 
the citizens should be respected and the ladies protected from insult. 
General Geary promptly replied that the requests should be complied 
with, and that any soldier detected violating the orders which would be 
given to restrain them should be punished with death. Messrs. Lachli- 
son and O'Byrne then asked that a detachment should be sent to look 
after the mayor and other aldermen, which was granted. General Geary 
then put his troops in motion and with Messrs. Lachlison and O'Byrne 

The War Period. 383 

acting as guides, advanced toward the city. At the Central Railroad 
bridge they were met by the mayor and aldermen who had been over- 
taken by the detachment sent for them and returned with it. They, on 
being introduced to the general and told what had been done by Messrs. 
O'Byrne and Lachlison, confirmed their action. The line of march was 
then taken up to West Broad street, down to the Bay, and thence to the 
Exchange, in front of which the troops were drawn up. The officers and 
members of the council proceeded to the porch, from which General 
Geary addressed the troops, complimenting them upon their past deeds 
and upon the additional honor they had conferred upon themselves by 
capturing ' this beautiful city of the South.' During this speech Colonel 
Barnum observed a sergeant step out of the ranks to the store at the 
corner of Bull and Bay street, enter and come out wearing a fireman's 
hat. On coming down from the porch he called the sergeant to him, 
and drawing his sword ordered him to hold out the hat, which he did, and 
the colonel with one stroke of his sword cut it in half. He then stripped 
the chevrons from the sergeant's arms and reduced him to the ranks. 

" After the speech the troops were dispersed in squads throughout 
the city, and, notwithstanding the strict orders they had received, com- 
mitted many depredations, among them the wanton destruction of valu- 
able books and papers in the Exchange and court-house belonging to the 
city and county. General Geary established his headquarters in the Cen- 
tral Railroad Bank, and his subordinate officers in the various unoccupied 
stores along the bay. On the 24th of December he issued an order re- 
garding the posts and duty of the provost guards, and instructing the 
civil authorities to resume their official duties." 

General W. T. Sherman arrived in Savannah on the 23th, and after 
telegraphing President Lincoln he would present him Savannah as a 
"Christmas gift," he issued the following order from his headquarters at 
the Green mansion opposite Oglethorpe Barracks : 

"Headquarters Military Division of the Mississippi, ^ 

"In the field, Savannah, Ga., December 26, 1864. $ 

"Special Field Order, 

"No. 143. 

" The city of Savannah and surrounding country will be held as a mil- 
itary post and adapted to future military uses, but as it contains a popu- 

384 History of Savannah. 

lation of some 20,000 people who must be provided for, and as other cit- 
izens may come, it is proper to lay down certain general principles, that 
all within its military jurisdiction may understand their relative duties 
and obligations. 

"I. During war the military is superior to civil authority, and where 
interests clash the civil must give way, yet where there is no conflict 
every encouragement should be given to well disposed and peaceful in- 
habitants to resume their usual pursuits. Families should be disturbed 
as little as possible in their residences, and tradesmen allowed the free 
use of their shops, tools, etc. Churches, schools, all places of amusement 
and recreation should be encouraged and streets and roads made per- 
fectly safe to persons in their usual pursuits. Passes should not be ex- 
acted within the lines of other pickets, but if any person should abuse 
these privileges by communicating with the enemy or doing any act of 
hostility to the government of the United States, he or she will be pun- 
ished with the utmost rigor of the law. 

"Commerce with the outer world will be resumed to an extent com- 
mensurate with the wants of the citizens, governed by the restriction 
and rules of the treasury department. 

" II. The chief quartermaster and commissary of the army may give 
suitable employment to the people, white or black, or transport them to 
such points as they choose, where employment may be had, and may ex- 
tend temporary relief in the way of provisions and vacant houses to the 
worthy and needy until such time as they can help themselves. They will 
select first, the buildings for the necessary uses of the army ; next a suffi- 
cient number of stores to be turned over to the treasury agent, for trade 
stores. All vacant storehouses or dwellings and all buildings belong- 
ing to absent rebels will be construed and used as belonging to the United 
States until such times as their titles can be settled by the courts of the 
United States. 

" III. The mayor and city council of Savannah will continue to exer- 
cise their functions as such and will, in concert with the commanding of- 
ficer of the post and the chief quartermaster, see that the fire companies 
are kept in organization, the streets cleaned and lighted, and keep up a 
good understanding between the citizens and soldiers. They will ascer- 
tain and report to the chief C. S., as soon as possible, the names and mem- 
bers of worthy families that need assistance and support. 

The War Period. 385 

"The mayor will forthwith give public notice that the time has come 
when all must choose their course, viz. : to remain within our lines and 
conduct themselves as good citizens or depart in peace. He will ascer- 
tain the names of all who choose to leave Savannah, and report their 
names and residences to the chief quartermaster that measures may be 
taken to transport them beyond the lines. 

" IV. Not more than two newspapers will be published in Savannah, 
and their editors and proprietors will be held to the strictest accountabil- 
ity, and will be punished severely in person and property for any libel- 
ous publications, mischievous matter, premature news, exaggerated state- 
ments, or any comments whatever upon the acts of the constituted au- 
thorities ; they will be held accountable even for such articles though 
copied from other papers. 

" By order of Major- General W. T. Sherman. 
"L. M. BRAYTON, Aid-de-camp." 

The people of Savannah in a spirit of moderation, and actuated by 
the most sincere motives, quietly undertook the work of adapting them- 
selves to the conditions imposed upon them by the fate of war. A meet- 
ing of the citizens was held in the Masonic Hall two days after General 
Sherman issued his order to "take into consideration matters appertain- 
ing to the present and future welfare of the city, Dr. R. D. Arnold pre- 
sided, and after several conciliatory speeches had been made, the follow- 
ing preamble and resolutions were adopted : 

"WHEREAS, By the fortunes of war and the surrender of the city by 
the civil authorities, the city of Savannah passes once more under the au- 
thority of the United States ; and whereas, we believe that the interest 
of the city will be best subserved and promoted by a full and free ex- 
pression of our views in relation to our present conditions; we, there- 
fore, the people of Savannah in full meeting assembled do hereby resolve: 

" That we accept the position, and in the language of the President 
of the United States, seek to have 'peace by laying down our arms and 
submitting to the national authority under the Constitution, leaving all 
questions which remain to be adjusted by the peaceful means of legisla- 
tion, cpnference and votes.' 

" Resolved, That laying aside all differences, and burying by-gones 

3^6 History of Savannah. 

in the grave of the past, we will use our best endeavors once more to 
bring back the prosperity and commerce we once enjoyed. 

" Resolved, That we do not put ourselves in the position of a con- 
quered city, asking terms of a conqueror, but we claim the immunities 
and privileges contained in the Proclamation and Message of the Presi- 
dent of the United States, and in all the legislation of Congress in refer- 
ence to a people situated as we are, and while we owe on our part a 
strict obedience to the laws of the United States, we ask the protection 
over our persons, lives and property recognized by these laws." 

Soon after the Federal troops had arrived in Savannah they threw 
up intrenchments to resist any attempts that might be made by the Con- 
federates to recapture the city. Intrenchments were also thrown up on 
the Thunderbolt road upon which guns were mounted, bearing upon the 
city, being intended as a rallying point if they should be driven from the 
other intrenchments. In building the latter line, they ran their works 
through the Catholic Cemetery, tearing up the ground and in many 
cases mutilating or covering up the monuments and tablets erected over 
the dead. In some instances it was claimed bones were dug up, and left 
scattered about. The officers who authorized the work, when remon- 
strated with, claimed the work was necessary and excused their inhu- 
manity on the ground of "military necessity." 

The confiscation of the cotton which was stored in Savannah was the 
most severe financial blow suffered by the city during its occupancy by 
the Federals. At the time the city was evacuated there were 30,500 
bales of upland and over 8,000 bales of Sea Island cotton stored in the 
warehouses, only 1,000 bales it is claimed belonging to the Confederate 
States government. The United States quartermaster seized all of this 
cotton and shipped it to New York where upland cotton at this time com- 
manded $1.25 per pound and Sea Island $3 per pound, making the to- 
tal value of the seized cotton about $28,000,000. 

While the people were suffering all the annoyances and hardships in- 
cident to military rule they were called upon to bear a calamity which at 
one time threatened to destroy the entire city. This was the fire of the 
27th of January, 1865, which destroyed over one hundred buildings. It 
commenced in a stable in the rear of old " Granite Hall " and it was claimed 
was started by the Federal soldiers. Granite Hall had been used by the 

The War Period. 387 

Confederate authorities as an arsenal, and in it on this occasion were 
stored thousands of rounds of ammunition. Under the direction of a 
United States officer the citizens and soldiers commenced to remove the 
ammunition, but before much of it had been removed the fire was com- 
municated to the powder and explosion after explosion followed in rapid 
succession. Fragments of shells flew in all directions, killing a negro 
and wounding two or three citizens. " During this novel bombardment," 
says a local historian, " which put a stop to the working of the engines 
in the vicinity and allowed the fire full sway, a piece of shell struck the 
reservoir. A jet of water immediately sprung out, which for novelty 
and beauty surpassed any fountain, looking in the fiery glare like a sheet 
ot molten silver." Before the flames were extinguished over one hun- 
dred houses located on West Broad, between Pine and St. Gaul streets, 
and a few on Broughton and Congress streets were destroyed. 

No act of General Sherman's while in Savannah called forth more 
bitter denunciation than his order requiring the wives and families of 
Confederate officers to be sent into Confederate lines. Word was sent 
privately to the ladies that it was the intention to remove them and that 
they must register their names by a certain time. All did not comply 
with this request as is evinced by the following order of Major-General 
C. Grover then in command of Savannah : 

"Office Provost Marshal, District of Savannah. ^ 

March 28, 1865. } 
" The wives and families of Confederate officers who have not regis- 
tered their names at this office will do so at once." 

" By order, BREVET Major-General C. Grover, Commanding. 
" ROBERT P. York, Provost Marshal District of Savannah, Ga." 

Three days after this order was issued the ladies and children were 
placed on the steamer Hudson to be carried to Augusta, but when the 
boat arrived at Sister's Ferry, about sixty- four miles from Savannah, the 
captain refused to proceed further. Captain Kdward C. Anderson, who 
was stationed at this point, had the ladies and children transferred to the 
shore and transported to Augusta in wagons, the only means of convey- 
ing them to their destinations. The suffering and exposure they had to 
endure was, however, of short duration, for shortly after their arrival in 

388 History of Savannah. 

Augusta the armies of Generals Lee and Johnston surrendered and they 
were soon united at their homes with their lawful protectors. 

With the end of the war the restrictions which had been placed upon 
the commerce and business of Savannah were gradually removed, a 
civil government was restored, and the people brave and courageous, 
with no useless regret, took up the work of retrieving their fallen for- 
tunes and restoring the city they loved to its rightful place among the 
commercial centers of the South. With unhesitating confidence they put 
the past with all its ruin and blasted hopes behind them, and beginning 
at the very bottom, applied themselves to planting in steady labor, frugal 
living and self-denial, the shattered foundation of public and individual 
prosperity. The progress they have made challenges wonder and ad- 
miration. To-day Savannah has no disturbing element; order, industry 
and thrift are everywhere, while its growth in material wealth, and pop- 
ulation suffers no disparagement in comparison with any Southern city. 



Growth of Military Ideas- -Chatham Artillery — Savannah Volunteer Guards — First 
Volunteer Regiment of Georgia — Georgia Hussars — Colored Military Companies. 

FOR an even century no American city has had a more brilliant mili- 
tary history than Savannah. The causes which fostered and de- 
veloped the sentiments which have made the city conspicuous in this re- 
gard, Colonel C. H. Olmstead admirably explains in his prelude to a his- 
tory of the First Georgia Regiment, published in the Morning News of 
May 5. 1886, from which we make the following liberal extracts: 

" From the event! il day on which General Oglethorpe landed upon 
the bluff at Yamacra v until the present time, the city of Savannah has 
been noted for the vigorous hold of the military ideas upon the minds 
and hearts of its citizens Military spirit born of necessity has always 

Military Organizations. 389 

been high, and a belief in the military virtues has been inherited by gen- 
eration after generation; imbibed as it were with mother's milk. 

"The earliest picture of the city represents a few scattered houses 
surrounded by a wall of living forest, but upon the left a flag flutters in 
the breeze and a battery of cannon points over the waters of the river, 
promising even in that early day a hot welcome to every foe. The col- 
ony was planted upon ground claimed by the Spaniards. Within easy 
distance was the strong fortress of St. Augustine, a base from which again 
and again the land and naval forces of his Majesty Philip the Fifth were 
hurled against the little handful of Englishmen. A regiment was one of 
the first of Oglethorpe's wants, and from the beginning each colonist felt 
in his inmost soul that the safety of altars and firesides depended upon 
stout arms and brave hearts. No wonder that then was born the spirit 
that has never since died. The war of the Revolution certainly had no 
tendency to weaken the sentiment, but rather added fuel to the flame, 
and to this day the imagination of every native of the old city kindles 
to a white heat, as he recalls the rush of Pulaski's Legion and the fall of 
that gallant chieftain, the desperate assault upon Spring Hill redoubt by 
the allied forces, and the death of Jasper. We mourn over the fortunes 
of that fatal day as though it had been yesterday, and how our hearts 
rejoice as we think of the glorious morn when the British ships sailed 
away never to return save as the ' white winged messengers of peace ' 
and the ' Ragged Continentals ' once more marched in to enjoy their own 

"These events were talked of at the fireside by old men and women, 
even as late as forty years ago. As little children they had witnessed 
them, and the story was handed down from one to another, ever excit- 
ing a generous ardor in noble souls to prepare for the day when their 
manhood, too, might be put to the crucial test, their courage and self- 
denial tried as by fire. What Savannahian who ever saw him, can forget 
the venerable figure of Sheftall Sheftall, that old soldier of the Revolu- 
tion, pacing back and forth in the quaint old uniform in which he had 
fought for liberty, and who can tell what influences his simple life in the 
community may have had in moulding military thought and desire ? 

"The War of 18 12 found Savannah still an outpost. The proximity 
of Britain's great naval stations in the West Indies, kept our people keenly 

39° History of Savannah. 

on the alert to repel invasion. Florida was still a dangerous neighbor, 
and so once again the maps of the city show the homes of its inhabitants 
guarded by cannon. From the river on the east around to the river on 
the west we see a line of strong redoubts and salients, telling the story 
of a people ready to defend themselves, a people who had added to nat- 
ural bravery the skill and military capacity which belong only to those 
who study the arts of war in the piping times of peace. 

"The legitimate outgrowth of this gallant spirit was the banding to- 
gether of the young men of Savannah as volunteer soldiery. Scarcely 
had the echoes of the Revolution died away, when the ' Dextrous Com- 
pany of Artillery ' was formed — that splendid organization whose guns 
pealed forth a welcome to Washington and thundered a mournful fare- 
well over the grave of Greene. . . Other companies were formed 
in quick succession, each doing its full share in fostering the manly vir- 
tues received of their fathers, and in transmitting to their successors the 
traditions of a glorious past." 

The Chatham Artillery, the oldest artillery organization in the State 
of Georgia, was organized on May I, 1786, mainly through the efforts of 
Edwin Lloyd, a Revolutionary soldier, who was elected the first captain 
of the company. The first public service rendered by the battery was 
performed in association with other companies of the regiment of the 
Chatham county militia, and other troops from Beaufort district, in the 
State of South Carolina in attacking and dispersing on May 6, 1786, a 
camp of runaway negroes, who, styling themselves the King of England's 
soldiers, had fixed their lawless homes on Bear Creek, in Effingham 
county. The first funeral honors paid by the corps were rendered upon 
the occasion of the burial of Major-General Nathanael Greene on June 
20, 1786. 

During the visit of General Washington to Savannah in May, 1 791 , 
he was constantly attended by the Chatham Artillery, then under the 
command of Captain Elf, the second captain of the battery. General 
Washington after his visit presented to the battery two of the guns taken 
at Yorktown, which are still in their possession and cherished with much 
pride. '1 he third commander of the battery was Josiah Tattnall, the 
father of Commodore Tattnall, a man upon whom was bestowed the 
highest civil and military honors within the gift of the State of Georgia. 

Military Organizations. 391 

James Robinson was the fourth captain of the Chatham Artillery, being 
elected in July, 1794. The battery under his command participated in 
the Creek Indian disturbance along the southern coast of Georgia. Ben- 
jamin Wall succeeded Captain Robinson as commander of the battery. 
Captain Wall was followed by Richard Montgomery Stiles. Under the 
command of Captain Robert McKay, the Chatham Artillery as a part of 
the First Regiment of the Georgia militia, entered the service of the 
United States in the War of 18 12, and for a time formed a part of the 
garrison at Fort Jackson, besides being actively engaged in the construc- 
tion of earth- works for the immediate protection of Savannah. The 
eighth captain of the Chatham Artillery was Colonel William T. Will- 
iams who was elected in 1816, and continued as captain until his election 
in 1824 as major of the First Regiment. Colonel Williams was several 
times elected mayor of Savannah, and was a man of the highest integrity 
of character. 

During the command of Captain Blois, who succeeded Colonel Will- 
iams, the city of Savannah was honored by a visit from General Lafay- 
ette, upon which occasion the Chathams extended military honor to the 
friend of Washington. 

On February 2, 1826, Charles M. King was elected the tenth captain 
of the Chatham artillery, and for a period of six years he remained in ac- 
tive command. He was followed as captain by Charles Stephens, an of- 
ficer of the regular army who had seen much service in the southwest 
under General Jackson. It was under his command that the Chatham 
artillery tendered its services to the governor of the State when the Uni- 
ted States became involved in the war with Mexico. They were not ac- 
cepted because their services were not required. For seventeen years 
the command of the company was retained by Captain Stephens. He 
was succeeded by Captain John B. Gallie, who during the civil war, while 
in command at Fort McAllister, with the rank of major, was killed on 
February 1, 1863. It was during the captaincy of Major Gallie that the 
company assisted in celebrating the centennial anniversary of the settle- 
ment of Liberty county in 1853, on which occasion the Chatham Artil- 
lery, Republican Blues and the Savannah Guards formed a military or- 
ganization known as the Washington Legion. 

John E. Ward succeeded Major Gallie as captain. In 1858 Joseph 

402 History of Savanna**. 

S. Claghorn became the fourteenth commander of the company. Under 
the captaincy of the latter the battery was mustered into the service of 
the Confederate States on July 31, 1 861. as a part of the First Volunteer 
Regiment of Georgia, the commissioned officers being Jasper S. Clag- 
horn. captain ; Charles C. Jones, jr., senior first lieutenant; Julian Hart- 
ridge, junior first lieutenant ; William H. Davidson, senior second lieu- 
tenant, and Bernardino S. Sanchez, junior second lieutenant. 

On May I preceding their being mustered into service, the seventy- 
fifth anniversary of the corps was celebrated with most interesting cere- 
monies, on which occasion an oration commemorative of its history from 
its earliest organization was pronounced by the senior first lieutenant, 
Charles C. Jones, jr. On October 14, 1862, Lieutenant Jones was pro- 
moted and commissioned as lieutenant-colonel of artillery, and by Briga- 
dier-General Mercer was ordered to the command of the light batteries 
in the military district of Georgia, in which capacity he continued to ren- 
der most efficient service until the war closed. The remaining war rec- 
ord of the corps we have, with only slight changes, taken from the ad- 
dress of Hon. John E. Ward, delivered at the centennial anniversary ex- 
ercises of the company, held in Savannah in May, 1886. 

Under Captain Claghorn the company entered the Confederate ser- 
vice with over one hundred and twenty men, with horses, drivers and 
cannoneer, and as a thoroughly drilled and mounted battery. On De- 
cember 24, 1 86 1, a Blakely gun. throwing a conical projectile of nearly 
twelve pounds in weight, which had been brought through the blockade, 
was assigned to this battery by Brigadier- General Lawton, as a special 
mark of the esteem in which the battery was held by him. and as a re- 
ward for the proficiency and skill which it had already attained. For 
many months it continued in their possession, and was used by them in 
the battle of Secessionville. When the armament of the battery was 
changed, it passed out of the hands of the company, and was abandoned 
by Wagner's German artillery upon the retreat from Bryan county, when 
at the close of the war it was retiring within the Confederate lines on the 
old Darien road, upon the advance of Sherman's army. 

The first hostile guns were heard in the encampments of the battery 
on October 30, 1861. On that day launches from a blockading vessel 
attempted to set fire to a schooner which had stranded near the Confed- 

Military Organizations. 393 

erate battery on the north point of Warsaw Island. This battery was at 
the time garrisoned by the Republican Blues of Savannah, and opened 
fire upon the launches, which resulted in an engagement which was ter- 
minated by the withdrawal of the Federals without accomplishing their 
purpose. This was the first passage of arms on the coast of Georgia. 

Immediately after the battle of Seven Pines, General Lawton, who 
from the first moment when, as colonel of the State regiment under the 
order of Governor Brown, he had occupied Fort Pulaski, had with ability 
and patriotism devoted his entire time and all his energies to the defense 
of Georgia, received an order to prepare five thousand men to move on 
to Richmond at the shortest notice. His prompt reply was : " My men, 
to the number designated, are ready to march at once, and I earnestly 
request that I may be ordered to Virginia with them." This request was 
granted, and history records how he there illustrated his State, and glad- 
dened the hearts of her people by his gallant deeds. 

The Chatham Artillery, then a part of his command, earnestly solic- 
ited to be allowed to follow their general to the field of battle. Their 
application was warmly seconded by General Lawton, but was refused 
because their services were deemed absolutely necessary on the seacoast 
of Georgia. 

On December 12, 1862, when by the exertions of Captain Claghorn 
the battery had been raised to the number of one hundred and sixty-five 
men, the animals carefully trained and all the appointments of the bat- 
tery in excellent order, he resigned the command of the company to ac- 
cept the appointment of lieutenant-colonel and ordnance officer upon the 
staff of Major-General Gustavus W. Smith, commanding the Georgia 
militia and the State forces. Passing through all the dangers of the war, 
Captain Claghorn died at his own home, in the city of Savannah, on April 
8, 1879, honored, respected and beloved, having been as a man, all that 
wife, child, or friend could hope for. He was buried by the Chatham 
Artillery with military honors, leaving no ex-captain of the company sur- 
viving but John E. Ward. 

The vacancy occasioned by the resignation of Captain Claghorn was 
filled by the promotion of the then Junior First Lieutenant John F. 
Wheaton to the captaincy, who is yet the honored commander, having 
been captain for more than one-quarter of the entire period of the exist- 
ence of the corps. so 

394 History of Savannah. 

John F.Wheaton was born at Gilford, New Haven county, in the State 
of Connecticut, on January 22, 1S22. After a short residence at Hart- 
ford and Bridgeport in his native State, he came to Savannah in 1852, 
and having selected this as his home, has been one of its most useful and 
valued citizens for more than one-third of a century. He became a 
member of the Chatham Artillery in May, 1856, was appointed chairman 
of the armory committee, 1859, which position he has held from that time 
up to the present. During that period the entire debt for the original 
cost of the armory, about $12,000, under his judicious management has 
been retired. A large amount has been expended in repairs to the ar- 
mory building, the company's quarters have been comfortably and taste- 
fully furnished, and the armory has been improved at an expense of about 

He was elected a corporal of the company in 1859. promoted to sec- 
ond sergeant in May, 1S61, to orderly sergeant in February, 1862, to 
junior first lieutenant May, 1862, and to the captaincy in November, 1862. 
Captain Wheaton assumed command not on a holiday parade, not 
amid the pomp and pageantry of mimic war, not in the hour of sunshine, 
but when the roar of battle was sounding, when danger stood in every path, 
when death lurked in every corner. 

Faithfully and fearlessly, from that period to the present time, has he 
discharged every obligation resting upon him, as a soldier amid the carn- 
age of battle, or a citizen treading the path of duty, encompassed by the 
" Pestilence that walketh in darkness," or as the chief officer of the city. 
Immediately after assuming command of the company the battery was 
ordered to James Island in Charleston harbor, and there for two years it 
endured all the hardships and participated in all the engagements and 
skirmishes that there occurred, serving at Battery Wagner with detach- 
ments of thirty men during the most eventful month of the memorable 
siege of that fort. 

Transferred from the coast of South Carolina to the everglades of 
Florida, under the command of General Colquitt, the company was en- 
gaged in the famous battle of Olustee, where by the skillful handling 
of their battery they greatly contributed to the winning of that glorious 
victory. It participated in the reconnoissance and engagement at Cedar 
Creek and at Columbia, S. C. Retreating with General Johnston's army 

Military Organizations. 395 

through South Carolina from Columbia to Smithville, thence to Raleigh 
and thence to Greensborough, where it was surrendered in April, 1865, 
with Johnston's entire command. Immediately after the surrender the 
company was marched to Augusta, Ga., where it was disbanded as a 
Confederate organization. Thus, from the time when the curtain rose 
at Pulaski to its fall at Greensborough, the Chatham Artillery was no- 
bly performing its part in this great drama which had fixed the atten- 
tion of the world fur four years, and been baptized in the blood of thou- 
sands engaged in constant and active service, enduring cheerfully every 
privation, fearlessly encountering every danger, and during the most try- 
ing periods led by John F. Wheaton as commander. 

During the dark days of reconstruction the company was not permit- 
ted to retain itsmilitary character, yet all the members assembled in citi- 
zens dress whenever summoned by their officers for the transaction of 
business. Although their armory was seized by the forces of the United 
States in December, 1864, and placed under the control of the Freedman's 
Bureau until June, 1S68, the interest due on the armory's scrip was at all 
times paid, and the general welfare of the organization was carefully 
looked after and attended to. The social characteristics that had so long 
been features of the company, were retained and continued during that 
humiliating period. On February 22, 1866, the company gave a grand 
picnic, and since that date has given one every year, in which its mem- 
bers, their families and friends participated. 

On January 19, 1872, the anniversary of the birthday of General Rob- 
ert E. Lee, the company made its first uniformed appearance after the 
war, and since that date has paraded on all its regular parade days on 
all public occasions, retaining in its advanced age its true military bear- 
ing, its social instincts, its patriotic and public spirit, remaining true to the 
principles that actuated the fathers and promoters of this grand old asso- 
ciation from its organization. 

As soon after the surrender of the Confederate army as the nature of 
the case and the exigency of the times would permit, the company was 
reorganized upon a peace basis. Their Washington guns, which had been 
carefully buried and concealed during the war, were resurrected from 
their hiding-place, and remounted and restored to their former position 
as honorary field-pieces of the battery. The old spirit still survived, 

396 History of Savannah. 

and the Chatham Artillery was again restored to its pristine vigor and 
its high reputation among the volunteer companies of Savannah. The 
objects of the founders of this military organization are thus expressed 
in the preamble to the rules and regulations of the company: 

"Impressed with a firm belief that the safety of the glorious institu- 
tions under which we live, and which have been bequeathed to us as a 
sacred and inestimable legacy, purchased by the blood and toil of the 
fathers of the Republic, depends upon a well regulated and strictly dis- 
ciplined militia, and that such a militia is especially necessary in the com- 
munity in which we live, from the peculiar character of our population 
which renders it necessary to be always prepared, and ever on the alert 
to meet a danger which may have its being among us without our knowl- 
edge, and may break forth in our most unsuspecting moments ; fully con- 
vinced that it is the duty of every citizen to contribute not only to the pe- 
cuniary exigencies of his country when demanded, but to be prepared in 
times of danger when the peace and welfare and dignity of that country 
are threatened to interpose his person as a shield and safeguard between 
her and dishonor ; that to obtain this laudable and honorable object, a 
proper organization and a strict bond of union and action are required as 
well in peace as in war, and that a corps devoted to the service of field arm- 
ory is an honorable, important and efficient branch of the national or State 
defense, affording the best opportunities to render valuable those services 
which it is our duty and desire to proffer to our beloved country on all 
occasions when the support of her right or interest may demand them, 
we the officers, noncommissioned officers and privates of the Chatham 
Artillery whose names are hereunto subscribed for the purposes above 
recited, and with a view to obtain a knowledge of military tactics, and 
especially that portion more particularly embraced under the title of our 
association, do hereby solemnly agree to the following rules of the gov- 
ernment of the Chatham Artillery, and we do hereby pledge our honor, 
for which our signature is witness, that we will to the best of our ability 
and understanding devote ourselves to the advancement of the interests 
of the corps, to which we have voluntarily attached ourselves by all hon- 
orable means, and ardently co-operate in the increase of its strength, re- 
spectability and discipline, and that we will foster and maintain senti- 
ments of respect and affection towards each other as soldiers and citizens, 

Military Organizations. 397 

and united as a band of brothers, devote ourselves, when occasion re- 
quires it, to the service of our Country." 

It may in just pride be affirmed that the members of this ancient com- 
pany have under all circumstances and on all occasions endeavored to 
redeem the pledges and maintain the sentiments thus early given and 
recorded. Surviving the vicissitudes of fortune and the shock of battle 
this organization after more than a century's existence, is still bouyant in 
spirit and strong in membership. The total strength of the company, 
rank and file, is fifty -eight men. The implements of war-consist of two 
six-pounders, presented by General George Washington, one howitzer, 
one light six-pounder, and one gatling gun. The officers are: John F. 
Wheaton, captain ; R. F. Harmon, senior first lieutenant ; G. P. Walker, 
junior first lieutenant; J. R. Saussy, second lieutenant; I. A. Solomons, 
orderly sergeant ; T. N. Theus, ordnance sergeant ; E. E. Buckner, quar- 
termaster sergeant; J. B. Law, guidon sergeant; J. S. Silva, secretary; 
J. F. La Far, treasurer. 

SavannaJi Volunteer Guards. This is the oldest infantry corps in 
Georgia. It was organized as a company early in 1802, and was at- 
tached to the First Regiment, First Brigade, First Division of the Georgia 
Militia. Its first parade was on May I, 1S02, and it has ever since 
adopted and observed that 'day as its anniversary. On the 20th of the 
same month the corps took part in the reception extended to vice Presi- 
dent Aaron Burr. The uniform at that time was blue, trimmed with red, 
with gold bars across the breast. 

Dr. John Cummings was the first captain of the Guards. He was an 
Irishman by birth — one of the leading and most influential merchants of 
Savannah at that time, and president of the Branch Bank of the United 
States. He was lost at sea on board the steamer Pulaski, on a trip 
from Savannah to Baltimore. 

Captain Cummings resigned in 1808, and was succeeded by Captain 
James Marshall. During Captain Marshall's command the War of 1812 
with Great Britain occurred, and the Guards with the other companies of 
Savannah composing the Fir?t Regiment were mustered into the service 
of the United States for local defense, and at one time a portion of the 
Guards with the Republican Blues were sent on an expediiion against St. 
Augustine. We are unable to ascertain how long Captain Mai shall con- 

398 History of Savannah. 

tinued to command the Guards. He afterwards became colonel of the 
regiment, and was so, as late as 1825. He was succeeded, however, as 
captain of the Guards by Fredeiick S. Fell, who had been first lieutenant 
of the company. 

In 18 1 8 Edward F. Tattnall was elected commander. Captain Tatt- 
nall was of the family of Tattnalls so distingui.->hed in the history of 
Georgia. His father was Josiah Tattnall, who had been the third cap- 
tain of the Chatham Artillery, colonel of the First Regiment Georgia 
Militia, general of the Fir>t Brigade, United States Senator from Georgia, 
and governor of the State. He was the elder and only brother of the 
celebrated Commodore Josiah Tattnall, who, himself, was a member of 
the Guards from his early manhood to his death, and whose remains they 
attended to their last resting place at Bonaventure on June 16, 1871. 

Captain Tattnall had been a captain in the United States army in the 
war of 18 12, and had greatly distinguished himself in an engagement 
with the British at Point Petre, near St. Mary's, Ga. Captain Tattnall 
entered upon the command of the guards vigorously and with zeal. He 
was evidently a born soldier ; and, though a strict disciplinarian and very 
exacting in his requirements, he soon secured the absolute devotion of 
his command, and, infusing into it much of his own high, chivalric spirit, 
enhanced, if he did not create, that intense and admirable esprit de corps 
which has ever since been one of its chief characteristics. Under his 
leadership it attained a degree of efficiency and prosperity it had never 
known before, and received an impulse which it has not yet lost. He 
may be considered, in the largest sense, "the second founder" of the 
corps. On the occasion of President James Monroe's visit to Savannah 
on May 8, 18 19, the Savannah Volunteer Guards, under his command, 
took part in the reception and parade. The second uniform adopted by 
the company was blue, trimmed and slashed with scarlet, and a full scar- 
let front — very similar to the uniform of the French gens d'anne at one 
time. And, in this connection, a pleasant incident is related as occur- 
ring on the occasion of Lafayette's visit to Savannah during his Ameri- 
can tour in 1S25. 

It appears that the distinguished visitor landed at the foot of East 
Broad street. A contemporary account says : "The troops were placed 
in position on the green, in front of the avenue of trees, their right on 

Military Organizations. 399 

East Bay. A more gallant and splendid military display we have never 
seen; the effect was beautiful ; every corps exceeded its customary num- 
bers; many who had not appeared under arms for years shouldered them 
on this occasion, and the usual pride of appearance and honorable emu- 
lation was ten times increased by the occasion. Those who know the 
volunteer companies of Savannah will believe this to be no empty com- 

The incident referred to is that, as Lafayette passed down the line, 
he reached Tattnall with his Guards, and either affected by the sight 
of a uniform so familiar to him in his own country, or attracted by the 
fine appearance of the company, he threw up both hands, and, with 
sparkling eyes, exclaimed, " Ah ! quels beaux soldats\ quels beaux sold- 

Captain Tattnall continued in command until January, 1831, and after 
an interval of some time was succeeded by Joseph W. Jackson. Cap- 
tain Jackson was a lawyer, a member of Congress and one of the most 
distinguished men of his day. His successor was William Robertson, 
proprietor of the Savannah Daily Georgian, who assumed command in 
November, 1836. Capt.iin Robertson held his commission but a few 
months, resigning in July, 1837. He was succeeded by William P. 
Rowen, under whom was procured an act of the Legislature authorizing 
the corps to half pay members, the object of which was to lay the foun- 
dation of a fund with which at some future day, to build an armory or 

Ciptain Bowen resigned in 1844, when he was succeeded by Dr. 
Cosmo P. Richardsone, who was elevated to the position from the rank 
of private. Captain Richardsone proved to be an officer of extraordin- 
ary merit. During his term occurred the incorporation of the corps 
which in another part of the chapter is more fully discussed. Captain 
Richardsone died while holding the position of Captain of the Guards- 
He was dearly beloved by every member of the corps and his death was 
in the nature of a personal loss. He was buried with military honors on 
February 8, 1S52. 

Dr. James P. Screven, an exempt private, was elected the next Cap- 
tain of the Guards, the first position of a public character he had ever 
consented to take. Soon, however, he became in quick succession, 

400 History of Savannah. 

mayor of the city, member of the State Senate and first president of the 
Savannah, Albany and Gulf Railroad Company, now known as the Sa- 
vannah, Florida and Western Railway. Dr. Screven's pressing public 
and private engagements induced him to resign in December, 1857, when 
he was succeeded by his eldest son, the present distinguished citizen of 
Savannah, Colonel John Screven. 

Under the administration of Captain Screven the corps made rapid 
advance in all the avenues which mark the proficiency of a military or- 
ganization. The first event of importance during the command of Cap- 
tain John Screven was the acquisition of an armory. This was secured 
in 1859 by the purchase of the old Unitarian Church on the southeast- 
ern corner of Bull and York streets. It required some time and expense 
to prepare the building for the use of the corps, but it was finally con- 
verted into pleasant military quarters. During the occupation of the 
city by Sherman in 1864, it was used by some of his troops as a guard- 
house. Through their carelessness it took fire and was destroyed. 

Soon after the acquisition of an armory a very rapid increase in the 
members of the corps began to take place, and it not infrequently hap- 
pened that at an afternoon drill one hundred and fifty men or more 
would be out — a number quite too large to be handled with convenience 
as a single company. This state of affairs gave rise to the idea of form- 
ing an independent battalion. Steps were immediately taken to carry 
it into effect. 

While preparations to form a battalion were going on South Carolina 
seceded from the Union, and on January 3, 1 86 1, as related in the chap- 
ter devoted to the war period, fifty men of the Guards under Captain 
Screven, the Oglethorpe Light Infantry and the Chatham Artillery were 
taken by Colonel Lawton under orders from Governor Brown, and ef- 
fected the seizure of Fort Pulaski. From this time for several months 
the volunteer companies took turns at Fort Pulaski. The Guards were 
there several times. 

While these events were in progress, recruits rapidly poured in and 
the Guards hastened to effect the permanent battalion organization. The 
plan was to form two companies, A and B, by assigning members to 
them; and complete the organization by formal elections for officers, and 
to elect Captain Screven major of the battalion. But at this juncture 




~ - ~*y?GKs< > 

Military Organizations. 401 

the then adjutant- general of the State maintained that there could not 
be a battalion of so few companies as two, commanded by a field officer. 
To obviate this difficulty as many officers as were necessary consented to 
go one grade lower. Thus organized, the officers of the corps, if it may 
be so styled at that time, were as follows: Captain John Screven, cap- 
tain commanding company A ; first lieutenant, W. S. Basinger; second 
lieutenant, Gilbert C. Rice; ensign, J. C. Habersham. Company B ; 
captain, A. C. Davenport ; first lieutenant, George W. Stiles ; second 
lieutenant, Thomas F. Screven; ensign, M. H. Hopkins. 

The battalion was mustered into the service of the Confederate States 
in March, 1861, for two months, and during this period was assigned to 
duty as the garrison of a battery at Thunderbolt. At the end of this 
time the corps returned to Savannah and was dismissed, but shortly after 
it was again mustered for six months, and immediately sent to take 
charge of a much heavier battery on Green Island, near the mouth of 
the Vernon River. 

At the end of their second period of enlistment the members of the 
corps resolved to again muster for the war. They were informed that 
the battalion would be accepted as an independent organization and a 
field officer to command, if three companies could be formed. A third 
company was formed by taking as many members from Companies A 
and B as could be spared. The following officers were then chosen : 
Company A, captain, W. S. Basinger ; first lieutenant, Thomas F. Scre- 
ven ; second lieutenants, William H. King and Frederick Tupper. Com- 
pany B, captain, George W. Stiles ; first lieutenant, Edward Padelford, 
jr. ; second lieutenants, Edwin A. Castellaw and George D. Smith. 
Company C, captain, Gilbert C. Rice; first lieutenant, George M. Tur- 
ner; second lieutenants, John R. Dillon and Eugene Blois. The organ- 
ization was approved by the adjutant general of the State, and commis- 
sions were issued to the officers above named. The corps was mustered 
into service for the war in March, 1862. This terminated the connection 
of the Guards with the first volunteer regiment. John Screven was com- 
missioned by the Confederate government major of artillery, and assigned 
by General A. R. Lawton to the command of the Savannah Volunteer 
Guards Battalion. 

The first service of this corps as a separate battalion was at Fort Boggs, 

4Q2 History of Savannah. 

a fine large work on the bluff, about two miles below the city, overlook- 
ing Fort Jackson and the river, and constituting the extreme left of the 
inner line of defense. In the spring of 1863 Major Screven resigned the 
command of the battalion as the management of the Atlantic and Gulf 
Railroad — a line of communication and supply very important to the Con- 
federate government — required as president, his personal attention. Cap- 
tain Basinger succeeded him as major, Lieutenant T. F. Screven became 
captain of Company A, and the other officers went up each one grade, 
Sergeant P. N. Raynal being elected to the junior lieutenancy. 

The battalion remained in charge of Fort Boggs until July, 1863, 
when it was sent with the First Volunteer Regiment and the Twelfth 
Georgia Battalion to reinforce the troops at Battery Wagner, and in the 
celebrated siege of July 1 1. took a prominent part, four of the Guards be- 
ing killed and three wounded. Battery Wagner was abandoned late in 
August, 1863, and the Guards were ordered to Sullivan's Island to occupy 
Battery Marion. Here it remained until the following May, and during 
this period the troops were under almost constant fire. 

In May, 1864, the Guards were ordered to Virginia to join the army 
of General Lee. Arriving in Virginia the corps was stationed at Mat- 
toax to guard the bridge where the Richmond and Danville Railroad 
crosses the Appomattox River. In this sort of duty the corps remained 
until the following October. It was then ordered to the general line of 
the army and posted in the trenches on the north side of the James River, 
near Chaffin Bluff. Here the Guards passed the severe winter of 1864-5, 
enduring every hardship to which the illy equipped Confederate troops 
were subjected during this trying time. When General Lee's army was 
forced to abandon Richmond in April, 1865, fears for the result of the 
war began to creep into the minds of the most sanguine. Th's famous 
retreating march of General Lee was continued for several days, but on 
April 6 the rear guard was brought to bay near Sailor's Creek. General 
Gordon's corps was the true rear guard, but in the various operations and 
movements of that day General Ewell's corps got into the rear by force of 
circumstances. General Custer Lee's division, to which the Guards were 
attached, was in General Ewell's corps. 

In the battle at Sailor's Creek the Guards took a prominent part, be- 
ing placed so as to receive the first onset of the enemy. The attack was 

Military Organizations. 403 

unsuccessful, the enemy being driven off with the loss of two regimental 
fla^s and many killed, but with serious loss to the Guards also. The bat- 
talion then returned to the original line to take its part in the main bat- 
tle. But again they were put in the same manner as before. The enemy 
was checked, but all of the Guards who escaped with their lives were 
made prisoners. It was afterwards ascertained that the enemy lost in the 
encounter 275 men, and of the Guards numbering 85 men engaged, 30 
were killed and 22 wounded, every officer but one being killed or wounded. 
The killed were buried on the field by the enemy. The remains of such 
as could be identified were, at a later day, brought to Savannah and buried 
in the lot of the corps at Laurel Grove cemetery. The survivors were sent 
— the wounded to hospitals, the unwounded to Northern prisons — some 
to Point Lookout, the major and lieutenant-general to Johnson's Island. 
But the closing scene of the great struggle was then taking place, and a 
few days after the battle of Sailor's Creek, the surrender of General Lee's 
army ended the war. The members of the Guards held as prisoners of 
war were soon after released and sadly wended their way homeward, to 
face as best they could the new difficulties that lay before them. 

After the close of the war no effort was made to reorganize any of the 
volunteer military companies of Savannah as long as the "carpet-bag" 
government was in power. The Guards by occasional meetings and by at- 
tending in a body the funerals of deceased members, endeavored to main- 
tain their corporate existence, and to preserve their property. But when 
James M. Smith became governor of the State — his elevation being the 
virtual overthrow of the "carpet-bag" government — the corps, encouraged 
by him, determined to resume its usual functions. A large number of 
new men joined, officers were elected, the present uniforms adopted, and 
on the 19th day of January, 1873, the first parade of the corps after the 
war occurred. Major Basinger was re-elected to command the corps, and 
in 1879, in pursuance of a law of the State then passed which required 
all battalion commanders to be lieutenant-colonels, such a commission 
was sent to him, and the corps was numbered third in the list of volun- 
teer infantry battalions. > ■ 

Colonel Basinger resigned in August, 1882, and Lieutenant-Colonel 

• William Garrard, the present popular commander, was elected to succeed 

him. Colonel Basinger was a member of the corps for thirty-one years, 

404 History of Savannah. 

and was distinguished for his devotion and high soldierly qualities. He 
was longer in chief command than any of his predecessors, and in peace 
and war he sustained the honor of the corps with loyalty, intelligence 
and skill. 

The commissioned officers of the battalion under Major Screven were 
as follows: Company A, — Captain, VV. S. Basinger; lieutenants, Tho- 
mas F. Screven, VV. H. King, John F. Tupper. Company B. — Captain, 
G. W. Stiles ; lieutenants, Ed. Padleford, E. A. Castellaw, George D. 
Smith. Company C, — Captain, G. C. Rice; lieutenants, G. M. Turner, 
John R. Dillon, Eugene Blois. Lieutenant Dillon, acting adjutant. 
Captain G. C. Rice, acting quartermaster. Lieutenant VV. H. King, act- 
ing commissary. 

After Major Basinger assumed command Lieutenant T. F. Screven 
was made captain of Company A, and the following became lieutenants, 
namely : P. N. Raynal, VV. E. Gue, and VV. D. Grant, and E. P. Starr 
was appointed adjutant of battalion. After the war ended the officers 
under Major Basinger were : Company A, — Captain, George VV. Stiles ; 
lieutenants, P. N. Raynal, A. A. Winn, E. P. Starr. Company B, — Cap- 
tain, T. F. Screven ; lieutenants, J. C. Habersham, H. H. VVoodbridge, 
Malcolm Maclean. Company C, — Captain, John R. Dillon; lieutenants, 
F. R, Sweat, H. C. Cunningham, John Reilly. Lieutenant Sweat was 
afterwards appointed adjutant, and Lieutenants Raynal and Cunningham 
became respectively captains of their companies, and the following be- 
came lieutenants at various times, namely: C. J. Barie, C. R. Maxwell, 
H. R. Symons, VV. F. Symons, Cuthbert Barnwell, Joe C. Thompson, L. 
C Strong, M. A. Barie, J. A. Cronk, J. W. Fretwell, VV. P. Hunter (ad- 
jutant). Major Basinger became lieutenant-colonel in October, 1879. 
Thereafter the following became commissioned officers in the battalion : 
Lieutenants O. H. Lutburrow, I. G. Heyward and VV. H. Turner, be- 
fore Lieutenant-Colonel Garrard took command. The present commis- 
sioned officers of the battalion are : Lieutenant-colonel, William Garrard ; 
adjutant, Wm P. Hunter; quartermaster, John Kollock ; judge-advocate, 
R. R. Richards; commissary and treasurer, John M. Bryan; sergeant- 
major, R. E. L. Daniels ; quartermaster-sergeant, C. E. Dieterich. Com- 
pany A — Captain, W. W. Williamson; first lieutenant, T. P. Huger; 
second lieutenant, Frank Screven; first sergeant, Hutton. Com- 

Military Organizations. 405 

pany B, — Captain, Thomas Screven; first lieutenant, T. D. Rockwell; 
second lieutenant, G. S. Orme ; first sergeant, G. M. Gadsden. Com- 
pany C, — Captain, John Reilly; first lieutenant, W. W. Rogers; second 
lieutenant, G. W. Cann ; first sergeant, J. Ferris Cann. 

Soon after the election of Lieutenant-Colonel Garrard steps were 
taken to provide for the battalion a suitable armory building. The loca- 
tion secured was the site of the old State arsenal. In 1885 the erection 
of the building was commenced and one year later the armory was 
thrown open to the public on the occasion of a grand bazaar. It was 
1 10 feet long, 60 feet in width and 64 feet from the street pavement to 
the deck of the domed roof and had three fronts, facing north on Presi- 
dent street, west on Whitaker street, and south on York street. The cost 
of erection was about $60,000, and it was considered the finest military 
building in the South. This fine structure, which was no less the pride 
of the battalion than of the citizens of Savannah, was totally destroyed 
by the destructive fire of April 6, 1889. It was insured for $50,000, and 
with characteristic energy the battalion has begun preparation to erect a 
new armory which will rival in beauty the one destroyed. 

The Guards have erected monuments to two of their deceased com- 
manders. The first is a plain marble shaft in Bonaventure Cemetery 
(formerly the family seat of the Tattnalls) to Captain Tattnall, and bears 
the following inscription on its western face : 


to the memory of 
Edward Fenwick Tattnall, 

who died in Savannah, 

on the 21st day of November, 1832, 

aged 44 years. 

Erected by the Savannah 

Volunteer Guards, which corps 

he for a period of years commanded, as 

a tribute of affection for his qualities 

as a Man, a Soldier, and a Patriot. 

Afuncia parva quidtm, sed magnum 

testantur amorem. 

Near by, in the same enclosure, is the tomb of his brother, Commo- 
dore Josiah Tattnall, one of the most honored of the honorary members 

406 History of Savannah. 

of the Guards. On this significantly rests the effigy of a sheathed sword, 
and it bears the following inscription : 

Commodore Josiah Tattnall, U. S. and C S. N. 

Born near this spot Nov. 8, 1785. 

Died June 14, 1S71. 

The second monument erected by the corps is in Laurel Grove Ceme- 
tery to Capt. Richardsone — a tasteful marble shaft with the following in- 
scriptions. On the eastern face: "Erected' by the Savannah Volunteer 
Guards in token of their regard for a beloved commander, and of their 
admiration for his virtues as a citizen." On the western face, on a 
shield within a bay wreath supported on cannon: "Cosmo P. Richard- 
sone." On the southern face: "Horn January 24th, 1804." On the 
northern face : " Died February 6th, 1852." 

Within a few feet of the resting place of Captain Richardsone is that 
of his friend and immediate successor in command, Captain J. P. Screven. 

In Laurel Grove Cemetery the Guards hold two burial lots, numbers 
46 and 726. In the former are interred Privates S. F. Ripley and John 
D. Carter, who died of yellow fever respectively in 1854 and 1876, and 
Privates T. L. Robertson, John Maddox, John Johnson, A. F. Whitlock 
and James D. Pardue. In this lot also is one grave containing the re- 
mains of eleven members of the battalion, who fell at Sailor's Creek, the 
last battle of the Army of Virginia, namely : King, Turner, Rice, Abney, 
Mcintosh, Rouse, Millen, Gordon, Vickers, Cook, and Barie, removed 
from Virginia along with Rice, James, Myddleton, Bowne, Grant, and 
Bennett, who are interred in their respective family lots. In lot number 
726 (the gift of first Lieutenant Thomas J. Bulloch) are interred Privates 
Thomas D. Morel, James M. Mallette, Frederick Myers, and James O. 
A. Simmons. 

Independent Volunteer Battalion of Savannah — During the first part 
of the century the volunteer and uniformed companies of Savannah formed 
a part of the First Regiment, First Brigade, Georgia Militia, and paraded 
on stated occasions side by side with the " unterrified," un-uniformed, 
undisciplined companies of the " beats," as they were called. These or- 
ganizations were but burlesques upon what a military command should 
be, and it is not to be wondered at that the volunteers became restive 
under the enforced associations. The desirability of forming a battalion 

Military Organizations. 407 

exclusively from the volunteers was most apparent. Steps were taken 
to that end, and on January 20, 1852, a bill was approved by which it 
was enacted : 

"I. That the volunteer companies now existing in the city of Savan- 
nah and belonging to the First Regiment, First Brigade, First Division 
Georgia Militia be and the same hereby are organized and erected into a 
separate battalion, which shall be called the Independent Volunteer Bat- 
talion of Savannah, and be no longer a part of the said First Regiment. 

"II. That any other volunteer companies of foot which may here- 
after be organized in the city of Savannah shall be attached to said bat- 
talion until the number of said companies shall be eight, when the said 
companies shall be organized and erected into a regiment, which shall be 
called the Independent Volunteer Regiment of Savannah, and said regi- 
ment shall not consist of less than eight or more than fourteen com- 

Section three of the act vested the command of the Independent 
Volunteer Battalion in a lieutenant colonel, with full regimental staff. 

At the date of the passage of the above act the following were the 
volunteer companies affected by it, and which consequently formed the 
Independent Volunteer Battalion of Savannah : Chatham Artillery, Cap- 
tain John B. Gallie ;, Savannah Volunteer Guards, Captain James P. Scre- 
ven, organized 1802; Republican Blues, Captain John W. Anderson, 
organized 1808; Phcenix Riflemen, Captain VV. H. C. Mills, organized 
1830; Irish Jasper Greens, Captain John Devanney, organized February 
22, 1843; German Volunteers, Captain J. H. Stegin, organized Febru- 
ary 22, 1846 ; DeKalb Riflemen, Captain John Bilbo, organized 1850. 
The whole was under the command of Lieutenant- Colonel Alexander R. 

The Oglethorpe Light Infantry was organized under Captain John 
N. Lewis in January, 1856, and became a part of the Independent bat- 
talion, completing the eight companies to the regimental formation, when 
the battalion became the Independent Volunteer Regiment of Savannah. 

The act of January 20, 1 85 2, was in part and substance amended as 
follows : 

Section 1. Be it enacted, etc., that the regiment formed under the sec- 
ond section of said act shall be known as " The First Volunteer Regiment 

408 History of Savannah. 

of the State of Georgia," and may embrace as many infantry corps formed 
in said city, as may choose to conform to the regimental organization. 
Section 2. Provided for full field and staff. 

Section 3. Provided that the rights and privileges accruing to said 
regiment shall not fall by the consolidation of two or more companies, or 
the withdrawal or dissolution of one or more companies, but the same shall 
vest in and be enjoyed by the corps composing the Volunteer Regiment. 
Section 4. Withdrew the regiment from the First Brigade Georgia 
Militia and placed it exclusively under the command of its own officers. 
Under the re-organization conformatory to this act the following 
officers were elected and commissioned : 

A. R. Lawton, colonel; George W. Stiles as lieutenant-colonel, and 
■ W. S. Rockwell as major. Bulloch Jackson was appointed adjutant; 
John Fraser, paymaster ; J. D. Fish, surgeon ; J. W. Johnston, assistant 
surgeon. No further change occurred among the list of officers until the 
beginning of the war, when C. H. Olmstead was made adjutant in place 
of Bulloch Jackson, who resigned. 

An account of the first service of this regiment in behalf of the Con- 
federacy, will be found in the chapter devoted to the war period, as well 
as the changes in officers which followed in the first year of the war. 

The regiment was reorganized by an order from the Confederate de- 
partment headquarters in October, 1862, to conform to the requirement 
of actual service. The following companies were made to compose the 
regiment : 

Company A, — First Company Irish Jasper Greens, Captain John 

Company B. — Second Company Irish Jasper Greens, Captain James 

Company C, — Republican Blues, Captain W. D. Dixon. 

Company D, — City Light Guard, Captain S. Yates Levy. 

Company P^, — Irish Volunteers, Captain John F. O'Neill. 

Company F, — Coast Rifles, Captain Screven Turner. 

Company G, — Tattnall Guards, Captain A. C. Davenport. 

Company H, — Second Company Oglethorpe Light Infantry, Captain 
James Lachlison. 

Company I, — German Volunteers, Captain C. Werner. 

Company K, — Washington Volunteers, Captain John Cooper. 

Military Organization's. 409 

Field and Staff. — Colonel, Charles H. Olmstead ; lieutenant-colonel, 
VV. S. Rockwell ; major, M. J. Ford ; adjutant, Matthew H. Hopkins ; 
quartermaster, Edward Hopkins ; commissary, E. VV. Drummond ; sur- 
geon, W. H. Elliott ; chaplain, S. Edward Axson. 

No7i-commissioned Staff. — Sergeant-major, F. M. Hull; commissary- 
sergeant. W. H. Boyd ; quartermaster-sergeant, William C. Crawford ; 
ordnance-sergeant, Thaddeus F. Bennett. 

During the winter, Captain Edward Hopkins died and was succeeded 
by Captain F. M. Hull, who was appointed quartermaster. 

The service that followed the reorganization of the regiment is best 
told in the following language of its commanding officer, Colonel Olm- 
stead : 

" For many months the regiment continued to do service at various 
points on the coast. Companies A and B at the Savannah River bat- 
teries, Company C at Fort McAllister, Companies D, E and F at Fort 
Bartow, Causton's Bluff, and Companies G, H, I and K in the lines around 
the city, at Isle of Hope, and Whitmarsh and Wilmington Islands. Again 
was Company C fortunate — a second time, on February I, 1863, it took 
part in repulsing a vigorous attack of the iron-clad monitors upon Fort 
McAllister. It was a brilliant affair, and the garrison handsomely earned 
the laudatory order from General Beauregard which authorized them to 
inscribe the name Fort McAllister upon their colors. 

" Early in July, 1S63, Companies G, H, I and K, in concert with the 
Eighteenth and Twelfth Georgia Battalions were hurried over to Charles- 
ton to assist in meeting the attack upon that city, which had just devel- 
oped itself at the lower end of Morris Island. The Georgians, number- 
ing five hundred or six hundred men, were thrown into Battery Wagner 
on the night of July 10, and at daybreak on the following morning took 
part in repelling a vigorous assault made by General Gillmore with a 
strong storming column. In this action Captain Werner, of Company I, 
was killed while bravely meeting the attack. Here the First Regiment 
met again its 'friends the enemy,' of the Seventh Connecticut, that com 
mand being one of the leading regiments in the assault. A number of 
them surrendered to the men who had been captured by them the year 
before." Of subsequent service at Wagner, it is scarcely necessary to 
write in detail, but a clear idea of the character of the service there may 

4io History of Savannah. 

be gained from the following account, written by Major Robert C. Gil- 
christ, of Charleston, himself one of the most gallant and efficient of the 
defenders of the fort : 

" ' Night and day, with scarcely any intermission, the howling shell 
burst over and within it. Each day, often from early dawn, the new Iron- 
sides, or the six monitors, sometimes all together, steamed up and deliv- 
ered their terrific broadsides, shaking the fort to its centre. The noise- 
less Ccehorn shells, falling vertically, searched out the secret recesses, al- 
most invariably claiming victims. The burning sun of a Southern sum- 
mer, its heat intensified by the reflection of the white sand, scorched and 
blistered the unprotected garrison, or the more welcome rain and storm 
wet them to the skin. An intolerable stench from the unearthed dead 
of the previous conflict, the carcasses of cavalry horses lying where they 
fell, in the rear, and barrels of putrid meat thrown out on the beach, sick- 
ened the defenders. 

" ' A large and brilliantly colored fly, attracted by the feast, and un- 
seen before, inflicted wounds more painful, though less dangerous than 
the shot of the enemy. The food, however good when it started for its 
destination, by exposure, first on the wharf in Charleston, then on the 
beach at Cummings' Point, being often forty-eight hours in transition, 
was unfit to eat. The unventilated bomb-proofs rilled with smoke of 
lamps and smell of blood, were intolerable, so that we endured the risk 
of shot and shell rather than seek their shelter. The incessant din of ils 
own artillery, as well as the bursting shells of the foe, prevented sleep. 
Then, as never before, all realized the force of the prophecy : " In the 
morning thou shall say, would God it were even ! and at even thou shall 
say, would God it were morning ! for the fear of thine eyes, wherewith 
thou shall fear, and for the sight of thine eyes which thou shall see." 

"In the spring of 1864, mighty preparations were made by both Fed- 
eral and Confederate authorities for what was felt would be the decisive 
campaign of the war, Hvery effort was made to recruit the armies of 
the Confederacy to the greatest possible extent. Troops were withdrawn 
* in every direction from the sea coast and sent to the armies of Lee and 
Johnston. The scattered companies of the First Regiment were brought 
together, and on a lovely spring morning the command left Savannah to 
join the army under General Joseph E. Johnston in North Georgia, 

Military Organizations. 411 

nearly 1,000 officers and men being in line. The regiment joined the 
army at Lost Mountain, in the vicinity of Marietta, on the day after the 
battle of New Hope Church. It was assigned to General Mercer's brig- 
ade in Walker's division, Hardee's corps, the other regiments in the 
brigade being the Fifty-fourth Georgia, Colonel C. H. Way, the Fifty- 
seventh Georgia, Colonel William Barkaloo, and the Sixty-third Georgia, 
Colonel George Gordon. The morale of the army at that time was of the 
highest type. There was on the part of every man unbounded confi- 
dence in the sagacity and generalship of our distinguished leader, and 
doubt as to the ultimate issue of the campaign, found no lodgement in 
any heart. There was in the movements of the men an elasticity and 
alertness indicative of high spirit and a bouyant belief in the success of 
our arms. 

" From that time onward the First Regiment bore honorable part in 
the history of the army. The grapple between Generals Johnston and 
Sherman was without resting spells. Every day the two armies felt each 
other in sharp fights on the picket lines, in fierce artillery duels and 
sometimes in desperate charge against fortified positions. 

" The regiment's first severe loss was in a hot skirmish just before 
the army retired to the line of Kenesaw Mountain. On that day the 
killed, wounded and missing amounted to about seventy, among whom 
was that gallant gentleman, Lieutenant Cyrus Carter of Company G, 
who received a mortal wound while encouraging his men. Much of the 
loss on that occasion was due to the inexperience of our men in bush 

fighting Every one familiar with the history of that summer, 

1864, remembers how by continued reaching out of his flanks (an opera- 
tion which his superior numbers gave him power to repeat again and 
again) Sherman gradually pushed Johnston back to the lines around At- 
lanta. At Smyrna Church, midway between Marietta and the Chattahoo- 
chee River, the First Regiment suffered severely in holding an isolated 
position on a little barren hill top some distance out in front of the main 
line, without supports on either right or left. Why it was sent there we 
never knew, for when the enemy did get possession of this hill and planted 
their artillery upon it, the position was so commanded from our lines that 
the guns were abandoned by the gunners so long as daylight lasted. 

412 History of Savannah. 

" The regiment took part in the battle of Peachtree Creek, but was 
very lightly engaged on that day. On July 22, however, in Hardee's flank 
attack upon Sherman (when the Federals lost McPherson, and the State 
of Georgia had to mourn the loss of the chivalrous Walker) Mercer's 
brigade was hotly engaged, and lost many noble officers and men. Cap- 
tain Screven Turner, of Company F, was among the killed, and Captain 
Umbach, of Company I, received a wound that disabled him for the re- 
mainder of the war. 

" Upon the death of General Walker his division was scattered. 
Mercer's brigade was assigned to the division of General Pat Cleburne. 
At the same time, General Mercer having been assigned to duty else- 
where, the command of the brigade devolved for a time upon the Senior 
Colonel. All during the closing days of July and in the month of Au- 
gust the lines of Atlanta were firmly held, but little by little the Confed- 
erate left was extended to meet a corresponding extension of the Federal 
right down the line of the Macon and Western Railroad. 

"The movement terminated in the two days' fight at Jonesboro, where 
the fate of Atlanta was sealed. On the first day the corps of Hardee 
and Lee fought side by side, but on that night Lee's corps was withdrawn 
by General Hood towards Atlanta, leaving Hardee alone to breast the 
storm on the second day. He was fearfully overmatched, and nightfall 
found the corps almost encircled by the enemy, and our lines, to the ex- 
tent of one brigade front, in their possession. With great skill General 
Hardee extricated himself from this hazardous position, leaving behind 
the desperately wounded who could not be moved. In the immediate 
front of the First Regiment the enemy were so near that we could hear 
them conversing as we moved off silently in the darkness. It was a sad 
march, the men were exhausted from die two days' struggle, but physi- 
cal fatigue was nothing compared to the mental depression that came 
upon us as the lurid glare in the northern sky, and the dull, distant rum- 
ble of explosions of powder, as Hood burned the supplies he could not 
take away, told the story of Atlanta's fall and the defeat of the Confed- 
erate campaign. 

" After a short season of rest and recuperation the army was again in 
motion. Our brigade being placed in command' of General J. Argyle 
Smith, a brave officer but an exceedingly unfortunate one, in a matter of 

Military Organizations. 413 

wounds. It was said that he rarely was thoroughly recovered from one 
before he received another. 

" Northward our line of march took its way, constantly threatening 
Sherman's line of communications. The post of Rome was captured ; 
then a further march, still to the north, then a square turn to the west, 
and we swept across the northern part of Alabama until the town of Tus- 
cumbia was reached. Then it became known that a winter campaign in- 
to Tennessee was ahead of us. 

" The army crossed the Tennessee River upon a long pontoon bridge 
at Florence, Ala., on a bright, frosty Sunday morning, and a brilliant, 
inspiring scene it was. 

" Resting for a short time at Florence the order for the advance was 
again given, but here Smith's brigade was detached and sent to a point 
about thirteen miles distant, known as Cheatham's Ferry, to help a supply 
train over the river and convey it to the army. 

" The operations around Murfreesboro were marked with much suffer- 
ing among the troops. The weather was intensely cold, the ground rigid 
with frost and covered with sleet and snow. While the men were poorly 
clad, without overcoats, and many of them barefooted. 

" Smith's and one other small brigade, constituted the whole of Gen- 
eral Forrest's infantry force, the rest being cavalry, with one section of 
light rifled guns. 

" When Hood was defeated at Nashville this little force was in a preca- 
rious position, as General Thomas' army was between it and the Confed- 
erate army. 

" We were saved, however, by the skill of General Forrest, who knew 
every inch of the country, and who conducted his command by a forced 
march in a detour around Thomas's left, reaching Hood at Columbia, 
where he had made a stand. 

" No member of the First Regiment, who was on that march will ever 
forget its hardships. Rloody tracks of bare feet upon the snowy ground, 
shivering bodies, exhausting fatigue; these are some of the memories 
evoked, but with them comes also the recollection of manly endurance 
and a patient courage that no suffering could subdue, no danger appall. 

414 History of Savannah. 

"At Columbia General Hood organized a rear-guard under General 
Forrest composed of his cavalry and eight small brigades of infantry, un- 
der the immediate command of General Walthall, of Mississippi. Smith's 
brigade had the honor to be chosen for this hazardous service. It was 
intended that the infantry portion of this rear- guard should be at least 
three thousand men, but after the sick, the wounded and the barefooted 
had been sent to the rear the effectives of the entire eight brigades num- 
bered but 1, 60 1 men — skeleton brigades, indeed. Few in numbers, yet 
with brave hearts and, as the event proved " enough" for the duty re- 
quired of them. 

" Surely every man who was there has a right to be proud of the rec- 
ord. The rear- guard was formed on the morning of December 20, 1864, 
and it at once held the line of Duck River, while the main army pressed 
southward toward Bainbridge, near which point the pontoons were laid 
for the passage of the Tennessee. 

" At an early hour on December 22 the enemy crossed Duck River at 
some distance above Columbia. General Forrest then slowly retired, 
making a bold front from time to time. 

"There was considerable skirmishing and fighting during December 
22, 23 and 24. At midnight on Christmas eve the exhausted troops en- 
camped upon a bleak hill-top in front of Pulaski, Term. At early dawn 
on the day of " peace and good will to men," we were in motion again, 
and on our way through the town. 

" Seven miles south of Pulaski, at Anthony's Hill, the pursuit of the 
enemy being vigorously pressed, General Forrest decided to make a 
stand. Four of the small brigades, including Smith's, were placed in line 
on the crest of the hill, or just beyond it, so as to form a partial ambus- 
cade, cavalry being upon each flank. The enemy pushed boldly up the 
hill, but were received by a destructive fire followed by a charge of our 
entire line. They retired in confusion, leaving a number of prisoners in 
our hands, a good many horses and one piece of artillery. 

"The attack was not repeated that day. The Confederates again re- 
sumed the line of march, a cold winter's rain having set in which added 
immeasurably to the discomfort of the men. 

" On the night of December 27 we arrived in the vicinity of the River 
(Tennessee) and early on the morning of December 28, the rear-guard 
crossed the bridge and joined the army on the south side. 

Military Organizations. 415 

" After a necessary period of rest at Corinth and other points in Miss- 
issippi, the army was called to the East. Passing rapidly through Ala- 
bama, Georgia and South Carolina, Smith's brigade once more found it- 
self under its old leader, General Joseph E. Johnston, in North Carolina. 
It was closely engaged at the battle of Bentonville, where many of the 
men were killed, and where the fourth color-bearer of the First Regi- 
ment received his death wound. 

" At Smithville, N. C, a general consolidation of the army was made. 
New regiments were formed from the fragments of old ones. Under this 
arrangement what was left of the First, Fifty-seventh and Sixty-third 
regiments was brought together under the colors of the First Regiment, 
and once more our ranks were full. Of the rejuvenated regiment C. H. 
Ohnstead was colonel, C. S. Guyton, of the Fifty-seventh, lieutenant- 
colonel, and J. V. H. Allen, of the Sixty-third, major. 

" The men were veterans who had literally borne the 'heat and bur- 
den of the day.' Tough, elastic and hopeful, even in that dark hour, be- 
cause of the brave hearts within them, they formed a magnificent com- 
mand, of which any soldier would have been proud. But the war was 
practically over, and the regiment did not fire another gun. The army 
was surrendered by General Johnston at Greensboro'. N. C, and in a few 
days the troops were upon the homeward march. 

" An attempt was made to keep the various commands together as 
much as possible until their respective States were reached. This failed 
in most instances, but the First Georgia carried its colors and its organi- 
zation to the city of Augusta, where its service ended and officers and 
men separated." 

It was not until the reconstruction era was passed that the First Reg- 
iment was permanently reorganized. It is now in a most flourishing 
condition and an honor to the city and State. The members of the 
field and start" are as follows: George A. Mercer, colonel ; Peter Reilly 
lieutenant-colonel; J. Schwarz, major; R. G. Gaillard, adjutant; M. A. 
O'Byrne, quartermaster; John T. Ronan, commissary; S. B. Adams, 
judge advocate ; E. Karovv, paymaster ; W. W. Owens, surgeon. 

Savannah Cadets. — H. M. Branch, captain ; J. F. Brooks, first lieu- 
tenant ; R. S. Mell, second lieutenant ; E. H. Nichols, surgeon ; R. P. 
Lovell, first sergeant. 

416 History of Savannah. 

Oglethorpe Light Infantry. — R. Falligant, captain ; W. S. Rockwell, 
first lieutenant; C. F. Law, sergeant ; J. T. Ronan, quartermaster. 

Irish Jasper Greens. — J. Flannery, captain ; J. McGrath, first lieu- 
tenant ; P. F. Gleason, second lieutenant ; J. T. McMahon, first sergeant; 
J. M. Reynolds, quartermarter. 

German Volunteers. — John Derst, captain ; H. C. Harms, first lieu- 
tenant ; H. Kolshorn, second lieutenant ; M. G. Helmken, orderly ser- 

Republican Blues. — W. D. Dixon, captain ; F. P. Haupt, first lieu- 
tenant ; J. J. Gaudry, second lieutenant; G. Gregor, first sergeant. 

The Georgia Hussars is the oldest cavalry company in Savannah. 
They were organized in 1785. In September, 1861, under Captain J. F. 
Waring, they entered the service of the Confederate States government and 
served throughout the war with the army of Northern Virginia. Cap- 
tain Waring was promoted to colonel of the Jefferson Davis Legion. The 
other officers of the company at the time of enlistment were lieutenants, 
ranking in the order named, David Waldhauer, W. W. Gordon, A. McC. 
Duncan. Waldhauer was promoted to captain, Gordon to captain on 
General Mercer's staff and Duncan to the rank of first lieutenant. At 
the time these latter promotions were made J. L. McTurner was chosen 
second lieutenant, and Robert Saussy third lieutenant. 

A second company (known as Company B) was organized in Novem- 
ber, 1861, under Captain W. H. Wiltberger, (promoted to major of the 
Fifth Georgia Cavalry); Lieutenants R. J. Davant, (promoted to lieuten- 
ant-colonel of the same regiment); M. E. Williams and F. Wiiliams. In 
1862 the company was reorganized under Captain Wiltberger, Lieuten- 
ants James A. Zittrouer, E. P. Hill, and Phillip Yonge. Lieutenant Hill 
resigned and Fred. H. Blois was elected lieutenant. At the promotion 
of Captain Wiltberger Lieutenant Zittrouer became captain. The com- 
pany was with the Fifth Georgia Cavalry and served with distinguished 
credit around Savannah, on the South Carolina coast, in Florida, and with 
the Western Army. 

Since the war the Hussars has bef n thoroughly reorganized and are 
now in excellent condition, both as to numbers and efficiency of drill. 
The total strength is one hundred men armed with sabers and pistols. 
The uniform consists of blue jackets trimmed with silver stripe and regu- 

The Bench and Bar. 417 

lation helmet. The present officers are W. W. Gordon, captain ; G. B. 
Pritchard, first lieutenant ; G. C. Gaillard, and P. W. Meldrim, second 
lieutenants, and F. A. Habersham, first sergeant. 

The colored citizens of Savannah are represented by the First Bat- 
talion Georgia Volunteer Regiment, which was organized in 1878. Its 
officers are John H. Deveaux, lieutenant- colonel ; A. K. Desverney, ad- 
jutant; A. Bowen, quartermaster; T.J. Davis, surgeon; T. Sanders, 
paymaster. This regiment is composed of the Chatham Light Infantry 
Company, the Savannah Light Infantry, Lone Star Cadets, Colquitt Blues- 
Forest City Light Infantry, and the Union Lincoln Guards. 

There is also one colored cavalry company known as the Savannah 
Hussars, and an artillery company known as the Georgia Artillery. 


THOSE bright and able intellects which, for a round century, have 
ornamented Savannah's, bench and bar, make lustrous every page 
of even their unabridged history. 

Meagre and vague indeed, are the annals of juridical practice in 
Georgia prior to the period which began with the close of the Revolu- 
tionary war. The oldest records of Chatham county's courts to be found 
in the record vault, date back only to 1782. What evidence is 'extant 
and available, tends to show that for the first half century of Savannah's 
life, litigation was not a weakness of the people. They were just getting 
a foothold in this part of the New World, and were too intent on plant- 
ing securely their homes and laying the basis of fortunes to settle differ- 
ences in the courts. But, during the last two decades of the eighteenth 
century the dockets were burdened with causes. This heavy practice de- 
veloped and trained the legal minds of the practitioners and gave to them 
a marked depth and scholarly finish. To this day, the traces thereof are 
broad and clear. How much for instance, of the credit is due to Savan- 

4i 8 History of Savannah. 

nah's bar for the Judicial Act of 1799 is a subject which, in the absence 
of special research in that direction one hesitates to speak positively 
upon, but that it is no little can be safely held. That Act will stand for 
all time as a monument of the wisdom and to the wisdom of its framers 
— a judiciary system which the great Lord Brougham ranked above all 
others in the world. It was just about this time that the bar of Savan- 
nah began to shine with those members who carried it to the fore by 
their eloquence, profound knowledge of the law and high code of ethics. 

Berrien and Wayne and Law and the Charltons are but a few of the 
names caught as the memory runs down the list. These were truly 
great lawyers. Since their day other sections of the State have boasted, 
and with reason, of eloquent and brilliant lawyers and judges, but the 
standard of ethics observed by Savannah's bar is the highest of all, and 
in every respect as applicable to the bar of to-day as they were to that 
of eighty years ago, are those words of the elder Charlton : " The fidelity, 
integrity and I may add the talents of our bar will bear a parallel with 
that of any other country." 

The date of the establishment of Savannah's first court is fixed to a 
nicety. This took place July 7, 1733, "after dinner." All the forenoon 
General Oglethorpe had been busy naming wards, dividing them into 
tithings, and assigning lots to a shipload of new settlers who had just 
arrived. At this time Savannah was five months old. With the influx 
of so many new settlers, it occurred to the founder that there might soon 
be need for a court and in the afternoon of the day above named, a town 
court of record was established. Three bailiffs and a recorder were in- 
ducted into office, twelve freeholders, good men and true, were sworn as 
jurors and the first court ever opened in Georgia was held. 

As marks of office, the bailiffs were required to wear magisterial gowns 
of purple edged with fur, and the recorder donned a black robe tufted. 
The members of Georgia's first grand jury were: Messrs- Samuel Parker, 
Thomas Young, Joseph Cole, John Wright, John West, Timothy Bow- 
ling, John Milledge, Henry Close, Walter Fox, John Grady, James Car- 
well and Richard Cannon. On an old map giving a view of Savannah 
in the latter part of March 1734, is represented a building which was used 
for a tabernacle and court house. This was a rude little building, 12 by 
30 feet, which stood on a spot now covered by the rear of the custom- 
house at Bull street and Bay lane. 

The Bench and Bar. 419 

Justice as administered in courts did not get an auspicious start in 
Georgia. Before departing for England in the spring of 1734, Oglethorpe 
entrusted the care of the infant colony to the three cailiffs. He was 
barely out of sight of land when one of the bailiffs, John Causton, under- 
took to play the usurper. He assumed all authority and made his two 
associates yield to him and agree with him. So intolerant did he be- 
come that the colonists went to work to have him removed. One charge 
which they preferred against him was, that he had threatened jurors who 
did not find verdicts which pleased him. Again, he had compelled eight 
freeholders, with an officer, to attend at the door of the court-house while 
the court was in session, with their guns and bayonets, and they had 
orders to rest their fire-locks as soon as he appeared. Jurors were act- 
ually afraid to act according to their consciences the arraignment stated, 
and it further set forth "that the British nation was deceived (by Caus- 
ton) with the fame of a happy, flourishing colony, and of its being free 
from that pest and scourge of mankind called lawyers, for the want of 
whose legal assistance the poor, miserable inhabitants are exposed to a 
more arbitrary government than ever was exercised in Turkey and Mus- 
covy." Upon receiving this complaint, the trustees removed Causton 
and Mr. Gordon was sent over commissioned to assume the power and 
duties of chief magistrate. The deposed justice like many modern office 
holders, objected to being put out. So he took a novel way to force his 
successor to resign. Causton was keeper of the public store and it was 
his duty to sell provisions to all applicants. When Mr. Gordon tried to 
buy, he was refused. He could not stand that and in six weeks gave up 
his position, left the bench and sailed for England. Causton lost no time 
in putting on the purple and returning to his old seat. 

The first notable trial in the colony was held shortly afterwards, 
Causton sat as chief judge. In truth he did more than preside, for he 
was a witness and advocate too, against the defendant, Captain Joseph 
Watson. The latter had taken an active hand in having his honor re- 
moved. Causton wanted revenge and he trumped up charges against 
the militia officer, accusing him of having aroused a bad feeling in the 
minds of the Indians. The jury's verdict was to the effect that Watson 
was not guilty oi any crime save that of having made some thoughtless 
and unguarded remarks. This verdict was not what the judge wanted 

420 History of Savannah. 

and he charged the jury to go out and agree on another. The jurors re- 
fused to change their opinion and they returned with the same verdict. 
Causton charged the jurors again, telling them distinctly that they should 
find that Watson was guilty and a lunatic, and recommend him to the 
mercy of the court. This time the accused was found " guilty of lunacy." 
Captain Watson was thereupon sent to prison by his enemy, and was 
there kept for nearly three years without having sentence pronounced 
upon him. 

Francis Moore, who visited the colony in 1736, wrote an interesting 
account of what he saw, and mentioned that " the town is governed by 
three bailiffs, and has a recorder, register, and town court, which is holden 
every six weeks, where all matters civil and criminal are decided by 
grand and petit juries as in England." And this chronicler adds : " But 
there are no lawyers allowed to plead for him ; nor no attorneys to take 
money, but (as in old times in England) every man pleads his own cause. 
In case it should be an orphan, or one that can not speak for themselves, 
there are persons of the best substance in the town appointed by the 
trustees to take care of the orphans and to defend the helpless, and that 
without fee or reward, it being a service that each that is capable must 
perform in his term." Continuing, Mr. Moore wrote: "They have 
some laws and customs that are peculiar to Georgia ; one is that all bran- 
dies and distilled liquors are prohibited under severe penalties ; another is, 
that no slavery is allowed, nor negroes; a third, that all persons who go 
among the Indians must give security for their good behavior. 
No victualler or ale-house keeper can give any credit, so consequently 
cannot recover any deb*." 

In an account of the public buildings in 1738, this appears: "The 
public works in this town are, 1. A court house, being one handsome 
room, with a piache on three sides." This likewise served as a church 
for divine service No place for religious worship had been built, al- 
though the trustees in their public acts acknowledged the receipt of about 
seven hundred pounds sterling from charitable persons for that express 
purpose. Opposite the court-house stood the log-house or prison (which 
was the only one remaining of five or six that had been successively 

A memorial presented to the General Assembly in 175 I notes that 

The Bench and Bar. 421 

the court-house needed repairs, and three years later one end of it fell 
down while Governor John Reynolds and the council were sitting in it. 
The history of the bar prior to the federation of States at the close of the 
Revolutionary War is, unhappily, fragmentary and unsatisfactory. When 
the stamp act troubles began, early in 1766, all judicial business was sus- 
pended, and the courts were closed. The new court-house erected about 
this time had " in addition to a court-room, a jury-room with other con- 

The Revolutionary War was followed by a great deal of litigation. 
The Superior Court bench consisted of a chief justice and two associate 
judges. Richard Hawley was the first chief justice under the new judi- 
ciary system, 1782, and his associates were Joseph Clay and William 
O'Bryan. An appeal could be taken from this court to the Continental 
Congress, and the first murder case was appealed by John Houstoun, 
esq., counsel for the convicted defendant, Sampson Wall. So heavy did 
the litigation become that the grand jury at the March term of the Supe- 
rior Court, 1785, called attention to it in this strong language: "We 
present as a Grievance replete with distress the enormous Docquet of the 
Civil actions now before the Court, and it is much to be lamented that 
the Legislature did not adopt some mode to prevent the ruin of our 

In 1784. the judges of the Superior Court observing several causes 
on the docket, brought by and in behalf of British subjects, ordered that 
the attorneys who brought them should discontinue them, or the court 
would dismiss them agreeable to a former determination that no British 
subject should be permitted to sue or implead a citizen of the State, until 
regulations in that regard should be made by an act of the Legislature. 

Between 1780 and the end of the century the leading attorneys were 
Samuel Stirk, James Whitfield, William Stephens, Nathanael Pendleton, 
Abraham Jackson, Messrs. Hawley, Houstoun and Matthew Hall Mc- 
Allister, the father of the famous Ward. 

The judge was dependent upon fees for his compensation just as the 
clerk was. Collections were poor at times, and in November, 1782, 
Judge O'Bryan passed an order to the effect that all fees due the judge 
and clerk should be paid into the hands of the clerk before any action, 
suit or condemnation should be deemed complete. 

422 History of Savannah. 

About this time a jury in a certain case brought in a verdict, but re- 
fused to announce it until paid for their attendance. When the payment 
of the jurors' fees was arranged the foreman announced that their verdict 
was in favor of the plaintiff for ^"326. 

In October, 1789, there was no provision for a motion for a new trial 
in case either party to a suit was dissatisfied. This was only temporary. 

The new court-house and new jail question which appears every 
quarter of a century agitated the city as well as the bar in the closing 
years of the last century. 

A grand jury in 1790 recommended a new jail. Judge Osborne in 
charging a grand jury in 1790, remarked that the City Council ought to 
make an appropriation for repairing the court-house " which at small ex- 
pense could be made a beautiful ornament of the city as well as a build- 
ing of public utility." 

A judge of the Superior Court from 1792 to the organization of the 
Supreme Court of the State in 1845, was an official of much more power 
and importance than now, for there was no appeal from his final judg- 
ment. Counterfeiting and mutilating coins were common offenses, though 
punishable by death, and convicted persons were to be executed with- 
out the benefit of clergy. 

Some odd and interesting things are found in the records of the 
courts about this time. In 1785 the chief justice of the Superior Court 
was George Walton, who " intending to pass the summer in the country 
near Savannah, appointed Thursday of every week to hold chambers at 
the clerk's office in Town at the hour of I I in the forenoon." On the 
Fourth of July of that year his honor observed "that there was a general 
diffusion of an extraordinary gladness on account of the day." In those 
days the power of the chief justice in this State, with respect to bail, was 
considered to be like that of the King's Bench in England. Chief Jus- 
tice Walton ordered peremptorily on one occasion that the gentlemen 
of the bar should not bring any proceedings before him without the fees, 
except in cases already begun. 

Chief Justice Nathanael Pendleton in addressing his first grand jury 
in March, 1789, said that he " assumed the office of chief judicial magis- 
trate of the State with diffidence and apprehension proportioned to the 
great importance and difficulty of the position." One of the most remark- 

The Benxh and Bar. 423 

able incidents connected with the history of Savannah's Bench and Bar, 
was the imprisonment of the whole panel of one grand jury by the court, 
followed almost immediately by the arrest and imprisonment of the 
judge himself. This extraordinary proceeding occurred in 1804. Jabez 
Bowen, jr., a Northern lawyer, probably from Rhode Island, had been 
elected to the bench of the Superior Court of Chatham county by the 
Legislature. On April 23, 1804, he convened his court for the regular 
term. When the jurors were sworn and had taken their seats his honor, 
who was an impolitic justice, delivered a charge which consisted mainly 
of a bitter and malignant attack on slavery. His strictures on the social 
customs of the people, the Legislature and the authorities of the State 
were rabid. His expressions would have caused amazement in any 
court room. Directed as they were at length, and with so much pro- 
nounced feeling, at a Georgia jury, they incensed the grand inquisitorial 
body beyond measure. No reply was made at that time, but when the 
jurors retired to their room they discussed nothing else. They resolved 
that they would show their resentment by ignoring the court. Accord- 
ingly not one of the twenty-two jurors appeared the next morning when 
the court was opened. Judge Bowen then fined each one ten dollars for 
contempt. Scarcely had this order been recorded when the jury marched 
into court, and through the foreman delivered a presentment setting forth 
that they " having taken into consideration the political strictures deliv- 
ered to us yesterday as a charge by his Honor Judge Bowen, do, upon 
our oaths, present that it is injudicial, insulting to our government, and 
repugnant to the general interests of our country, and by disseminating 
principles that may tend to involve the community in the horrors of do- 
mestic insurrection." The members of the body further declared that 
without violence to their consciences and a total disregard of the dearest 
ties of society and its welfare, they would not proceed to business. They 
recommended that the judge's charge should not be published, but that 
a copy of it and of their presentment should be forwarded by the clerk 
of the court to the governor, and be laid before the next session of the 

This bearding of the judge on his bench was signed by Wm. Smith, 
foreman, William Blogg, Richard Turner, Wm. Lewden, John Cline, Isaac 
Minis, Saul Simons, John Y. White, Joseph Machin, Sampson Neyle, 

424 History of Savannah. 

Timothy Barnard, jr., Banack Gibbons, Jas. Mackintosh, S. Shad, James 
Atger. John Gibbons, William Brown, James Belcher, Joseph Rice, John 
Pettibone, David Gugil, Henry Putnam. The court-room was thronged 
with auditors who illy concealed their excitement. It was not imagined 
that Judge Bowen would be soothed by the vigorous arraignment and 
deserved rebuke which he received. Nor was he, but on the contrary his 
indignation was aroused, and he issued an order committing his jurors, 
one and all to jail. He accepted the presentment as a gross insult and 
resented it to the extent of his power. He further ordered that his 
charge should be published in the Georgia Republican, giving as the 
reason that it was the opinion of the judge that the dissemination of the 
principles contained in his address " could alone secure the happiness 
and eventually the very existence of his country." 

The lawyers and the people were in sympathy with the grand jurors 
and did not allow them to remain in jail long. On the following day, 
April 25, an application was made to the judges of the Inferior Court 
for a writ of habeas corpus for the purpose of releasing the imprisoned 
citizens. Messrs. Mitchell, Noel, Miller and Berrien appeared as council 
for the prisoners. 

Judge Bowen's order was held to be vague, informal and illegal by 
Justices Edward Telfair, Edward Harden and John G. Williamson. In 
discharging the jurors the judges complimented them in this language : 
" The patriotism, firmness and dignity with which you have conducted 
yourselves with the patience and fortitude you have displayed will hand 
your names down to posterity with applause." 

In the meantime Justice of the Peace John Pooler had issued a war- 
rant for Judge Bowen charging him with an attempt to excite a domes- 
tic insurrection in the State. Under the warrant the judge was arrested 
and sent to jail. The grand jurors had been confined for twenty-four 
hours. His Honor did not get out for two weeks. On Thursday June 
8, his father, Hon. Jabez Bowen, of Rhode Island, secured the release of 
the judge upon giving an $8,000 bond that Jabez Bowen, jr., should keep 
the peace and in all respects conduct himself as a good and faithful citi- 
zen of the State for five years. Judge Bowen never again presided over 
a Georgia court, but left the State soon after his release. 

On the first day of the succeeding term Judge George Jones, who 

The Bench and Bar. 425 

had been elected by the General Assembly to fill the vacancy caused by 
Judge Bowen's departure, remarked in his charge to the grand jury that 
the practice of delivering written addresses to grand juries had perhaps 
grown into greater use in this than in any other State. He suggested 
that the practice could be traced to have its origin in the war of Inde- 
pendence and even to have contributed to it though in what way he does 
not explain. 

In 1805 the first clash of authority occurred between the Superior 
Court and the city. One Walter Roe had been arrested by City Mar- 
shal Charles Cope for violating the quarantine law. Roe applied to the 
Superior Court for a writ of habeas corpus and secured his release from 
custody. Upon the order of Mayor John Y. Noel, Roe was re-arrested 
by the city marshal and was required to give bond. Thereupon Judge 
Jones of the Superior Court ruled the mayor and the marshall for con- 
tempt of court and after giving them an opportunity to show cause why 
they should not be punished, he fined the mayor $50 and the marshal 
$10 and held that the Superior Court had jurisdiction over the city of 
Savannah, a judgment which the later mayors have questioned. 

It is interesting to note that a grand jury in 1808 presented " the too 
frequent and irreligious custom of duelling as we view it with horror. 
We recommend some penalty that may effectually restrain it." 

Actions for debt comprised a large part of the business of the Supe- 
rior Court in this decade. 

Even so early as this another war with England was foreseen, and 
more than one reference was made to the impending war cloud by Judge 
T. U. P. Charlton. 

In no section of the country was greater energy displayed either in 
support of the laws or of the authority of the magistracy. Justice for 
years moved on with a firm and steady pace uninterrupted by any of 
those commotions which theorists had predicted would be found to be 
inseparably connected with Republican institutions. The course of events 
as they were blended with judicial proceedings proved also, beyond the 
reach of refutation, the exalted moral character of the citizens of this 
judicial district. Judge Charlton observed in this connection in the year 
1810: "For nearly eight years back the public sensibility has not been 
shocked by the pageant of an execution, and for six years of that time 

420 History of Savannah. 

punishment by branding and whipping has been inflicted only upon three 
persons and one of these was not a native of this country." Amidst so 
large a population such a diminution of crime was spoken of as unpar- 

The last century was just rounding off when there came to the Sa- 
vannah bar a youth who was destined to become the brightest star of 
his profession, the noblest ornament of the bench. For more than half a 
century from 1799 to 1856 John McPherson Berrien was an active mem- 
ber of the legal profession, the virtues of which he illustrated, adorning it 
by the exhibition of rare and eminent talents. Dying, he left an exam- 
ple of spotless purity and integrity of life. His memory is still sweet, 
and it is not rare to hear his name mentioned with pride by the older 
members of the present bar. He was born in New Jersey, in 1781. but 
his parents soon came to Georgia. Young Berrien read law in the office 
of the Hon. Joseph Clay, and was admitted to the bar in 1799 before he 
completed his eighteenth year. Ten years later he was elected solicitor- 
general and in 18 10 became judge of the Eastern Circuit. The latter 
office he held four terms. While on the bench, the question of the con- 
stitutionality of the alleviating law came before him, and in a convention 
of all the judges at Augusta, he delivered the opinion declaring the act 
to be unconstitutional. This was a triumph of law over popular excite- 
ment. Distressed in financial matters the people had elected a majority 
to the Legislature to grant relief, even to the suspension of debts, or at 
least of the process of enforcing them. 

During the war with Great Britain Judge Berrien commanded a reg- 
iment of volunteer cavalry, but he had no opportunity of engaging in a 
conflict. The only time when a judicial act of his caused dissatisfaction 
was when he passed sentence on Hopkins, found guilty of ihe murder of 
one Mcintosh. After the crime Hopkins was aided in making his escape 
by his overseer, who had no further connection with the offence. Both 
were convicted of manslaughter. Judge Berrien sentenced Hopkins to 
the penitentiary without labor and the overseer was surbjected to hard la- 
bor for a term of years. This aroused the indignation of the public who 
considered the judgment discrimination — the wealthy criminal under- 
going simple confinement and his poor innocent friend toiling at the work- 
bench. Judge Berrien demanded an investigation, and the Legislature 

The Bench and Bar. 4 i 7 

of 1818 unanimously vindicated him. The judge had been actuated by 
motives of humanity. Hopkins was in feeble health, and labor would 
have been taking his life by judicial execution when a less punishment 
was all that the law authorized. In 1822 and 1823 Judge Berrien served 
Chatham county in the State Senate, and in 1824 he was elected to the 
United States Senate. In that body he took a commanding position. 
Only on important questions did he take part in the debates and then 
maturely prepared, as he never failed to be, his arguments were sustained 
by a logic and an eloquence which gave universal delight. Chief Justice 
Marshall called him the " honey tongued Georgia youth." He also won 
the title " American Cicero." 

It is said that he was the only man to whom Daniel Webster softened 
his voice when he turned from his seat to address him. President Jack- 
son invited Judge Berrien to a seat in his first cabinet, and Judge Ber- 
rien became the attorney-general of the United States. Judge Berrien's 
daughters with the other cabinet ladies cut Mrs. Eaton, wife of the secre- 
tary of war, and from that arose the unpleasantness in the Cabinet which 
resulted in the withdrawal of Judge Berrien, Secretary of the Treasury 
Ingham, and Secretary of the Navy Branch. In accepting the attorney- 
general's resignation, the president wrote: " I take pleasure in express- 
ing my approbation of the zeal and efficiency with which its (the office's) 
duties have been performed, and in assuring you that you carry with 
you my best wishes for your prosperity and happiness." 

To Judge Berrien the bar is indebted for that compilation of the statute 
laws of England then in force in Georgia known as Schley's digest, for it 
was prepared under a resolution introduced by him when he was chair- 
man of the Georgia Senate Judiciary Committee. 

The old criminal code was violative of the principle that life and the 
right to enjoy it with dignity were sacred things. That code attached 
very little value to human life or dignity, and in many instances men 
could be deprived of their lives when imprisonment and labor might have 
fulfilled all the purposes of punishment. In almost every case there was 
a disproportion between the crime and the punishment. Judge Thomas 
U. P. Charlton, who preceded and succeeded Judge Berrien, took a stand 
against the penal laws and put himself on record so in his first charge to 
a grand jury. 

428 History of Savannah. 

The principal law firms in Savannah for some years, prior to and sub- 
sequent to 1840, were those of Berrien & Law, MacAlIister & Cohen, 
Charlton & Ward, and Miller & Kollock. Francis S. Bartow's name was 
added to the firm Berrien & Law about that time. This firm reaches 
far back and touches the present. In the earlier years of the century the 
firm of Davies & Berrien was formed. Then it became Berrien & Law, 
then Law & Bartow, then Law, Bartow & Lovell, then Law, Lovell & 
Falligant, the next Law & Falligant, and now as sole survivor of a firm 
which began three-quarters of a century ago is Captain Robert Falligant, 
the wit and poet of the bar of to-day, the fourth member of the firm to 
fill the Superior Court bench. 

Haifa century ago there was no greater character, in a certain sense, 
at the Savannah bar than John Millen. He bore plainly the stamp of 
originality. He had ability without eloquence. Brevity, directness and 
force marked his manner. In 1837, or thereabouts, he pledged his per- 
sonal character and obtained the respite of a convicted client, a slave 
named Adam, found guilty of having, with the assistance of another slave, 
Bella, murdered the latter's master, Warren. Bella was hung. On the 
gallows she made a confession and exonerated Adam, who was afterwards 

Levi S. DeLyon was directly descended from the colony of Israelites 
who located in Savannah soon after it was laid out. His personal mag- 
netism, his fidelity to his clients, his fluency of speech, and his ability 
soon drew to him a lucrative practice. By .his professional labors he 
made a comfortable fortune He eschewed politics, except in the line of 
his profession, and was for several years judge of the city court of Sa- 

One of the most promising of the young attorneys admitted to the 
bar in the decade between 1830 and 1840, was Nicholas Marlow. He 
was a pupil in Dr. White's school in Savannah for a year or two. His 
early opportunities had been limited, but he had a good mind and he 
was a diligent student. During his brief career at the bar he won an 
enviable reputation by his conduct of a case involving certain rights of 
slaves. John Dugger, jr., had by will directed that certain slaves of his 
should be sent out of the State to some place where they could be free. 
The Court of Ordinary refused to probate the will on the ground that its 

The Bench and Bar. 429 

provisions were contrary to the laws of the State touching the manumis- 
sion of slaves. Mr. "Henry Rose, of Savannah, became interested in the 
case and employed young Marlow to secure the slaves their rights. It 
had been the general opinion of the bar that such a will was void, but 
Judge R. M. Charlton, then the youngest judge in the State, at the instance 
of perhaps the youngest attorney at the bar, decided against that gen- 
eral opinion, and in favor of the liberty of the slaves. Subsequently 
the Georgia judges in convention rendered the same judgment in a similar 
case, and the Supreme Court of the State afterwards affirmed the ruling 
in many cases. Through the case the young judge and young Marlow 
both made a name. Marlovv's success was assured, but death cut short 
his career about three years later, at which time he was the partner of 
Hon. Joseph W. Jackson. 

Thelawyersof fifty years ago were Jeremiah Cuyler, Counselor Leake, 
William B. Bulloch, Mordecai Sheftall, sr.. John M. Berrien. George W. 
Owens, Richard W. Habersham, James M. Wayne, Joseph S. Pelot, Levi 
S. De Lyon, Joseph W. Jackson, Wm. Law. M. H. MacAUister, Chas. 
S. Henry, Mordecai Myers. Geo. Glenn, John C. Nicoll, John M. Clark, 
Robert W. Pooler, William W. Gordon. Richard R. Cuyler, Robert M. 
Charlton, John Miller, Wm. H. Bulloch, Alexander J. Drysdale, Wm. H. 
Miller, J. De La Motta, jr., William H. Stiles, George J. Kallock, Ed. J. 
Harden, John E. Ward. William B. Bulloch was a bank officer, Mor- 
decai Myers was an officer of the city government, J. De La Motta was 
an editor of the Savannah Republican, William H. Bulloch of the Georgian, 
and Robert W. Pooler was clerk of the Superior Court ; Messrs. Owens, 
Habersham, Jackson and Stiles represented Georgia in Congress; John 
E. Ward was speaker of the Georgia House of Representatives and was 
minister to China. Three old lawyers at that time who were not natives 
of Georgia wereWm. B. Fleming, Solomon Cohen, and Mulford Marsh. 
Both the Charltons, father and son, were men of extensive legal knowl- 
edge, possessed of remarkable powers of memory, and were ripe scholars. 
Their names are linked with the history of the Savannah bar throughout 
the first half of the century. The elder Charlton, T. U. P., was twice 
judge of the Superior Court, and for one term was solicitor-general. His 
son, Robert, was judge of the same court from 1835 to l %37- judge 
Wayne was for years judge of the United States District Court. Judge 

430 History of Savannah. 

Edward J. Harden, of the city court, was a practicing lawyer for almost 
forty years. He came to the bar in 1834 and died in 1873. His name 
always suggests the ready recognition of a generous and kindly sym- 
pathy, of which he seemed by common consent, to be the center and ex- 
ponent. As a judge he was upright and just; as a counselor he was wise, 
prudent and safe ; as an advocate he was earnest, zealous, faithful and 
stern in integrity. He was distinguished in his profession by his labori- 
ous industry, by his great legal acquirements, and by his devotion to his 
duties and to the interests of his clients. During the existence of the 
Confederacy he was on the bench of the Confederate States Court here in 

Though rarely seen in the court-house now, there are members of the 
bar yet who connect the first half of the century with the present' Gen- 
eral Henry R. Jackson, General Alexander R. Lawton, and Captain John 
M. Guerard were attorneys before the fifties. Another who lives, though 
retired from practice, is Judge Richard Clarke, and still another is John 
E. Ward, who was solicitor-general in 1836, mayor of Savannah many 
years ago, ex-minister to China, and now is practicing his profession in 
New York. But all honor to Savannah's post belliim bar. Four years 
of army life made a great scar in the professional careers of every one. 
Those who had made a start before the war broke out were rusty, and 
had to begin again when they returned. The rivalry between intellects 
which followed was keen. The briefless young attorney and the expe- 
rienced heads started off with enthusiasm. New men kept coming in. 
Cases were many, and the battles of the bar were fought with admirable 
skill. General Henry R. Jackson took a leading position, delighting by 
his poetic thought, classic diction and eloquence. He had been a Supe- 
rior Court judge eleven years before the war opened, and had been 
United States attorney, representing the government in the most notable 
case ever tried in the Federal courts here, that of the captain of the bark 
Wanderer, and others who were interested in bringing to Georgia from 
the African coast a cargo of slaves. After the war General Jackson was 
engaged in many of the most famous civil cases in this judicial district, 
and some of the cases he fought through the Supreme Court of the 
United States. General A. R. Lawton was for several years a partner 
of General Jackson's, and was associated with him in some large cases. 

The Bench and Bar. 431 

Then for several years General Lawton was general counsel for the Cen- 
tral Railroad and Banking Company, a position upon which devolves a 
voluminous business. 

During the last years of its existence the law firm of Hartridge & 
Chisholm stood at the head of the bar of the State. Judge Walter S. 
Chisholm and Hon. Julian Hartridge were strong lawyers. Judge Chis- 
holm had the training acquired from eleven years on the bench, and Mr. 
Hartridge had served as solicitor general and had considerable experi- 
ence obtained as a member of various public bodies. Mr. Hartridge died 
a member of Congress. Ex-judge Chisholm is the general counsel of the 
Plant Railroad and Steamship System and of the Southern Express Com- 
pany. His greatest case in the Georgia courts was the Atlantic and Gulf 
Railroad suit which he won, and for which he received the largest fee 
ever paid a Savannah lawyer, $So,ooo. For five years he has resided in 
New York although he has an office here, his associate in it being Robert 
G. Erwin, esq. 

Captain Guerard retired from practice a few months ago. He has 
read widely and his familiarity with the old English law has many a time 
surprised court and opposing counsel. 

Thomas M. Norwood, esq, ex-Congressman and ex- United States 
Senator, is one of the leading lawyers of Georgia. His strength has been 
his logical mind and dreaded sarcasm, equipped on one hand for the 
court and on the other for effect before a jury. For years he drew a 
handsome salary as the counsel for a large corporation with western in- 

Not to be forgotten is the late S. Yates Levy who was a litterateur as 
well as counselor, and whose talent won admiration in which field so ever 
he worked. 

Georgia probably has no abler legal firm than Denmark, Adams & 
Adams. B. A. Denmark and S. B. Adams had an enviable reputation 
before ex-Judge A. P. Adams resigned from the Superior Court bench 
to enter the firm. Judge Adams was conceded to be the finest jurist on 
the Superior Court bench in the State, and his decisions were keen and 
logical analyses of the law. For his ability the Supreme Court enter- 
tained the highest esteem and so expressed itself. The bar sincerely re- 
gretted his retirement, for the members admired him. He has rare logi- 

432 History of Savannah. 

cal powers, is a hard student and has great powers as a pleader. Judge 
Adams' associates at the bar regard him as the coming lawyer of the 
State, for he is yet a young man. 

- S. B. Adams, esq., his brother, is the attorney for the city of Savan- 
nah and is an able lawyer. 

B. A. Denmark has an exceptionally practical business mind, and he 
is the attorney of several large corporations. 

Judge William D. Harden of the City Court is still reckoned among 
the younger members of the bar. His attainments are varied, the ex- 
pression " well rounded " being very applicable to him. Aside from the 
law, his fund of general information is so wide that he might be taken 
for a specialist in any one of half a dozen pursuits. 

Fleming G. du Bignon, president of the last State Senate, rose rapidly. 
While most men are laying the foundation he reared the walls. Scarcely 
more than six years ago, if that long, he came back to Savannah after a 
residence of some years in Milledgeville. Elected Solicitor-General of 
this judicial district, he proceeded to administer his office with a fearless- 
ness and ability which quickly gained him the good will of all save the 
criminal classes, and they respected him. He is a magnetic, eloquent 
speaker, particularly strong in graphic dramatic descriptive style of ora- 
tory such as is often wonderfully effective in criminal trials. Mr. du Big- 
non rarely lost a case when he was the State's counsel, and he has no 
superior to-day in Georgia as a criminal lawyer. His greatest cases have 
been: The Pfluger, Dawson, and Smith-Cassidy murder trials in the 
Superior Court, and the moonshine case in the United States Court. 

Charles N. West is a brainy lawyer and a tireless worker. He never 
gives up so long as there is the smallest chance. Not infrequently has 
he carried his point when opposed by a long line of counsel, sometimes 
by half the members of the bar in important assignment and recievership 
cases. Mr. West has a large, valuable and steadily growing practice. 

J. R. Saussy, esq., is a strong civil lawyer, to which practice he chiefly 
confines himself. If he cannot win a jury or at least a large part of it, no 
one can for his side of the case. Mr. Saussy has figured in some of the 
largest cases here, notably the Telfair will case and the Rose will case. 
As an authority on testamentary law he is at the head of the bar. His 
law library is one of the largest in the State. 



;? -" 'JKsmem art •' ' 

The Bench and Bar. 433 

Messrs. Garrard & Meldrim, while not by any means old lawyers, are 
about the oldest firm in the city. They are successful too. Colonel 
William Garrard fortifies himself with authorities. Mr. Peter W. Mel- 
drim wins a jury through the evidence and his address and the court he 
addresses with strong reasoning-. 

Inheriting the ability of father and grandfather Walter G. Charlton 
easily attained and maintains a leading position at the Savannah bar. 
He was solicitor-general for a term, and before that had practically filled 
the position for a term or two. A fearless prosecutor of violators of the 
law was he, too, and a lasting benefit did he confer on the city in making 
the first move to break up the gambling hells and gangs of footpads. 
Mr. Charlton is an effective speaker, ready at repartee, cool and when 
he chooses to resort to it bitterly sarcastic. 

His law partner W. W. Mackall, esq., has a name as a sound coun- 
selor and is often selected by the courts to act as master in cases. 

Wallace W. Fraser is the present solicitor- general. He is a native 
of Liberty county and is popular all over the circuit. Mr. Fraser excels 
as a civil lawyer and he always knows his cases when he appears in court. 
Alex. R. MacDonell is among the young lawyers- His city code 
however, entitles him to rank with the older members of the profession. 
The work was carefully, thoroughly done and is a highly creditable law 
book, the best codification of ordinances Savannah has ever had. 

The possessor of the most remarkable memory at the Savannah bar, 
yes at the bar of Georgia, is Joseph Cronk, esq., who cites opinions, titles 
of authorities, the numbers of the page or section of the codes with un- 
failing accuracy and without reference to memorandums. 

Not another Savannah lawyer has prospered as j. L. Whatley, esq., 
has. He had a lucrative practice and he was farseeing, he invested and 
cleared handsomely and is now one of the wealthiest members of his pro- 
fession. By the way, his partner, General Henry R. Jackson, is the 
wealthiest member of the bar. Mr. Whatley has not the disadvantage 
which handicaps so many lawyers, his mind is eminently practical, not 

If the name of one Savannah lawyer is destined to outlive all others 
in history William Clifton is that name. He is an original character 
with a memory for faces and names which is simply phenomenal. That 

434 History of Savannah. 

is the chief secret of Mr. Clifton's popularity. He knows by name more 
men, women and children than any one else in Georgia certainly. And 
while the city lawyers may defeat him in the courts in Savannah he in- 
variably gets the better of them on the circuit. Mr. Clifton was a mem- 
ber of the last Legislature. 

R. R. Richards probably has to turn more clients away because he is 
too busy than any of his legal brothers. Mr. Richards makes no pre- 
tensions to oratory but he wins cases from those who do. His acquaint- 
ance with corporation law and the statutes providing for damages for 
personal injury is wide and thorough. 

Captain Henry Cunningham, associate counsel for the Central Rail- 
road, is another lawyer who sifts a case until he gets at the issues and 
then he regards them in a practical business way. He has a lucrative 

Colonel Rufus E. Lester, for six years mayor of the city and now 
congressman from this district, might reasonably be supposed from his 
official career to be a leading lawyer. And he is. Colonel Lester is a 
good thinker. He gets at the merits of a case, if it has any, and he is 
strong before a jury. He has been a successful and prosperous attorney. 

No lawyer stands higher at the bar than Colonel George A. Mercer 
who has a remarkably fine legal mind. Colonel Mercer has a deep 
knowledge of law and a carelul judgment which give his counsel author- 
ative value. He is an unusually fluent and rapid speaker. His style in 
speaking is chaste and marked by its smoothness and grace. He is iden- 
tified with many of the most important civil and criminal cases at every 
term of the courts. 

The Superior Court judges and the Solicitor- Generals of the Eastern 
Circuit, since the Superior Court, as it now is, was instituted in 1792, have 
been: John Houstoun, 1792; William Stephens, 1796; John Glen, 1798; 
David Brydie Mitchell, 1798; Jabez Bowen, 1804; George Jones, 1804; 
Thomas U. P. Charlton, 1808; John M. Berrien, 1S13; Thomas U. P. 
Charlton, 1821 ; James M. Wayne, 1822; William Davies, 1828; Will- 
iam Law, 1829; John I. Nicoll, 1S34; Robert M. Charlton, 1835; Charles 
H. Henry, 1837; William B. Fleming, 1845; Henry R. Jackson, 1849; 
Joseph W. Jackson, 1853; William B. Fleming, 1853; William Schley, 
1869; Henry B.Tompkins, 1875 ; William B. Fleming, 1879; Henry B. 
Tompkins, 1881 ; A. Pratt Adams, 1882; Robert Falligant, 1889. 

The Bench and Bar. 435 

Solicitor- generals, George Woodruff, 1795; David B. Mitchell. 1796; 
William B. Bullock, 1799; T. U. P. Charlton, 1804; John M. Berrien, 
1809; Joseph S. Pelot, 1813; Edward F. Tattnall, 18 16 ; William Law, 
1817; John C. Nicoll, 1821 ; Nathaniel P. Bond, 1822; Charles S. Henry, 
1825; Joseph W. Jackson, 1831 ; William H. Stiles, 1833; John Elliott 
Ward, 1836; Edward J. Harden, 1838; Richard N. Owens, 1838; Will- 
iam P. White, 1840; William P. Gaulden, 1847; George A. Gordon, 
1855; Julian Hartridge, 1855 ; Claudius C. Wilson, Jan. 23, i860 ; Fred- 
erick Tupper, qualified as solicitor-general March 4, 1861, and was act- 
ing as such on May 12, 1862 ; John W. Heidt, date of commission does 
not appear, evidently succeeded Tupper, first reference to him Jan. 29, 
1863, was still acting May 24, 1866; Alfred B. Smith; date of commis- 
sion does not appear, was acting in February, 1868, term expired Janu- 
ary, 1873 ; Albert R. Lamar, January, 1873; Alfred B. Smith, January, 
1877 ; Walter G. Charlton, January, 1881 ; Fleming G. du Bignon, Janu- 
ary, 1885; Wallace W. Fraser, November, 1888. 

The judges of the City Court of Savannah have been : James M. 
Wayne, 1820; John C. Nicoll, 1824; Charles S. Henry, 1834; John C. 
Nicoll, 1837; Levi S. D' Lyon, 183S ; William B. Fleming, 1844; Ed- 
ward J. Harden, 1845; Mordecai Sheftall, 1847; Alexander Drysdale, 
1850; George Troup Howard, 1853; John M. Millen, 1856; Levi S. 
De Lyon, 1861 ; Walter S. Chisholm, 1863 ; William D. Harden, 1878. 

The following names constitute the roster of Savannah's bar: A. 
Pratt Adams, S. B. Adams, J. Randolph Anderson, James Atkins, Isaac 
Beckett, G. E. Bevans, G. T. Cann, J. F. Cann, W. G. Charlton, W. S. 
Chisholm, jr., J. G. Clark, D. H. Clark, William Clifton, J. A. Cronk, H. 
C. Cunningham, B. A. Denmark, F. G. du Bignon, R. G. Erwin, Robert 
Falligant, W. W. Fraser, Davis Freeman, William Garrard, Eugene L. 
Gilbert, J. M. Guerard, Henry R. Jackson, W. P. La Roche, W. F. Law, 
A. R. Lawton, sr., A. R. Lawton, jr., S. L. Lazaron, W. R. Leaken, R. 
E. Lester, W. W. Mackall, U. H. McLaws, A. H. MacDoncll, A. M. 
Martin, P. W. Meldrim, George A. Mercer, G. H. Miller, A. Minis, jr., 
T. S. Morgan, W. E. Morrison, T. M. Norwood, M. A. O'Byrne, P. J. 
O'Connor, W. W. Oiborne, George \V. Owens, W. H. Patterson, Will- 
iam Pease, R. R. Richards, T. D. Rockwell, J. R. Saussy. sr., J. R. Saussy, 
jr., John S. Schley, R. D. Walker, Charles N. West, J. L. Whatley, H. 
E. Wilson, VV. G. Woodfin, A. C. Wright. 

436 History of Savannah. 



Sketches of some of the most Prominent Physicians of Savannah, Past and Present 
— Medical Colleges — Georgia Medical Society. 

THE history of the medical profession of Savannah opens a wide field, 
but facts to form a perfect record are limited and imperfectly at- 
tainable. Physicians have little in common with each other to go to form 
a professional history, an aggregation of the personal attainments of each 
is therefore essential to its perfection and perpetuation. But to record 
the deeds of each, or even a bare outline of their achievements and per- 
sonal history, would develop facts that should be preserved, yet the lim- 
ited space of a work of this sort forbids its full cultivation. 

Among the earlier settlers upon the site of the present city of Savan- 
nah, two disciples of Esculapius are found, Dr. Patrick Tailfer and Dr. 
Hugh Anderson, who in 1741 wrote a description of the settlement found- 
ed by Oglethorpe, in which they harshly criticised the unhealthfulness 
of the locality. These two doctors, without doubt, the first in this sec- 
tion of the country, were worthy followers of the " healing art," and their 
skill found abundant field of exercise among the members of Oglethorpe's 
followers. It is to be regretted that history furnishes us so little con- 
cerning these pioneer physicians. 

Dr. Nunis, an Israelite, came among the settlers of Savannah in its 
early history and at an unfortunate period. The spirit of religious intol- 
erance was most bitter, and he was informed that Jews and Roman Cath- 
olics were not welcome among a people whom it would seem had every 
incentive to be devoid of religious prejudice. Dr. Nunis therefore sought 
a home in a more generous community and settled in Charleston. Hap- 
pily the spirit that characterised the earlier settlers of the colony of Geor- 
gia did not long exist, and at last gave way to broad and enlightened 
sentiments which found fit expression in the Declaration of Indepen- 

In the latter part of the preceding century, when Savannah was hardly 

The Medical Profession. 437 

more than a thriving village, we find among its medical fraternity such 
distinguished physicians as Dr. Noble Wimberly Jones, Dr. John Irvine, 
and Dr. Thomas Young, men of refinement and liberal education, who 
occupied high positions in their profession. 

Dr. Jones was born near London, England, in 1732, and was a son of 
Hon. Noble Jones, who came to Georgia with General Oglethorpe. At 
the commencement of the dissensions between Great Britain and the Col- 
onies, Dr. Jones took a decided stand in favor of the latter. He was 
among the first of those who associated for the purpose of sending dele- 
gates to a General Congress at Philadelphia, and was chosen speaker of 
the Provincial Legislature. When Savannah fell under the British in 
1778, he removed to Charleston, S. C, where he was arrested by order of 
the British commander and carried to St. Augustine. He was released 
after a short imprisonment and went to Philadelphia. While in Phila- 
delphia he was appointed by the Legislature of Georgia a delegate to 
Congress, and continued in that capacity until 1782, when he returned to 
Savannah, where he resumed the practice of his profession. He died in 
1805 honored by the community as an honest man, a sterling patriot, and 
a skillful physician. 

Dr. John Irvine was born in Scotland, and before the Revolution 
came to Georgia where he practiced his profession. He was a Royalist, 
and we find his name among those dissenting to certain resolutions which 
sharply criticised the actions of the English government. When the 
colonies declared war against England he was obliged to leave Georgia 
and return to England, where shortly after he was appointed physician 
to the king. After the independence of the colonies was declared he re- 
turned to Georgia and again settled in Savannah, and became one of the 
founders of the Georgia Medical Society. He died in March, 1809. 

Dr. Thomas Young was located in Savannah for several years. He 
was a physician of fine ability, and had an extended practice. He died 
in 1808. 

In the beginning of the present century Savannah had a medical corps 
which, for professional attainments, was as brilliant as has ever marked 
the city's history. Besides those already named, it was composed of Drs. 
Thomas Schley, Henry Bourquin, James Bond Read, James Glen, George 
Vinson Proctor, William Cocke, Nicholas S. Bayard, John Grimes, Lem- 

438 History of Savannah. 

uel Kollock, James Ewell. John Cumming, Joshua E. White, Moses Shef- 
tall, all of whom died prior to 1830. 

N Dr. James Glen was a grandson of Hon. James Glen, who was gov- 
ernor of South Carolina in 1739, and son of Hon. John Glen, first chief 
justice of Georgia. He died in 18 16. 

Beyond the date of death of the contemporaries of Dr. Glen, we have 
been unable to gather but little concerning their personal history. Dr. 
Bourquin died in 1 8 19; Dr. Schley in 18 12 ; Dr. Proctor in 1817; Dr. 
Cocke in 1821 ; Nicholas S. Bayard in 1822 ; Dr. Kollock in 1828 ; Dr. 
Sheftall in 1830. 

Drs. George Jones, William Parker, Charles Williamson, W. C. Daniel, 
James P. Screven, Peter Ward, and Thomas Young, jr., were also located 
in Savannah and practicing their profession in the early part of the pres- 
ent century. 

Dr. Daniel was bo rn in Green county, Ga., in 1792, or 1794. He set- 
tled in Savannah in 18 18. He introduced a new system for treating ma- 
larial fever, and was the author of a work on " The Autumnal Fevers of 
Savannah." He was educated at the University of Pennsylvania, and 
died in Savannah in 1869. Dr. Daniel was a practitioner of great ability, 
took a prominent part in the material development of Savannah, and held 
many positions of honor in the management of municipal affairs. 

Dr. W. R. Waring began practice in Savannah prior to Dr. Daniel, 
and for many years was one of the leading physicians of the city. He 
was a voluminous contributor to the medical literature of the profession, 
being the author of a valuable work on yellow fever. He was not only a 
skillful physician, but one of the most public-spirited and useful citizens 
of Savannah. He was at one time mayor of the city. He died in 1843. 

Dr. James P. Screven was a descendant of Rev. William Screven, who 
came from England prior to 1674. and settled in Maine; moved to 
Charleston, S. C, in 1683, and founded the Baptist Church in that Stat?. 
Dr. Screven was born in South Carolina in 1799, and moved to Savan- 
nah with his parents while an infant. His preliminary education was re- 
ceived under Dr. Moses Waddell He studied medicine under Dr. W. R. 
Waring, of Savannah, and after graduating from the medical department 
of the University of Pennsylvania, spent two years in Europe receiv- 
ing the benefits of the best educational institutions of the old world. He 

The Medical Profession. ' 439 

commenced his professional labors in Savannah and soon attained de- 
served success in his calling. In 1834 he withdrew from active profes- 
sional work to devote his time to his large landed estate and business 
affairs. In the material development of Savannah he bore an important 
part, being the originator of the water system, and the main projector of 
the Savannah, Florida and Western Railway System. Although for sev- 
eral years he did not practice medicine he continued to feel a warm in- 
terest in his profession. He was at one time mayor of the city, and for 
one term represented Chatham county in the State Senate. He died on 
July 16, 1859. 

During the period from 1830 to 1850 the medical profession of Sa- 
vannah was in its fullest glory. It was made up of as fine material as 
could be found in any city, many of its members possessing an enviable 
local reputation and some almost national repute. Space forbids com- 
plete biographical consideration but their names at least should be pre- 
served. Of those not elsewhere mentioned there were in active practice 
during a portion of the above period Drs. William Parker, Cosmo P. 
Richardson, T. G. Barnard, J. R. Saussy, Stephen N. Harris, Joseph H. 
Burroughs, William A. Caruthers, R. D. Arnold, Thadeus Bartow, P. M. 
Kollock, Martin Tufts, J. D. Fish, Richard Wayne, J. Ashby Wragg, 
Alexander Cunningham, R. Wildman and William Gaston Bulloch 

Perhaps no member of the medical profession of Savannah was more 
generally known in this community or more highly honored than Dr. 
Richard D. Arnold. He was born in Savannah in 1808. After a 
thorough preparatory course of literary and scientific study at Princeton, 
N. J., he received the degree of doctor of medicine from the medical de- 
partment of the University of Pennsylvania in 1830, at that time the 
foremost school of medicine in the United States, and soon after com- 
menced the active duties of his profession in his native city. Earnest in 
his efforts for the acquisition of knowledge, possessing a mind with keen 
perceptive qualities, he soon attained a prominent position in his profes- 
sion. Appointed in 1835 one of the physicians of the Savannah poor- 
house and hospital, which appointment was renewed annually for more 
than twenty years, he acquired a perfect familiarity with the diseases of 
this climate, and his published monograms on bilious and yellow fevers 
made him an authority on those subjects which is recognized by the best 

440 History of Savannah. 

medical writers in the country. He was a member of the American 
Medical Association from its inception in 1846 and co-operated heartily 
in the objects of its formation. He was one of the committee that framed 
the code of ethics by which the whole medical profession of the United 
States is governed, and at its fourth annual meeting held in Charleston, 
S. C, in 185 1 was elected one of the vice-presidents of the association. 

Upon the recommendation of the association that State medical soci- 
eties should be formed as auxiliaries in the great work of medical reform, 
Dr. Arnold took an active part in the organization of the medical society 
of the State of Georgia, and as president, in 1851, in Atlanta delivered 
an able address upon " the reciprocal duties of physicians and the public 
towards each other," in which he advocated a more thorough prepara- 
tory course of instruction in English, Greek and Latin literature, as well 
as the collateral sciences, before commencing the study of medicine. 

Upon the organization of the Savannah medical college in 1 850, he 
became professor of the theory and practice of medicine and proved 
himself to be one of its most valuable instructors. He was naturally of 
a literary turn, and early in his professional career employed his leisure 
hours in writing for the Savannah Republican. In January, 1833, he be- 
came part proprietor of the Daily Georgian, and continued in the jour- 
nalistic field until the early part of 1835, when he sold out and devoted 
himself entirely to the medical profession. 

In the political affairs of the city and State, Dr. Arnold early in life 
took an active part. In 1S39 he was elected to represent Chatham 
county in the Legislature, and distinguished himself by his fearless and 
able advocacy of all measures of local character. His entrance into 
political life was followed by many party triumphs. In 1842 he was 
elected to the Georgia Senate over General Francis S. Bartow, the candi- 
date of the Whig party, and in September of 1843 vvas elected by a large 
vote as mayor of the city, previously having served several terms as a 
member of the Board of Aldermen. He was again elevated to the office 
of the chief magistracy of the city in 1851, then in 1859 ar >d again in 
1863, and continued in the position until the close of the war, when the 
city having been evacuated by General Hardee, he was compelled to ask 
the protection of General Sherman, upon its occupation by him in De- 
cember 1864, and was permitted to remain undisturbed in possession 
of the office until the election of Colonel E. C. Anderson. 

fuE Medical Profession. 441 

At the inception of the present system of public school education, Dr. 
Arnold became president of the Board of Education, and held the posi- 
tion until his death. His interest in the success of these schools was 
most earnest. 

He was one of the original members of the Georgia Historical Society, 
and at the time of his death, and for many years previous, one of its cura- 
tors. At the dedication of the present hall in 1875, he delivered a most 
interesting address in which the history of the society and the efforts of 
its most prominent early patron was given. 

In 1854 when Savannah was devastated by the worst yellow fever 
epidemic the city has ever experienced, Dr. Arnold was noted for his 
utter self-abnegation. He was unremitting in his attention to the sick 
and suffering, and brought safely through some of the severest cases of 
fever, and many of his patients yet live to remember with gratitude his 
kindness and zeal. He was an efficient member of the Savannah Benev- 
olent Association which was organized during those terrible days of 1854 
and has maintained its organization ever since. Upon the organization 
of the Board of Water Commissioners some thirty years ago, Dr. Arnold 
was elected president and continued to hold the position through all 
successive city administrations up to the time of his death. He gave 
great attention to the subject of water supply and many of the improve- 
ments in the system are to be attributed to his sagacity. 

In his intercourse with his professional brothers he was high-toned, 
honorable, generous, but no man looked upon anything having the 
slightest appearance of charlatanism or quackery with greater scorn and 
disgust than Dr. Arnold. His death though not unexpected, produced 
a profound sense of sorrow, and the spontaneous gathering of the whole 
community at his obsequies attested the appreciation in which he was 
held as the kind and skillful physician as well as the intelligent and faith- 
ful public citizen. 

Dr. John D. Fish was born in Washington county, Ga , on Septem- 
ber 28, 1822. His literary and classical education was obtained at Mer- 
cer and Oglethorpe Universities in his native State and his medical edu- 
cation at the University of New York, where he graduated in 1845. The 
following year was spent at Bellevue Hospital New York. In 1846 he 
settled in Savannah. He was a member of the Georgia Medical Society, 


442 History of Savannah. 

and filled all the offices within the gift of this organization. He pub- 
lished several articles on public health and delivered before the medical 
society an able address on the same subject. He was professor of obstet- 
rics in the Savannah Medical College and an active member of the Sa- 
vannah Benevolent Association. He died on February 12, 1879. 

Dr. Cosmo P. Richardson was one of the most brilliant members of 
the Savannah medical profession for many years. He was born in Edin- 
burgh, Scotland, but his father was a native of South Carolina. At the 
age of fifteen he came to Georgia and received his preparatory education 
under the direction of Rev. Carlisle C. P. Beman a well-known and re- 
markably successful teacher. He studied medicine in the office of Dr. 
W. C. Daniel of Savannah, and after completing a thorough medical 
course, commenced the practice of his profession in Savannah. He was 
far more than a successful practitioner — he was a generous-hearted, kindly 
man in whose life work was blended the exercise of the noblest Christian 
virtues. He died in 1852 and is survived by a widow, two daughters 
and a son. 

Dr. William Gaston Bulloch was born in Savannah August 4, 1815, 
and was a grandson of Hon. Archibald Bulloch, Dr. John Irvine and Dr. 
Noble Wimberly Jones. Dr. Bulloch graduated at Yale College in 1835, 
and the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania in 1838. 
His medical education was thereafter continued for nearly two years in 
Paris, France. He commenced the practice of his profession in Savannah 
in 1840, and for many years was one of the best known physicians and 
surgeons in Georgia, particularly excelling as an oculist. He was one of 
the founders of the Savannah Medical College, and for several years held 
the chair of surgery in that institution. In iSCo. the Gynaecological So- 
ciety of Boston elected him a corresponding member. During the late 
civil war he served as a surgeon in Richmond, Va., as a member of the 
Charleston Medical examining board, and also had charge of the Brough- 
ton Street hospital in Savannah. He was a useful citizen of Savannah, 
and at one time was a member of the city council. He was a physician 
of decided ability, thoroughly devoted to his profession, and a gentleman 
of the highest moral worth. He died June 23, 1885. 

Dr. Stephen N. Harris was born in Liberty county, Ga., in 1824. 
He was educated at Athens University, Georgia, and was a graduate of the 

The Medical Profession. 443 

Charleston Medical College in the class of 1840 or 1841. He commenced 
practice in Liberty county with his father, Dr. Raymond Harris, who 
for a short time was located in Savannah. In 1844 Dr. Harris moved 
to Savannah, and until his death, in 1854, when he died of yellow fever,. 
he held a deservedly high position in the medical fraternity of the city. 
He was a member of the local and State medical associations, a practi- 
tioner of decided skill, and met his death while attempting to combat the 
ravages of the memorable epidemic of 1854. 

Dr. John F. Posey died on January 15, i860, and at the time of his 
death was the oldest practitioner in Savannah. He was a native of North 
Carolina. During the Mexican War he served as surgeon. At its close 
he settled in Savannah, where he remained until his death. He was a 
man of great information, meteorology being a favorite pursuit, while he 
was a regular correspondent of the Smithsonian Institute. His personal 
character was of the highest kind. For many years he 'served the city 
as one of its municipal guardians. He took a deep interest in the efforts 
of organized medicine, and at the time of his death was president of the 
Georgia Medical Society. 

Dr. Joseph Clay Habersham was another physician whose professional 
attainments and moral worth added luster to the medical fraternity of 
Savannah during the period of which we are treating. He was a grand- 
son of Governor Habersham and graduated at Princeton College, pre- 
viously having studied under the celebrated physician, Dr. Grimes, of 
Philadelphia. He became very proficient as a geologist, and Prof. Lyle, 
the eminent geologist and mineralogist, in his works mentions Dr. Haber- 
sham as " the eminent Southern scientist, thoroughly versed in miner- 
alogy and geology." In 1838, with Dr. W. C. Daniel, of Savannah, he 
visited northern Georgia to investigate the alleged gold fields in that sec- 
tion, and wrote a description of the mineral and other resources of that 
section, which is in exact accord with the result of later examination of 
the mineral region of Georgia. Dr. Habersham was thoroughly devoted 
to his profession, and during the yellow fever of 1854 was untiring in his 
exertion in behalf of the scourge- stricken people. His death was due to 
his overwork in this epidemic, although it did not occur until a year later. 

The yellow fever of 1854 tested the metal of the medical profession of 
Savannah to the utmost. Drs. Harris, Arnold, Bulloch, Habersham, 

444 History of Savannah. 

Wragg, Cunningham, Daniel, and others, with desperate valor, faced the 
foe, and with few exceptions survived the battle. Other tests of professional 
integrity have occurred from the same source, and it is not too much to 
say that in every outbreak of this destroying disease, the profession al- 
most to a man remained at the post of duty and heroically fought the ter- 
rible destroyer. 

From 1850 to the present it would be an almost impossible task to 
even gather the names of all the physicians who have practiced in Savan- 
nah, much less to gather even limited information concerning their attain- 
ments or achievements. Among those who may be said to have gained 
a worthy place in their profession, and who are not now living, and not 
before mentioned, may be named : Drs. J. J. Waring, D. H. Morrison, 
William H. Cuyler, P. M. Kollock, J. Gordon Howard, James Stoney, 
James Campfield, Joseph West, C. W. West, Joseph Turner, John Wake- 
field Francis, Harvey L. Byrd, George P. Padelford, R. H. Footman, 
Frank Demere, E. H. Martin, R. M. Nunn, James S. Sullivan, Thomas 
Smith, J. C. Habersham, E P. Starr, Easton Yonge, William M. Charters, 
A. B. Starr, James G. Thomas, Thomas Smith, Juriah Harriss, Thomas 
Stewardson, C. A. DeCortez, and J. M. Gordon. 

Dr. J. J. Waring was born in Savannah in 1829, and was a son of Dr. 
William R. Waring. His literary and scientific education was obtained 
in Yale College. He graduated in medicine at the University of Penn- 
sylvania in 1852, and for one year following was assistant resident physi- 
cian of the Bleckly Hospital, in Philadelphia. In 1853 he went to Dub- 
lin, Ireland, where for some time he studied medicine under Prof. White. 
This was followed by an appointment as assistant resident physician in 
Bartholomew's Hospital, London. After a stay of some months in Paris, 
and extensive traveling in Switzerland and Italy, he returned to Amer- 
ica, and in 1856 settled in Washington city and began the practice of 
his profession. In 1857 he was elected professor of physiology and ob- 
stetrics in the National Medical College, and in 1859 surgeon and cura- 
tor of the Washington Infirmary. At the breaking out of the war he re- 
turned to Savannah, where he remained until his death in January, 1888. 
Dr. Waring was a man of great mental strength, a skillful physician, and 
no man held more of the confidence of Savannahians than did he. 

Dr. Joseph Clay Habersham, jr., son of Dr. J. C. Habersham, grandson 

The Medical Profession. 445 

of Major John Habersham, of the Continental army, and great-grandson of 
Governor James Habersham, one of the earliest settlers of the State, was 
born in Savannah on October 9, 1829. He studied his profession in Har- 
vard Medical College graduating in May, 1853. He immediately entered 
the field of professional usefulness at Savannah. In r86i he was made a 
full surgeon in the Confederate army, and held various posts of trust and 
importance. At the termination of the contest he resumed the duties of 
his profession at Savannah, and was actively and successfully engaged un- 
til his death, on January 11, 1881. In 1866 he was elected vice-president 
of the Medical Association of Georgia, and in 1876 president. In 1870 he 
was elected health officer, which position he held until B875. During the 
yellow fever of 1876 he remained at his post and did his utmost to alle- 
viate the scourge-stricken people. In 1878 he was again elected health 
officer, and held this position until 1880. His quiet and Christian-like 
life was marked by great devotion to the duties of his profession By 
education and attainments he held a foremost place in the medical ranks 
of Savannah. The Georgia Medical Society, in its tribute of respect to 
his memory, among other words of praise said : " Sensitive on all points 
of honor, he scorned and manfully discountenanced any degrading or du- 
bious action, and though entitled by birth and by a thorough medical ed- 
ucation to be in the foremost ranks, he moved unostentatiously among 
his acquaintances and his patients, and has left in their recollections a 
pleasing and lasting impression. . While we bow with submis- 

sion to the decree of Providence, it is with sincere grief, and that in our 
hearts we will ever cherish with kindly affection and esteem the memory 
of our departed brother." 

Dr. William Morris Charters was born in Florida township, Mont- 
gomery county, N. Y., in 1806. His literary education was received in 
New York and Cincinnati, and in the latter city his medical education 
was commenced in the medical college of that city. His degree of M.D. 
was received in 1837. He began the practice of his profession in Leb- 
anon county, O., where he remained for several years. In 1850 he set- 
tled in Savannah. He labored through the epidemic of 1854, and was 
particularly successful in the treatment of this malignant disease. Real- 
izing the value to the profession of medical associations he became a most 
zealous advocate and supporter of such organizations. In 1838 he was 

446 History of Savannah. 

one of the organizers of the Lebanon Medical Society, and in 1843 was 
president of the society. At the time of his death he was a member of 
the Georgia Medical Society, the State Medical Association, the Georgia 
Historical Society, St. Andrew's Society, the Savannah Benevolent So- 
ciety, and the Savannah Board of Education. The laws of hygiene and 
proper sanitary measures were his constant study. He was professor of 
chemistry in the Savannah Medical College, one of the trustees of the 
institution, and at one time president of the faculty. His contributions 
to medical literature consisted of addresses before the medical society, 
and numerous essays on medical subjects. He died on January 6, 1883. 

Dr. E. P. Starr, was a son of C. H. Starr, who was born in Savannah 
in 1798, and died May 23, 1866. Dr. Starr was born in Bryan county, 
Ga., March 20, 1841. After spending considerable time in studying 
medicine he entered the Savannah Medical College, and was graduated 
in 1 86 1. Immediately after graduation he entered the Confederate ser- 
vice as a private in the Eighteenth Georgia Battalion. He served with 
much credit, and in 1864 was appointed adjutant. During the latter end 
of the war he was taken prisoner and was confined until the summer of 
1865, when he returned to Savannah. His enfeebled health at this time 
prevented his practicing his profession and he engaged in mercantile 
pursuits. Exposure during his military career, however, had so under- 
mined his health that he was not permitted to prosecute his business. 
After vainly trying to establish his health by traveling he succumbed to 
the ravages of consumption in March, 1873. He was a young man of 
unusually bright intellect, and had he lived and been enabled to engage 
in professional work it is believed he would have gained high position. 

Dr. Thomas Smith was born in Fredericksburg, Va., in 1839. He 
was educated in Washington city, where he studied medicine under Dr. 
J. J. Waring. After graduating at the Georgetown Medical College 
he went to Europe and pursued his medical education at London, Paris 
and Edinburgh. Returning to Virginia in 1 86 1 he ran the blockade and 
became assistant surgeon in the Confederate service. After the war he 
came to Savannah, and for one year was associated in practice with Dr. 
J. J. Waring, his old preceptor, while in Washington city. He was en- 
gaged in the general practice of his profession and had attained a posi- 
tion of prominence when he died of yellow fever in 1876. He was a 

The Medical Profession. 447 

professor in the Savannah Medical College and a member of the Local 
Medical Society of Savannah, and the State Medical Association. 

Dr. Thomas J. Charlton who died in Savannah December 8, 1886, 
after a long illness, was born in Bryan county, Ga., March 5, 1833, and was 
a son of the late Dr. Thomas J. Charlton, and a grandson of Hon. Thomas 
U. P. Charlton, for many years judge of the Superior Court of Chatham 
county. Dr. Charlton received his preparatory education in Savannah 
and graduated with distinction from the University of Georgia. He pur- 
sued a course of medicine at the Savannah Medical College, graduating 
in 1856. During the time he was pursuing his medical education the 
city was ravaged by yellow fever, and Dr. Charlton did noble work among 
the distressed people. He was one of several Savannah physicians who 
went to Norfolk, Va., during the prevalence of the fever there in 1855. 
and remained during the epidemic, receiving with his copartners a gold 
medal from the city of Norfolk in recognition of his devoted services. 
Shortly after graduation he received an appointment as assistant surgeon 
in the United States Navy and was attached to the sloop, Jamestown. 
While stationed at Chelsea, at the breaking out of the war, he resigned 
and came home. Soon after he was commissioned as surgeon in the 
Confederate army. A short time after receiving his commission he was 
sent on a secret mission to France, and remained there about a year. 
Upon his return he joined the Confederate cruiser, Florida, and was 
captured with the vessel at Bahia, Brazil, and sent with the officers to 
Fort Warren, Boston. He was released on condition that he leave the 
country. He then went to England, where he remained some time, and 
finally settled in Halifax. At the close of the war he returned to Sa- 
vannah. He was a member of the Georgia Medical Society, the Medical 
Association of Georgia, and for many years was one of the most promi- 
nent physicians in the State. Dr. Charlton took a lively interest in public 
affairs. He was a man of strict integrity and great strength of character, 
and held the esteem of every one who knew him. 

Dr. John Wakefield Francis was another ante bellum physician who 
occupied a high place in the Savannah medical profession. After fully 
half a century of successful practice he died in 1 861. 

Dr. James Grey Thomas, descended from English and Welsh settlers 
in Virginia and Maryland in colonial times, was born near Bloomfield, 

448 History of Savannah. 

Nelson county, Ky., June 24, 1835. He was educated at the Bloomfield 
High School, and at the Roman Catholic College at Bardstovvn, Ky. He 
entered the medical department of the New York University, and from 
that institution in March, 1856, received the degree of M.D. During the 
ensuing four years he practiced in Bloomfield. During the war between 
the States he was commissioned surgeon in the Confederate States army; 
was chief surgeon of McLaw's Division, and at one time medical di- 
rector of Hardee's corps. In 1865 he located in Savannah, where he re- 
mained in active practice until his death in 1884. He was a member of 
the Georgia Medical Society, and of the Georgia State Medical Associ- 
ation. Of his more important medical publications may be mentioned : 
"The Use of the Thermometer in the Practice of Medicine." " The Use 
of Water in the Summer Complaint of Children." "The Use of Water 
in Typhoid Fever." In 1874 he was elected to the Lower House of the 
Georgia Legislature. He was the author of the law creating the State 
Board of Health of Georgia, and requiring the registration of all deaths, 
births and marriages. He was president of the State Board of Health 
for several years, and in the two reports issued by that body in 1875 and 
1876, is the author of several articles upon public hygiene. 

For several years after the close of the war Dr. Alexander Means 
held the position of agricultural chemist for the State at the port of Sa- 
vannah. He was born in Statesville, Iredell count}', N. C, February 6, 
1 801. The Hon. Alexander H. Stephens contributes to "Johnson's Uni- 
versal Encyclopedia " the following sketch of his life : " He received a 
classical education at the academy at Statesville ; removed to Georgia in 
1822; taught school for four years, then attended medical lectures at 
Transylvania University. Kentucky, and commenced the practice of 
medicine in Covington, Ga.. in 1826. In the same year he was licensed 
to preach by the M. E. Church. In 1834 he was called to the superin- 
tendency of the manual labor training school near Covington. At the 
reorganization of Emory College at the same place, (now known as Ox- 
ford) in 1838, he was chosen professor of physical science, which position 
he held for eighteen years; in 1840 was appointed professor of chemis- 
try and pharmacy in the medical college of Georgia located at Augusta; 
delivered a regular course of lectures there during the winter season, 
continuing at the same time for eight months in each year to fill his chair 

The Medical Profession. 449 

in Emory College. In 1853 presided over the Masonic Female College 
in Covington a few miles from Oxford. In 1854 Dr. Means was called 
to the presidency of Emory College, but shortly after accepted the chair 
of chemistry in the Atlanta Medical College, which position he held 
twelve years, including the period of the war, lecturing during the sum- 
mer season. In 185 1 he traveled extensively through Europe. Asa 
member of the State Convention of 1861 he spoke eloquently and effect- 
ively against the ordinance of secession, but when it was carried he 
thoroughly and promptly identified himself, his family and his fortunes 
with his native South. Since the war he has held the position of agri- 
cultural chemist for the State at the port of Savannah which he still 
(1875) holds, retaining also his time-honored connection with Emory 
College. His latest work is entitled the ' Centennial of Chemistry.'" 

The present members of the medical fraternity of Savannah, will as a 
class, compare favorably with those of any city in the country, and were 
it possible to have obtained the necessary information and space permit- 
ted their use we would have been pleased to give biographical sketches of 
many living practitioners who have obtained an honored place in their 
profession. The physician whose professional practice extends over the 
longest period is Dr. J. Bond Read who was born in Savannah in 1837, 
He was educated in Charleston, S. C, and at the University of Maryland, 
graduating from the medical department of the latter institution in 1849. 
He commenced practice in Savannah immediately after graduation and 
soon attained a high position in his profession. During the war between 
the States he entered the Confederate service as surgeon being stationed 
at hospital No. 4 at Richmond, Va. He has taken a prominent part in 
the various medical associations of his city and State and has frequently 
contributed to the literature of his profession. He is a member of the 
Medical Association of the State of Georgia and the Georgia Medical 

Dr. Robert P. Myers was born in Savannah January 20, 1839, but 
received his literary education in the county schools of Cobb county. 
In 1857 he commenced the study of medicine under Dr. R. B. Arnold 
of Savannah, supplemented by a course of lectures in the Savannah 
Medical College, graduating in i860. After one year's practice he be- 
came assistant surgeon in the Confederate army, remaining in this capac- 


450 History of Savannah. 

ity until the final surrender of the Southern forces at Appomattox. Af- 
ter the war he returned to Savannah and in 1866 was elected coroner, 
being the first physician to serve in that capacity in Savannah. He was 
demonstrator of anatomy in the Savannah Medical College ; has been 
permanent secretary of the State Medical Association and for thirteen 
years has been recording secretary of the Georgia Medical Society. For 
the last eight years he has been superintendent of the Georgia Infirmary. 
Dr. Myers' practice has been general in its character and his standing in 
his profession is deservedly high. Personally he is a pleasant, genial 
gentleman and is highly esteemed. 

Dr. Richard J. Nunn was born in Ireland, December 13, 183 I, and 
is the son of Dr. R. M. Nunn. After receiving his preliminary educa- 
tion in Ireland and a course of instruction in the Royal College of Sur- 
geons of London and Apothecary Hall, Dublin, he came to America and 
settled in Savannah. Here he continued his medical studies and in 1854 
graduated at the Savannah Medical College. The year following gradu- 
ation he spent in Europe. Returning to America in 1855 he settled in 
Norfolk, Va., but soon after returned to Savannah, where he has since 
been engaged in the general practice of medicine. In the beginning of 
the late war he entered the Confederate service as captain of Company 
D, of the Twenty- second Georgia Artillery Battalion. He served in this 
position during the early part of the war, when his health failing he was 
discharged from service. After regaining his health he again resumed 
practice in Savannah in 1865, and has since been engaged in continuous 
professional work. He has spent considerable time in traveling in Eu- 
rope both for pleasure and for the purpose of perfecting himself in medi- 
cal science. He held the chair of practice in the Savannah Medical Col- 
lege and a similar position in the Oglethorpe College. He has always 
taken an active part in every movement to make medical associations 
more beneficial to the profession, and is a member of the county, State 
and American Associations. His contributions to medical literature 
have been numerous and have covered nearly every branch of practice, 
but while he does a general practice it is in the field of gynecology that 
he particularly excels. 

Dr. William Duncan was born in Savannah January 4, 184O. He 
was educated at Chatham Academy, Springfield Academy and Ogle- 



Jir <(ri*. 

C «<*_ 

The Medical Profession. 451 

thorpe University, Georgia. He graduated in medicine from the Savan- 
nah Medical College in March, 1861, and the Rotunda Lying-in Hospital, 
Dublin, in 1865. He is also a licentiate in midwifery of the King and 
Queen's College of Physicians, Ireland, 1865. Besides the above he 
studied in King's College Hospital, London, and in Paris hospitals in 1865 
and 1866, settling in Savannah the latter year. He is a member of the 
State Medical Association of Georgia and of the Georgia Medical Society; 
was treasurer of the latter in 1867 and vice-president in 1877. He was 
demonstrator of anatomy in the Savannah Medical College in 1867 and 
a few years later held the chair of Pathological anatomy, and from 1872 
to 1 88 1 was dean of the faculty. For the last twenty years he has been 
chief surgeon of the Savannah, Florida and Western Railroad; for over 
twenty years superintendent and one of the managers of the Savannah 
Hospital, and from 1870 to 1888 was secretary and treasurer of the Geor- 
gia Infirmary. During the four years of the late civil war he was assist- 
ant surgeon in the Confederate States army, and served in the field and 
In the hospitals at Savannah, Ga., and Harrisburg and Richmond, Va. 
He has been an alderman of the city of Savannah, and a member of the 
board of sanitary commissioners of the city. His practice is general, but 
largely pertains to surgery and obstetrics. 

Dr. William Henry Elliott was born in Savannah, March 10, 1837. 
His father was Dr. Ralph E. Elliott of Beaufort, S. C, whose ancestors 
were from Cornwall, England, and his mother was Margaret C. Mackay, 
of Scotch descent. He received his literary and classical education at 
Hartford, graduating there in 1837, and his medical education at the 
University of Virginia and at the College of Physicians and Surgeons in 
New York, graduating from the former in 1858, and from the latter in 
1859. He has been president of the Georgia Medical Society and held 
the position of surgery [n the Savannah Medical College. During the 
civil war he was assistant surgeon of the Confederate army. In March, 
1862, he married Sidney, a daughter of Mr. B. E. Stiles of Savannah. 

Dr. J. C. Le Hardy was born in Belgium, October 21, 1831. His 
literary, classical and scientific education was received at the Brussels 
Athenaeum, the Brussels Universete' libre and Ecole Ponts et Chaussee, 
and his medical and pharmaceutical studies in the Georgia Medical Col- 
lege at /Augusta, Ga., and the Jefferson Medical College of Pharmacy, 

452 History of Savannah. 

Philadelphia. He graduated from the Jefferson College in 1855 and set- 
tled first near Rome, Ga., and afterwards in Savannah. He is a member 
of the Georgia Medical Society, of the American Medical Association, 
of Georgia. He is the author of several contributions to medical litera- 
ture of which may be mentioned: "Treatment of Stricture of Uretha, " 
"The Duality of Syphilitic Poison," "The Aerial and Terrestrial Influ- 
ences on Disease." He held the position of professor of chemistry in 
the Oglethorpe Medical College and has been especially active in pro- 
moting the objects of organized medicine. 

Dr. Raymond B. Harris, son of Dr. Raymond Harris, and brother of 
Dr. Stephen N. Harris, was born in Bryan county, Georgia, in May, 1830. 
He studied medicine under Dr. R. D. Arnold, of Savannah; in 1859 
graduated at the Savannah Medical College, and also took a post-grad- 
uate course at the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania. 
In i860 he was appointed demonstrator of anatomy in the Savannah 
Medical College. In 1861 he became assistant surgeon in the Second 
Georgia Hospital at Richmond, Va. He also had considerable field ser- 
vice with the Fifty-seventh Georgia Regiment, Army of Tennessee. He 
served throughout the war and during the latter part with General Smith's 
brigade. After the war he located in Darien, Ga., where he remained 
seven or eight years. He then returned to Savannah, where he has since 
been engaged in a general medical practice. He is a member of the 
Georgia Medical Society, and the State Medical Association, of Georgia. 

Dr. John D. Martin was born in Charleston, S. C, in 1839, and at the 
age of nine years came to Savannah. His literary and scientific educa- 
tion was received at Emmettsburg, Md., and Georgetown College, 
Washington, D. C. He studied medicine in the office of Dr. R. D. Ar- 
nold, and in 1861 graduated at the Savannah Medical College. He was 
for a time associated with Dr. Arnold in practice. For the last twenty 
years he has been connected with the Savannah Hospital, and is a mem- 
ber of the medical staff of the Telfair Woman's Hospital. He is presi- 
dent of the Georgia Medical Society, and is a member of the State and 
American Medical Association. 

Dr. Frank Lincoln is one of the younger physicians. He is a native 
of Savannah, and is conceded to possess one of the strongest and most 
remarkable intellects in the State. 

The Medical Profession. 453 

Dr. George H. Stone was born in Albion, N. Y., on January 8, 1844, 
and in 1868 graduated from the medical department of the Georgetown 
College, Washington, D. C. He soon after settled in Savannah, where 
he has since been engaged in a general medical practice. 

Dr. J. P. S. Houstoun is a native of Florida, and was born No- 
vember 3, 1849. In 1869 he graduated from the medical department of 
the University of Pennsylvania. 

Dr. C. N. Brandt was born in New York, on May 30, i860, and is a 
graduate of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of New York. 

Dr. W. W. Owens is a native of Savannah, and was born in January, 
1863, and since his graduation from the medical department of the Uni- 
versity of Virginia, 1885, has been located in Savannah. 

Dr. C. H. Colding was born in 1832, and is a native of South Caro- 
lina. In 1855 he graduated at the Savannah Medical College. He is 
the physician in charge of the Savannah Hospital. 

Dr. Matthew F. Dunn was born in Savannah in 1859, an ^ in 1885 
graduated at the New York Medical College. He has since been prac- 
ticing his profession in Savannah. 

Medical College. — Efforts to maintain a medical college in Savannah 
have not been successful. Several causes can be attributed for this failure, 
but the main factor in the non-maintenance of such an institution can be 
found in the lack of hearty and united support of the medical fraternity. 
As early as 1838 an act was passed by the State Legislature of Georgia, 
incorporating the Savannah Medical College, and naming as trustees 
J. M. Berrien, R M. Charlton, William C. Daniel, William Law, James W. 
Jackson, Colonel William Thorne William, William R. Waring, and Rev. 
Edward Neufville. Nothing, however, was done to carry the project in- 
to execution until in 1852, when on July 20 of this year a body known 
as the Savannah Medical Institute was incorporated by the Superior 
Court of Chatham County. These two corporate bodies soon after per- 
fected an. organization by electing two trustees to fill vacancies in the 
board of trustees, named by the original legislative act of 1838. R. D. 
Arnold and P. M. Kollock being elected in place of Dr. W. C. Daniel, 
and Rev. Edward Neufville ; Dr. R. D. Arnold was elected president of 
the board of trustees, and C. W. West, secretary and treasurer. The 
college building was completed in 1853, at a cost of about $19,000. 

454 History of Savannah. 

The first faculty of the college was elected in March, 1853, and was 
composed as follows: R. D. Arnold, M.D., professor of the theory and 
practice of medicine ; P. M. Kollock, M.D., professor of obstetrics and dis- 
eases of women and children; W. G Bullock, M.D., professor of princi- 
ples and practice of surgery ; J. G. Howard, M.D., professor of anatomy ; 
H. L. Byrd, M.D., professor of materia medica ; E. H. Martin, M.D., 
professor of physiology; J. Bond Read, M.D., professor of pathological 
anatomy. C. W. West was elected dean of the facuity. 

The first course of lectures was begun in November, 1853, and during 
the term thirty-six students were in attendance. At the end of the term 
six students were graduated, the class being composed of John M. Arm- 
field, Elisha Harrall, Joseph L. Hawkins, Richard J. Nunn, George W. 
Cleland, and Joseph J. West. 

Courses of lectures were continued to full classes, with occasional 
change in faculty, until the breaking out of the war between the States, 
when the unsettled condition of the country made it impossible to con- 
tinue the college. Instruction was therefore discontinued until the war 
closed. In November, 1866, the college was again opened with the fol- 
lowing faculty: Thomas Smith, M.D., adjunct professor of obstetrics and 
diseases of women and children; Richard J. Nunn, M.D., adjunct pro- 
fessor of materia medica; Thomas J. Charlton, M.D., adjunct professor 
of surgery; William H. Elliott, M.D., adjunct professor of chemistry; 
J. G. Thomas, M.D., adjunct professor of pathology; William Duncan, 
M.D., demonstrator of anatomy ; Robert P. Myers, M.D., curator; J. 
J. Waring, M.D., dean of the faculty. 

The college proceeded without material change in instructors until in 
May, 1870, when the entire faculty resigned, and a new faculty was 
elected after a conference with the trustees and the members of the regu- 
lar profession of the city. At the same time the number of trustees was 
increased from eight to twenty-one, the new board being composed of 
the following members: Joseph E. Johnston, J. W. Lathrop, Dr. Juriah 
Harriss, C. B. Nottingham, W. A. Green, Robert Batley, C. H. Hall, C. 
L. Redwine, E. H. W. Hunter, E. F. Knott, John C. Drake, J. J. Rob- 
inson, Samuel G. White, W. J. Johnson, R. J. Bruce, F. A. Stanford, E. 
A. Jelks, Rev. Robert W. B. Elliott, and W. P. Jennings. The faculty 
elected at this time was as follows: Juriah Harris, M.D., professor of the 

The Medical Profession. 455 

principles and practice of medicine ; J. G. Thomas, M.D., professor of 
clinical medicine; W. G. Bulloch, M.D., professor of principles and prac- 
tice of surgery; T. J. Charlton, M.D., professor of clinical surgery and 
venereal diseases ; J. D. Fish, M.D., professor of the principles and prac- 
tice of obstetrics; Thomas Smith, M.D., professor of clinical obstetrics 
and diseases of women and children; W. H. Elliott, M D., professor of 
anatomy; R. J. Nunn., M.D., professor of materia medica ; William M. 
Charters, M.D., professor of chemistry; A. J. Seemes, M.D., professor 
of physiology ; Hon. Solomon Cohn, professor of medical jurisprudence ; 
William Duncan, M.D., professor of pathological anatomy. J. D. Fish, 
M.D., was elected dean of the faculty. 

Dr. Juriah Harriss and Dr. Thomas Smith, both members of the fac- 
ulty, died in 1878, after which the entire faculty resigned and a new 
corps of instructors was selected as follows: W. M. Charters, M.D., pro- 
fessor of chemistry ; William Duncan, M.D., professor of clinical medi- 
cine ; W. H. Elliott, M.D., professor of surgery; T. J. Charlton, M.D., 
professor of obstetrics ; B. S. Purse, M.D., professor of materia medica ; 
J. P. S. Houstoun, M.D., professor of physiology ; George H. Stone, M. 
D., professor of anatomy. 

The college proceeded without material change in faculty until 1881, 
when, on account of death among the faculty and an apparent lack of in- 
terest in the institution by the resident profession, the college suspended 
work. In 1871 the trustees sold the college building, and from that time 
until 1 88 1 lectures were given in the Savannah Hospital building. Dr. 
William Duncan succeeded Dr. Fish as dean of the faculty in 1872, and 
retained the position until the college suspended work. 

Medical Society. — The medical association known as the Georgia 
Medical Society of Savannah, is one of the oldest in the United States. 
The act incorporating it was passed in 1804, and is as follows: 

WHEREAS Noble Wimberly Jones, president; John Irvine, vice-pres- 
ident ; John Grimes, secretary ; Lemuel Kollock, treasurer ; John Cum- 
ming, James Ewell, Moses Sheftall, Joshua E. White, William Parker, 
Thomas Schley, George Jones, George Vinson Proctor, Henry Bourquin, 
Thomas Young, jr., Peter Ward, William Cocke, James Glenn, and Nich- 
olas S. Bayard, have by their petition represented, that they have associ- 
ated in the city of Savannah, under the style and name of " The Georgia 

456 History of Savannah. 

Medical Society," for the purpose of lessening the fatality induced by 
climate and incidental causes, and improving the science of medicine. 
And in order to ensure and establish their said institution in a permanent 
and effectual manner, so that the benevolent and desirable objects thereof, 
may be executed with success and advantage, have prayed the legisla- 
ture to grant them an act of incorporation. 

Section I. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives 
of the State of Georgia in general assembly met, and by the authority of 
the same, it is hereby enacted, That the several persons herein before 
named, and others who are, or may become members of the said society 
respectively, the officers and members thereof, and their successors, shall 
be, and are hereby declared to be a body corporate, in name and deed, 
by the style and denomination of " The Georgia Medical Society ;" and 
by the said name and style, shall have perpetual succession of officers 
and members, and a common seal to use ; and shall have power and au- 
thority to make, alter, amend and change such bye-laws as may be 
agreed on by members of the same ; provided such bye laws be not re- 
pugnant to the laws or the Constitution of this State or the United States. 

Section 2. And be it further enacted, that they shall have full power 
and authority under the style and name of the Georgia Medical Society, 
to sue for in the name of their president and vice-president, for the time 
being, and recover all such sum or sums of money, as are, or hereafter 
may become due the said society, by any name or style whatever, in any 
court of law, or at any tribunal having jurisdiction thereof; and the rights 
and privileges of the said society in any court, or at any tribunal what- 
ever, to defend and also to receive, take and apply such bequests or do- 
nations as may be made, to, and for the uses and purposes intended by 
the said society ; and shall be, and are hereby declared to be vested with 
all the powers and advantages, privileges and immunities of an associa- 
tion or society of people incorporated, for the purposes and intentions of 
their said association. 

Section 3. And be it further enacted, that this act shall be, and is 
hereby declared to be deemed and considered a public act, to all intents 
and purposes whatever. ABRAHAM JACKSON. 

JARED Irwin, Speaker of the House of Representatives. 

President of the Senate. 

Assented to December 12, 1804. — John MlLLEDGE, Governor. 

The Medical Profession. 457 

At the time of the formation of this society it was intended to serve 
as a State organization, hence the name Georgia Medical Society was 
adopted, but it has never been anything but a local association composed 
only of Savannah physicians. 

The first president of the society was Dr. Noble Wimberly Jones, and 
the first vice-president Dr. John Irvine, a Scotchman, who came to Geor- 
gia before the revolution. The society proved a most beneficial institu- 
tion to the small band of physicians in Savannah at that early day, and 
from that time to the present has been the means of advancing the good 
of the profession. The present officers of the society are: John D. Mar- 
tin, president; M. L. Boyd, vice-president; George W. Lamar, record- 
ing secretary ; J. C. LeHardy, corresponding secretary ; W. W. Owens, 
treasurer, and M. F. Dunn, librarian. The present members of the so- 
ciety are : Drs. W. F. Brunner, J. G. Bulloch, T. J. Charlton, T. P. Chis- 
holm, C. H. Colding, C. H. Cox, W. H. Elliott, J. M. Johnston, J. G. 
Kellar, F. T. Lincoln, J. D. Martin, E. H. Nichols, R. G. Norton, W. W. 
Owens, S. L. Phillips, B. S Purse, J. B. Read, B. F. Sheftall, J. A. Wege- 
farth, C. N. Brandt, William Duncan, J. P. S. Houstoun, J. C. LeHardy, 
R. P. Myers, B. P. Oliveros, R. B. Harris, G. C. Hummel, J. Weichsel- 
baum, M. L. Boyd, R. J. Nunn, G. H. Stone, M. F. Dunn, E. G. Lind, 
and W. K. Blakeney. 



THAT port which exported the first bale of American cotton, from 
which sailed the first steamship that crossed the Atlantic, to-day 
the largest handler of one of the world's greatest branches of trade, queen 
of seven hundred miles of sea coast in one direction and of one thousand 
in another, may well be expected to have a commercial history of more 
than passing interest. And Savannah has. 

Utopian ideas and plans of the projectors of the colony of Georgia 
handicapped the early settlers and delayed the birth of the new town's 


45 8 History of Savannah. 

commerce until sixteen years had passed. James Oglethorpe, in a day 
dream, may have seen his settlement grown into a great city, but the 
reality of a century and a half later, certainly, more than realizes the 
ephemeral pictures of his fancy. 

Silk culture and the cultivation of the vine and flax were the principal 
objects at which the founders of the colony aimed. On one side of their 
corporation's common seal was a group of silk worms at their toil busily 
engaged and deeply absorbed in feeding on the succulent leaves of the 
mulberry. The motto of the worms and the corporation was, non sibi 
sed aliis — not for ourselves, but for others. 

SiLk and wine and hemp were to be the cargoes of the ships which 
the trustees hoped would sail out of the Savannah. They pictured their 
town such a spot as ancient Cyprus. Natural causes defeated this dream. 
Under the hot summer sun the vine withered and the mulberry did not 
flourish. One colonist had some success with the Oporto and Malaga 
grape on a small scale, but the general culture was a failure. From 
year to year a little silk was made, and twenty years from the settlement 
of Yamacraw by the whites a modest shipment of raw silk was made to 
England. It is an interesting fact, though not at all a surprising one, that 
the ideas of the trustees proved radically impracticable. Neither soil nor 
climate was well adapted for the culture of silk or grape, and after thor- 
ough trials the growth of both was abandoned. To-day, instead of 
sending abroad the ruby juice from the wine press and the delicate fibre 
of the cocoon, ships bear hence to every quarter of the globe, the unguent, 
distilled spirits from the pine tree and the soft, silvery fleece of Sea Island 
and Upland, ten thousand times the worth of that golden one which Ja- 
son and his comrades in the Argo carried off. 

Oglethorpe foresaw a commercial town spreading along the river when 
he struck his bargain with Tomo-chi-chi. That he chose wisely time has 
proved. From the Chesapeake to the mouth of the Mississippi there is 
not a bar over which passes so much commerce as comes and goes across 

That shipping was expected to be an important interest in Savannah 
is indicated by the historical fact that Mr. Hume offered a silver boat and 
spoon to the first child which should be born in Georgia. Whether the 
inducement had anything to do with it or not Mrs. Close's infant got 

Commerce and Manufactures. 459 

the prize. The spoon was practical, the boat emblematic. Another 
prize was offered for the first ship which should sail up the Savannah 
River and unload at the town. This prize was won by the ship James, 
of which Captain Yoakley was master. The James brought several new 
colonists. This first vessel to navigate the Savannah River was of one 
hundred and ten tons burden, carried six guns, and lay at anchor close 
to the town in fifteen feet at low water, where, it is stated. " is riding for 
much larger vessels " In 1734 a schooner coming in over the bar at Ty- 
bee reports finding at least three fathoms at low water, and in 1736 the 
Peter and James found " 19 foot water in the shoalest part " of the baron 
the first of the flood. 

No difficulty was experienced by the vessels of that day in going up 
and down the river at any stage of the tide. Oglethorpe had written in 
one of his earliest letters from the colony: " Ships which draw twelve foot 
water can ride within ten yards of the bank." 

As soon as he had affairs in the town in shape, the general ordered a 
lighthouse built on Tybee, and a frame one was put up on the north end 
of the island. The specifications provided that it should be of pine and 
cedar, twenty- five feet square at the base, ninety feet high and ten feet 
each way at the top. 

To get goods from the bluff down to the river was an easy matter, but 
it was far different to get a cargo from the shore up on the bluff. Even 
after the crane was erected, in the latter part of 1733, the work was slow 
and hard. However, as months sometimes elapsed between the arrivals 
of vessels, the stringent lack of " terminal facilities " did not have much 
effect on the commercial prosperity of the place. Peter Gordon's map 
of Savannah as it. was in 1734, locates the crane at a point on the bluff 
about mid-way between Bull and Whitaker streets. 

Year after year went by, and the colonists did not always produce 
enough to maintain themselves. Supplies were obtained from Carolina 
and England. This state of affairs lasted until toward the close of the 
first decade of Savannah's history when a change for the better began to 
take place. The settlers gradually accumulated a little surplus. In 1744 
a modest store and commission house was started. Charles Harris and 
James Habersham were the founders, and theirs is the credit of having 
established the first commercial house in Georgia. Harris & Habersham 

460 History of Savannah. 

was the name of the new firm. Their unpretentious place of business 
was under the bluff, by the water's edge, in the rear of the building on 
the Bay, which, for many years was occupied by Robert Habersham & 
Company's commission house. At first the settlers were opposed to mid- 
dlemen, but they soon found that the new firm afforded them many con- 
veniences which they had not previously enjoyed. Thomas Causdon had 
kept the public store and illy kept it according to the best accounts. 
Harris & Habersham gave great encouragement to the planters from 
whom they bought lumber, poultry, deer, hogs, skins and whatever pro- 
duce the farmers had. Before long the public store was discontinued. 
All this time the trustees were trying to make a success of the silk and 
wine culture. Neither proved profitable. Finally, about 1748, the trus- 
tees got hold of a letter written by James Habersham, who spoke of the 
adaptability of Georgia for general agriculture. Thereafter the trustees 
allowed the colonists to spend the appropriations for other purposes than 
the cultivation of the grape and the mulberry. 

Properly speaking, the year 1749 may be said to mark the beginning 
of Savannah's commerce. It was in that year the first vessel was loaded 
with a cargo in the Savannah River and shipped abroad. Harris & Hab- 
ersham were the exporters. They loaded a small vessel with lumber, 
skins, hogs and other produce of the infant Georgia, and consigned the 
$10,000 cargo to a London firm. This was the first effort to establish a 
foreign trade. In those days, and for years after, it was customary for a 
vessel to take on whatever was offered at Savannah, then to proceed to 
Charleston and perhaps take on more freight. Then if the vessel was 
not filled it would go on to New York and complete its cargo for Eng- 

The trustees had great faith in the ultimate success of silk culture. 
In 1750 another effort was made to encourage the enterprise. A year 
later a filature, or house for manufacturing the raw silk was built on the 
west side of Reynold's square. By this time it was apparent that Savan- 
nah was in a fair way to have a commerce of imposing value. Some 
assistance was needed. Therefore, when the first General Assembly of 
Georgia met, which was in Savannah January 15, 175 1, a paper was pre- 
sented to the body declaring that a proper pilot boat was needed and 
that permission was desired to erect a building under the bluff for the 

Commerce and Manufactures. 461 

convenience of the boats' crews. The memorialists further set forth the 
want of standard weights and measures and scales. An appropriation 
was also asked for making a survey of the river. One other want recited 
was an order to prevent masters of vessels from throwing ballast over- 
board into the river. And still another want, though hardly a long felt 
one, was a commissioner of pilotage. The colony was now nearing the 
end of its second decade. A small measure of success attended the per- 
sistent efforts of the silk growers. In 1757, 1,050 pounds of cocoons 
were received at the filature. Unfortunately, the building was burned 
the following year, and 7,040 pounds of cocoons besides a large quantity 
of manufactured silk were destroyed. The filature was rebuilt and was 
used for the manufacture of silk for several years, after which it was used 
as a city hall and public house. In 1839 ft was again burned and was 
never rebuilt. 

Savannah has passed through many a crisis, but the port's commer- 
cial interests have never had a more trying year than 1757. Governor 
Henry Ellis arrived here in February, to take control of the colonial 
government. He soon became impressed with the idea that Hardwicke, 
which stood at the mouth of the Ogeechee, in Bryan county, should be 
made the capital of Georgia. He took the ground that Hardwicke was 
more centrally and favorably situated than Savannah ; that the water 
was deeper and that lying farther from Charleston would enjoy a better 

This step had been talked of before. Governor Reynolds, who pre- 
ceded Ellis, had suggested it, and aroused strong opposition. Ellis made 
himself unpopular by advocating the removal. Uncertain as to the fate 
of the town, the citizens who feared that it would be deserted lost interest 
to some extent in the development of their homes and neglected to im- 
prove them. Though the project was not carried into effect, Savannah 
suffered by reason of the agitation. During the first quarter of a century 
of the colony's history little was done to encourage commerce. Up to 
1759 not a wharf had been built. Those few vessels which visited the 
port sailed as near the shore as they could and threw the lighter articles 
on the bank, landing the heavier ones in small boats. This was primitive 
and tedious, and in the twenty-seventh year after Oglethorpe's landing 
the construction of a wharf was undertaken, at a point under the bluff 

462 History of Savannah 

near the crane. Thomas Eaton was the builder. He worked under the 
direction of John G. William De Brahm, the surveyor- general of the 
southern provinces of North America. Wharf building was a far differ- 
ent art at that time from what it is now. The wharves which were built 
for several years thereafter were constructed on the same general plan, an 
idea of which may be obtained from a synopsis of the specifications. 
The builder was advised to drive two rows of piles as far asunder as he 
desired his wharf to be wide and as far toward the river as low water 
mark. Then he was to secure their tops with plates and to trunnel planks 
within on the piles. This done he was to brace the insides with dry 
walls of stone,, intermingled with willow twigs. In the same manner he 
was to shut up the ends of the two rows with a like front along the 
stream, to build inside what cellars he had occasion for, then to fill up 
the remainder with the sand nearest at hand out of the bluff or the high 
shore of the stream under the Bay. One chronicler has remarked that 
the construction of tljis wharf greatly benefited the town, for during the 
following year 41 vessels were entered, many more than ever before, and 
during the year 1766, six years after, 171 were entered. 

Governor Wright, who succeeded Governor Ellis, wrote of Georgia 
about the year 1760 that it was the most flourishing colony on the con- 
tinent. As yet there were no manufactures in the colony, for they were 
rigorously disallowed in all the provinces, but commerce and agriculture 
were carried on with much zeal and success. In a letter to the Earl of 
Hillsborough, Governor Wright said : " It is certain beyond a doubt that 
this province has, must, and will make a rapid progress, and in a few 
years will make as considerable a figure as most on the continent." 

Savannah's population in 1760 was 9,700, of whom 6,100 were whites. 
In that year the rice exported amounted to 3,283 barrels, besides 208 
barrels of paddy. 

In the entire commercial history of Savannah there is no single event 
of greater interest or importance than one which occurred in the decade 
between 1760 and 1 770. That event was the first foreign shipment of 
cotton made from the United States. Hitherto historians have sought 
in vain for the port which exported the first bale. It has long been well 
known that the first foreign shipment of what is now the great Southern 
staple was made in 1764. In that year William Rathbone, an extensive 

Commerce and Manufactures. 463 

American merchant in Liverpool, received from Mr. James Habersham 
of Savannah, a consignment of eight bags of cotton. On its arrival in 
Liverpool this cotton was seized by the custom house officials on the 
allegation that so much cotton could not have been grown in the Ameri- 
can colonies, and that it was liable to seizure under the shipping act, not 
having been imported in a vessel belonging to the country of the cotton's 

This consignment was the first attempt at exporting cotton from 
America. It was sent Irom here to Liverpool through one Dillon, who 
was Mr. Habersham's agent in New York. A matter of additional in- 
terest in this connection is the fact that the original manifest of this ship- 
ment was preserved for exactly a century. Along with a mass of other 
papers it was sent to a point in interior Georgia for safe keeping during 
the war. In 1864 Sherman's looters burned it. Although this city was 
the first American port to begin the trade, it was not kept up here. 
Charleston, on the other hand, quickly discovered^ that the trade would 
be a valuable one and cultivated it. 

This same year 15,212 pounds of cocoons were delivered at the fila- 
ture. Over one half of the silk was received from the Salzburgers who 
were settled at Ebenezer. The silk industry was growing steadily and 
there was an encouraging prospect of its ultimate success. Two years 
later the production of silk reached its height in Georgia, and thereafter, 
despite the encouragement of parliament, it continued to decline until it 
was finally abandoned in 1 77 1 , operations at the filature being discon- 
tinued in that year. In 1765 Savannah's commercial men were thrown 
into a high state of excitement by the passage of the obnoxious stamp 
act. The commerce of the town had grown to large proportions. When 
the stamps arrived in December there were between sixty and seventy 
sail in port waiting to be cleared. The people consented that the stamps 
might be used for this purpose, but for no other. This was done and the 
port was opened. The other colonies took offense at this, and South 
Carolina was especially indignant. Her citizens resolved that they would 
not ship provisions here, and they called Georgia an "infamous colony." 
It was further resolved that whosoever should traffic with Georgians 
should be punished with no less a penalty than death, and every vessel 
trading here was to be burnt. The Carolinians were in a hot temper, and 


464 History of Savannah. 

two vessels on their way to Savannah were seized before clearing Charles- 
ton bar, and with their cargoes were destroyed. Six months later the 
excitement ceased when it was learned that the objectionable act had 
been repealed. Up to that time all the supplies of silks, linens, woolens, 
shoes, stockings, nails, hinges, and tools of every sort came from Eng- 
land. Rice, indigo, corn, peas, a small quantity of wheat and rye, pitch, 
turpentine, shingles and staves were the chief products. Considerable 
attention was paid to stock raising, and Governor Wright hoped to make 
some slight essay at raising hemp the next year. In 1768 the filature 
sent to London 1,048 pounds of raw silk, " equal in goodness to that 
manufactured in Piedmont." Import duties were not acceptable, and on 
September 16, 1769, Savannah's merchants met at Alexander Creigh- 
ton's house and adopted a resolution to the effect that any person, or 
persons, whatsoever importing any of the articles subject to the new rate 
of duties, after having it in their power to prevent it, ought not only 
to be treated with contempt, but deemed as an enemy to their country. 
Pretty much the same relation existed between patriotism and the 
pocket-book that is declared to exist now. Almost to a man the im- 
porters were against any interruption of business, while the consumers 
were for resistance. Affairs ran on in an unsatisfactory way until the 
breaking out of the Revolution. The town grew, but there was a feel- 
ing of uneasiness. In 1773 the exports were valued at $379,422, very 
nearly double the value of the exports ten years before. A bill passed 
by the General Assembly early in 1774 indicates that the trade of the 
city was enlarging, for it explains that " whereas the increase of trade 
and quantity of produce brought for sale to the several ports of this 
province requires a regulation in the rates of wharfage and storage, and 
the number of vessels resorting to the said ports, and in particular to 
the port of Savannah, makes it necessary to have some person appointed 
to overlook and regulate such vessels while in the said port." 

By this act owners and lessees of wharfs were allowed to charge and 
demand certain fees which were then fixed. On rice the wharfage charge 
was one penny per half barrel. On rosin, turpentine, tar and beef the 
charge was one penny per barrel. Mahogany and logwood were im- 
ported largely, and staves, rice, turpentine, rosin and hides were exported. 

Throwing ballast or rubbish in the river was forbidden and made 










Commerce and Manufactures. 465 

punishable by a fine not exceeding ^"iOO a short time before the out- 
break of the Revolution. The long war for independence blighted com- 
merce. A part of the time the English had possession of the city and 
trade was practically at a stand still. Almost in the very middle of the 
war South Carolina offered to annex Georgia. An inducement held out 
to Savannah was that the country along the river above the city would 
be cleared and settled, and an amazing increase of produce and river 
navigation would follow and would center here. On the other hand if 
Georgia persisted in remaining in a state of separation from Carolina a 
town would rise on the north side of the river and would draw not only 
the business on its own side of the stream, but would in time draw the 
greater part of the trade on the south side of the river, in which event 
there could be but one result, the commercial ruin of Savannah. The 
proposition was declined, the town of prophecy never rose, and Savan- 
nah, far from being ruined, is to-day a more important port than Caro- 
lina's metropolis. 

Peace brought back a revival of trade and a new era of commercial 
prosperity began. The recovery of lost commerce, however, was slow. 
Practically, there was little capital. Private fortunes had shrunk during 
the seven years of hostilities. Five years after the war, in 1786, the ex- 
ports were only $321,377, which was $58,000 less than the value of the 
exports in 1773, two years before the war started. A little cotton had 
been planted every year, and in 1788 Thomas Miller, who probably knew 
of Charleston's trade in the article, grew some and bought more and 
made a shipment to England. There are still living some old citizens 
who knew " Cotton Tom" Miller, as he was familiarly styled. Miller 
has been given, erroneously, the credit of having exported the first bale of 
cotton from Savannah. This is a mistake which has long been accepted 
as a part of true history. As heretofore mentioned, Mr. James Haber- 
sham had exported eight bales twenty-four years before Miller shipped 
his first bale abroad. It is true that Miller developed the trade. Ark- 
wright's improvements in cotton spinning machinery were revolutioniz- 
ing that industry. 

Another interesting and important event, linking Savannah more 
closely to the history of the cotton trade, was the invention of. the cotton- 
gin by Eli Whitney, in 1793. This Yankee school-teacher set up his first 

466 History of Savannah. 

machine on his aunt's place, General Nathanael Green's plantation near 
Purysburgh, a few miles up the river. The young New Englander's in- 
vention was as great a factor in the development of cotton raising as Ark- 
wright's inventions were in its manufacture. Whitney is still remembered, 
too. For a long time after those days, communication between Savan- 
nah and the North was by sailing vessels, and there are old citizens who 
when young men were fellow-travellers by sea with the inventor, then 
well advanced in years, however. 

The gin acted as a great stimulus to cotton planting. This machine 
did away with the tedious and unsatisfactory hand method. Almost im- 
mediately the acreage in cotton was increased largely by the planters, who 
now saw in the culture of the plant a profitable crop. Charleston had 
early taken hold of cotton culture and was shipping it in considerable 
quantities to England before Miller became an exporter. His foreign 
trade did not grow rapidly at the start. In fact Savannah handled very 
little cotton until after Whitney constructed the gin. And indeed, al- 
though Charleston did pride herself on being the largest cotton port, it is 
certain that previous to 1794, the year after the gin proved a success, the 
annual amount of cotton produced in North America was comparatively 
inconsiderable. This is true even in the face of the declaration contained 
in the pamphlet entitled " A State of the Province of Georgia attested 
upon oath in the Court of Savannah," published in 1740, and in which it 
was averred of cotton that " large quantities have been raised, and it is 
much planted ; but the cotton which in some parts is perennial, dies here 
in the winter; which, nevertheless, the annual is not inferior to in good- 
ness, but requires more trouble in cleansing from the seed." 

Two important facts connecting this city with the history of cotton 
have already been mentioned. There is still another. Savannah has not 
only the credit of having exported the first bag of cotton ever sent from 
America and of the invention of the gin, but it was near here that the 
first Sea Island cotton ever raised in this country was grown. The seed 
of the Sea Island was originally obtained from the Bahama Islands about 
1785. It was known in the West Indies as the " Anguilla cotton." The 
first experiments with its culture on the American continent were made 
by Josiah Tattnall and Nicholas Turnbull, on Skidaway Island Subse- 
quently James Spaulding and Alexander Bisset planted the long staple 
on St. Simon's Island, and Richard Leake planted some on Jekyl Island. 

Commerce and Manufactures. 467 

The establishing of a cotton trade was the keystone of Savannah's com- 
mercial prosperity. Even for several years after the culture of the crop 
became general in the country around this city, Charleston continued to 
overshadow her efforts at advancement. The older city by her enterprise 
and greater wealth controlled a large portion of the valuable Sea Island 
cotton trade and all of Florida's business. More than this, Charleston 
became a closer competitor, as she penetrated through the inland route 
to the rice fields in the very neighborhood of Savannah, and secured a 
part of that crop. Toward the close of the century this city became a 
heavy importer of wines-and rum. Through the merchants here, the 
wealthy planters along the coast and inland and a great many of the Car- 
olina planters obtained from Europe the choicest vintages. Madeira was 
the favorite, and many and many a hogshead of it was brought here. 
By no means is it to be inferred that anything like all of it was sent out 
of the city. There were famous cellars in Savannah even then, nearly a 
century ago now, and there is wine down in some of them to-day that 
was brought over in the last century. 

By the fire of 1796 the city, which was then flourishing, received a 
set back from which recovery was slow. Notwithstanding this the year 
1800 found Oglethorpe's colony grown into a town of over seven thou- 
sand population, of whom not over five hundred were blacks. That 
year the exports were valued at over two million dollars. 

Statistics of the port's commerce for the succeeding twenty-five years 
are difficult to collate. Everywhere though on the records there is 
abundant evidence that business steadily increased. There were periods 
of unusual activity and years of depression, as during the second war with 
Great Britain. Cotton and rice were the leading articles of export. 
Sugar, molasses, salt and wines were imported largely. From 18 1 2 to 
18 1 5 the city's commerce shrank woefully. By 1818 the exports ex- 
ceeded $14,000,000 in value, a remarkable expansion of six hundred per 

Steam first became a factor in Savannah's commerce about 18 17. In 
that year there was a Savannah steamboat company, but there is very 
little written history of the corporation during the first few years of its 
existence. Within two or three years there was a steamboat plying 
regularly between Charleston and Savannah. Then it ran farther down 

468 History of Savannah. 

the coast, and as the years went by the number of steam vessels coming 
here increased steadily. One of the early lines was from Savannah to 
Augusta, but in this instance the steamboat was used for towing flats and 
barges between the two cities. Between 1840 and i860 a large part of 
the commerce was carried by steam vessels running regularly to North- 
ern and European ports. 

The year 18 19 is a red letter one in the world's commercial calendar, 
for it was in that year that steam navigation of the ocean was proved to 
be possible. Savannah furnished that proof, for she sent the first steam- 
ship across the Atlantic. Among this city's chiefest honors is that of 
having been the pioneer in steam navigation of the ocean. In 18 18, 
Messrs. Dunning, Scarborough, Sturges, Burroughs, Henry, McKenna 
and other leading business men here, at the suggestion of Captain Moses 
Rogers, had constructed in the North a combination steam and sailing 
vessel to ply between Savannah and Liverpool. The contract called for 
a vessel of 300 tons burden. When completed she was a full rigged 
clipper ship, fitted with engines and sidewheels. These wheels were 
made of wrought iron, were not covered and were so constructed that 
they could be folded over on the ship's deck. The supposition was that 
when the vessel had a good wind she would not need steam and a der- 
rick was arranged to lift the wheels out of the water and take them in 
when not in use. The vessel was christened the Savannah. She sailed, 
from this port May 20, 18 19, bound for Liverpool. Pitch pine was used 
tor fuel. As the supply was not inexhaustible it was husbanded. The 
wheels were used eighteen days out of twenty-two on the eastern voy- 
age. The sails were used on eight days. Steam vessels were rare in those 
days. The English did not know what to make of the vessel when she 
approached their coast with wheels revolving rapidly and her canvas set. 

When the Savannah arrived off Cape Clear she was signalled to 
Liverpool as a vessel on fire and a cutter was sent from Cork to assist 
her. The people crowded the Mersey's banks filled with " surprise and 
admiration when she entered the harbor of Liverpool under bare poles, 
belching forth smoke and fire, yet uninjured." The Savannah remained 
at Liverpool about a month and was visited by thousands of the curious. 
Captain Rogers was at liberty to sell his vessel, but he secured no offer 
which he would accept. FYom Liverpool he took his vessel to St. 

Commerce and Manufactures. 469 

Petersburg, where the Savannah attracted the attention of the Czar. 
On November 20, she steamed up the Savannah River, after a passage of 
twenty- five days, on nineteen of which she had used steam. She had ex- 
perienced not a little rough weather, but she rode all of it out safely with- 
out an accident. 

This first ocean steamer did not pay and the Savannah company sold 
her to New York parties, who took out her steam engine and made a 
packet vessel of her. She foundered off Long Island in a heavy storm 
a few years later. The Savannah's log-book and the cylinder from her 
engine are on exhibition in London. 

At the close of the second decade of this century Savannah was on 
the threshold of an immense trade. Her commerce had grown rapidly, 
her merchants were prosperous, many of them were wealthy for those 
days, and the city began to show the effect of the general prosperity. 
Her citizens who had laid up fortunes lived royally and entertained 
handsomely. On the sideboard were the finest wines, and the stranger 
who came properly vouched for, was apt to be as mellow as the vintages 
before he departed. Luxury is prima facie evidence of easy circum- 
stances. It was about this time that the people first knew the luxury — 
ice. Charleston had a large ice-house, and in 1818 the company estab- 
lished a branch here. In 18 19 a company was organized to bring 
Northern ice to this port. An old advertisement in a paper of 1819 
mentions that ice is highly desirable for cooling water, milk and wine. 
A decanter especially designed for the use of ice is advertised and recom- 
mended. At retail the ice was to be supplied for 6^ cents a pound. 
Regular patrons could get special rates, but the price was so high that it 
is safe to say the traffic was not large for years afterwards. 

The year 1820 was a sad one. Early in the first month a disastrous fire 
destroyed $4,000,000 of property. This was a most serious blow. But 
it was not the only one nor was it the worst. Sporadic cases of yellow 
fever had appeared from year to year, and in May, 1820. there was a case. 
Not until September, however, did the plague become alarming. Sailors 
from a vessel just arrived from the West Indies introduced a few cases 
into the city, which had a population of 7,500. Of these 6,000 fled. 
Although there were less than 250 deaths during September and Octo- 
ber, and the first week in November, when the disease was checked, busi- 

47° History of Savannah. 

ness, which had been paralyzed, was slow in recovering. The next year 
the exports fell off to $6,032,862, not one- half so much as they had been 
three years before. In 18 18 the imports were valued at $2,976,257 and 
in 1 82 1 at only $865,146. Not until six years after the visitations of 
fire and fever did commerce begin to attain its former proportions. In 
1825 the cotton shipments coastwise and foreign amounted to 137,895 
bags. The next year the shipments jumped to 190,578 bags. A quar- 
ter of a century later the exports scarcely exceeded in value those of 
18 18 It is doubtful if the city has ever had an era when her future 
looked brighter than in those two years (18 18 and 18 19), which saw the 
theater, the Independent Presbyterian Church, and the world's first ocean 
steamship, the Savannah, completed. When Savannah rounded her first 
century she was a thriving little city, after many mishaps once more en- 
joying a good measure of prosperity. Cotton and rice continued to be 
the chief articles of commerce. Cotton lead and was easily " king." 
The planters were the wealthy and aristocratic class, outnumbering the 
merchants. And this condition prevailed up to the war. During the 
quarter of a century between the port's entry on its second century and 
the great civil conflict Savannah's commerce flourished. It grew slowly, 
to be sure, but steadily. There were bad years and good vears, just as 
in the history of every city. As a rule the dull years were more than 
offset by the seasons when crops, shipments and prices were fair and 
good. In 1 841 the cotton shipments dropped off largely, but there was 
a heavy lumber trade. The next year there was a large cotton trade and 
the lumber shipments fell off. In 1845 the exports went away ahead of 
any previous year, with the cotton shipments coastwise and foreign 
amounting to 304,544 bags. About this time the lumber trade was a 
very valuable part of the commerce and in 1847 it threatened to displace 
rice and take second place itself. The commercial prosperity of the 
decade between 1850 and i860, the last one prior to the war, was marred 
in one year, 1854, by another epidemic and by a violent storm. The 
latter caused almost a total ruin to the rice crop and the fever unsettled 
every line of trade. Not until the following year did the statistics show 
how business had been affected. Then it was seen that the rice shipmenst 
had shrunk almost entirely away and the lumber trade had dwindled 
fifty per cent. This bad year was quickly recovered from and not even 

Commerce and Manufactures. 


the re- appearance of the plague two years later hurt the commerce 
materially. The year 1858 was a poor year but the succeeding one was 
especially prosperous, 469,053 bales of cotton alone, being exported. 
Uneasiness as to the political future had its effect on the business of Sa- 
vannah. Gathering clouds threatened a coming storm. He was obtuse 
indeed, who saw not that the commercial and financial pulse of the coun- 
try was keenly susceptible to the tension to which it was subjected. 
Even a four months' presidential canvass in these piping times of peace 
unsettles trade for upwards of a twelvemonth. What wonder then that 
in i860 and the few years immediately preceding, Savannah's commerce 
did not take tne leaps forward it had done in former years ! 

The opening of the Central Railroad to Macon in 1843 na o! been fol- 
lowed by the development of the country along its line. New trade came 
to Savannah, and with the building of the railway, which is now known as 
the Savannah, Florida and Western, another large territory was put 
within easy communication. Again when the city was on the eve of 
what seemed to be a magnificent future, fate stretched out her hand and 
stayed the increased prosperity which was ready to pour itself over the 
State's metropolis. 

The following table gives the exports, foreign and coastwise con- 
solidated, of cotton, rice and lumber for a period of twenty years prior 
to the war : 













28 543 





3 [ 7,47i 






for'on only 

for'gn tier. 











4.72 History of Savannah. 

Four years of war came and once more business was practically sus- 

In 1861, 1862, 1863 and 1864 the port was blockaded, consequently 
there were no exports or imports during these years excepting what was 
run through the blockade, of which no account can be given. In 1865, 
exports (the property of the Confederate States and of the citizens of Sa- 
vannah) were carried on exclusively by the officers and men of the United 
States government in its ships. Late in December, 1864, Sherman 
seized all the cotton and numerous other articles. The cotton he shipped 
to New York, where it brought a high price. Commerce, which had 
been practically suspended for four years, now began to be resumed. 
Sherman had destroyed the railroads, and the State had been reduced 
from wealth to poverty. Men whose private fortunes had been swept 
away went to work to build up anew. The younger men too entered 
business for themselves, thus setting the precedent which has given 
Savannah to-day probably the youngest set of successful business 
men to be found in any city. The high prices obtained for cotton led 
the planters to increase their acreage, and the receipts here jumped 
up to over half a million bales in 1867, and to three quarters of a mil- 
lion in 1870. Since that year the receipts have reached 900,000 bales, 
and the day is not far distant when they will turn the one million 

The opening of the Alabama Midland through a rich cotton belt 
in Alabama is bringing the products of that section here. The com- 
pressing of cotton has been an important business for years. Six 
powerful hydraulic presses handled 6,900 bales a day in the busiest sea- 

Up to 1882 New Orleans was the only port which received more cot- 
ton than Savannah. Since that year Galveston has held second place. 
This year Bay street's merchants are resolved to send Savannah's re- 
ceipts to the million bales mark. The heaviest receipts on any one day 
were 15.000 bales in October, 1889. 

The exports of cotton since the war have been : 

Commerce and Manufactures. 







t865 i 60,144 

1866 101,737 

1867 i 286,67> 

1868 ! 164,674 

1 869 i 260,366 

I87O j 478,941 

I 87 I I 289,000 

1872 j 373-793 

1873 ' 373730 

1874 ! 426,090 

1875 ; 420,881 

1876 ! 368.844 

1877 \ 298,546 

1878 : 348,596 

1879 1[ 458,208 

1880 1 423,896 

1881 1 498,551 

1882 ! 336.648 . 



1 885 : 389,290 

1 886 ! 400.437 

1887 ; 485.999 

1888 ! 384,440 

1889 320,343 


3.3 2 9 













* 5L335 

190,02 3 

38l,9II I 

394.833 j 

296.345 I 

317,874 I 

383.316 J 

-89,828 I 

478,935 i 
476.803 I 


6 700 










An important line of trade with a unique history, is the naval stores 
business. Naval stores in the commercial world, means spirits of turpen- 
tine and rosin, the product of the pine tree. Up to 1870 Georgia's forests 
were a mine of undeveloped natural wealth, as rich as a Comstock lode. 
And the former were above ground in plain view and known to hun- 
dreds of thousands. In 1883 the president of the Board of Trade wrote: 
" Twelve years ago a barrel of rosin or spirits of turpentine was scarcely 
known in this market, while to-day Savannah is known as the largest 
naval stores market in the world, our receipts for the past fiscal year be- 
ing 133,139 barrels of spirits and 564,026 barrels of rosin, the aggregate 
value of which is about $4,000,000, ranking second to cotton in value." 

A North Carolina farmer or two were the pioneers in developing the 
naval stores trade of Georgia. Their own State was exhausted and they 
sought new fields. Georgia offered them the richest pine forests on this 
continent. From those forests, men who came to Savannah fifteen and 
twenty years ago with a few hundred dollars capital have made hand- 


History of Savannah. 

some fortunes, and retired from business. The history of commerce 
offers few cases which can parallel that of the naval stores industry for 
quick money making. Savannah is likely to continue to be the chief 
naval stores port of -the world for several years to come. The time must 
come, however, when the vast forests will be worked out. 

In the year which ended March 31, i838, the receipts of turpentine 
were in round numbers 170,000 barrels. During the year which closed 
March 31, 1889, tne receipts fell off about 10,000 barrels, but that was 
due to - the voluntary shortening of the crop by the manufacturers who 
hoped to realize good prices thereby, and they succeeded. 

Here is a table showing the growth of the trade for fifteen years, back 
of which the business was comparatively small : 














1 888 




3'. '38 



45 2 o7o 


The history of the rice and lumber trades has been sketched in connec- 
tion with the growth of the port's general commerce. As already men- 
tioned, rice was the principal article of export in the middle of the last cen- 
tury, 2,996 barrels being shipped in 1753, and 7,500 barrels in 1 763. Lum- 
ber did not become an important article of export until 1841. Since that 
date, however, this trade has been most important. The Vale Royal lum- 
ber manufacturing mills west of the city have a history running back half a 
century. The rice mills are but little younger than the culture of the cereal. 

Another business which lias grown rapidly and has a promising future 
is the fertilizer trade. Savannah was for years a mere buyer and seller, 
a middleman pure and simple. Recently local firms have gone into the 

Commerce and Manufactures. 


manufacture of fertilizers from the South Carolina rock, and the city's 
trade is about $2,500,000 a year. 

The shipment of fruits and vegetables is no small item in the commerce 
of the port. During the spring and summer vast quantities of fruits, melons 
and vegetables are shipped north and west. The coffee importing trade, 
which amounted to $200,000 a year, has declined owing to quarantine reg- 
ulations. Salt, coal, tropical fruits, hides, wool, fish, oysters, pig iron, yarns 
and domestics form important articles of export and import. Professional 
hunters come here every winter and trap game for the pelts. Oysters and 
fish are shipped away in large quantities. The pig iron comes chiefly from 
the Alabama mines. A fact not generally known is that the " wire grass" 
wool is the finest clip shorn in America. It is free from dirt and oil, and 
brings the highest price. Engaged in bringing and carrying away Savan- 
nah's imports and exports are three railroad lines, and regular steamship 
lines to New York, Boston, Philadelphia, and Baltimore. The steamships 
and sailing vessels which come here go to every port in the world. 

The statistics given below represent the value of the exports and im- 
ports by water alone for a period of sixteen years : 

Exports for Year End- 
ing August 31. 


Naval Stores 

Lumber and- Timber. . 


Pig Iron 

Hides and Wool 

Fruits and Vegetables 
Yarns and Domestics . 
Miscellaneous ....'. . 

Total Exports. 

IMPORTS.— Fertilizers , 


Hav and Grain 




Total Imports 










$ 38807.726 •■? 36.191.441 $ 





1,01 5.580 






■93, x 35 



2 1 2 304 







3 500,620 


2. 127.21 2 



$ 54,764.082 $ 51,028.190 $ 48313,216 § 46.425.513 





? 52659,233 


224 340 
1 26.000 
5 1 2.000 




1 25,000 



1 25.000 
500 000 

S 51.118,524 I 49.881,080 1$ 49,112.316 

$102,146,714 S 98,194.296 1$ 95.537.829 


History of Savannah. 

Exports for Year End- 
ing August 31. 


Cotton $ 4i-773- 26 S. 

Naval Stores 

Lumber and Timber. 


Pig Iron 

Hides and Wool 

Fruits and Vegetables 
Yarns and Domestics . 


















Total Exports $ 53,915-934 $ 52,004,248 

$ 48,019,799 




1 58,760 


1,200,1 50 





$ 58.9S5.901 $ 47,836,411 

IMPORTS. — Fertilizers 


Hay and Grain 



Miscellaneous. ....... 

2,270.455 I 2,370,985 
210,015 j 219.650 

333.476 360,525 

Total Imports 




$ 47,699796 



S 45952,105 







$ 48,716,900 $ 45.522,480 

$ 97.956,353 1*107,702,801 $ 93-358,891 

Exports for Year End- 
ing August 31. 


Cotton $32525777 S 3' -993- '23 $ 

Naval Stores 

Lumber and Timber . 


Pig Iron 

Hides and Wool 
Fruits and Vegetables 
Yarns and Domestics. 


1 813420 






628 005 











Total Exports $ 40,901,421 $ 39,978,988 $ 32,103,853 $ 38,885 464 

Imports. — Fertilizers 























Total Imports 


43 064,472 





$ 37,691,967 






68,41 1,761 

$ 76,577,43' 

Commerce and Manufactures. 


Exports for Year End- 
ing August 31 



Naval Stores 

Lumber and Timber.. 


Pig Iron 

Hides and Wool 

Fruits and Vegetables 
Yarns and Domestics. 



3 44,005,476 $ 47,774,638 $ 61.314.818 



















40,61 5 





Total Exports $ 50,282,282 $ 54.261,553 j$ 67,826,399 $ 39.509.716 

S 34,266,847 

' '548-895 

1 87,649 






IMPORTS. — Fertilizers 


Hay and Grain 




Total Imports . . . 







1.545 860 






$ 41.072,759 $ 38.370,685 

$ 91.355.041 ,$ 92.632.238 





250 000 








S 38.135.382 S 32,849,056 

.$105,961,781 $ 72.358,772 

The above statement does not include receipts and shipments by rail, 
nor does it include the value of domestic traffic, local manufactures, bank- 
ing, etc., but is confined strictly to value of exports and imports which 
have a direct bearing upon our water-ways transportation. While values 
have decreased during jhe past fifteen years about one-third, the values 
in 1886, compared with 1872 in volume, are nearly 50 per cent, greater. 
This is due to the large increase in tonnage. The item of " miscellane- 
ous " in imports embraces bagging, iron ties, tobacco, boots and shoes. 
bacon, dry goods, hats,, clothing, drugs, furniture, hardware, crockery, 
sugar, flour, cigars, canned goods, and manufacture.] articles generally. 

During the Revolutionary War the river was so obstructed by 
wrecks and otherwise that at the close of hostilities it became abso- 
lutely necessary that the obstructions should be removed or Savannah 
would not have any commerce. So in 1787 an act was passed by the 
General Assembly of the State " levying a tax of 3 pence per ton on all 
shipping entering the port of Savannah, the same to be appropriated 
and set apart as a fund for clearing the river of wrecks." In 1822 
steam passenger vessels were exempted from this tax, and the next year 


History of Savannah. 

it was repealed. In 1772 there were entered and cleared at the custom 
house 161 sail of vessels. The imports for that year were valued at 
;£8io, and the exports at .£2,963, a total of .£3,773. In 1872, a cen- 
tury later, the entrances alone were 1,156 vessels, and the exports and 
imports were valued at more than $72,000,000. 

The magnitude of the shipping is shown by the statistics which fol- 
low and which are for the year 1888 : 

American vessels entered 
American vessels cleared . 
Foreign vessels entered . 
Foreign vessels cleared . 


Entered coastwise . 
Cleared coastwise 







1 1 1 








793 1,046,651 

Total foreign . . 
Total coastwise. 


Grand total I 1,271 | 1,306,705 







Savannah has never had much to boast of in the way of manufactures 
outside of the rice mills and usual flour mills, foundries, machine shops, 
and such industries of that kind as are found in every city. Within a 
few years past, however, the manufactures have grown and not slowly. 
Planing and saw mills, furniture factories, fertilizer and chemical works 
for the manufacture of sulphuric acid, a cotton mill and cotton seed oil 
mill are the most important works. Cigars are made in large quantities, 
and a brewery is in successful operation. An artificial ice factory is one 
of the most novel as well as useful industries. 

The Savannah Board of Trade was organized in April, 1883. It was 
the successor of the Naval Stores Exchange of which Mr. C. S. Ellis was 
president, and which changed its charter and its name and became the 
Board of Trade. This organization is composed of business men, the 
most of whom are engaged on the Bay. Congress and Broughton streets. 
At the Board rooms telegraphic reports of the naval storts, grain and 
provision markets are received and posted. Statistics are there kept of 



the yearly transactions of the port in the various trades represented by 
the board. The first president of the Board of Trade was H. Fraser Grant. 
His successors have been James K. Clarke, Fred M. Hull, (two years) 
and John R. Young, who is now serving his second term. The superin- 
tendents have been, R. M. Rieves, George P. Walker, John Henderson, 
and S. McA. White. 



Central Railroad and Banking Company — History of its Organization and Growth 
— Ocean Steamship Company — Savannah, Florida and Western Railway— Savannah 
and Tybee Railroad— Central Railroad Bank — Merchant's National Bank — Savannah 
Bank and Trust Company — Southern Bank of the State of Georgia — National Bank of 
Savannah — The Oglethorpe Savings and Trust Company — Citizen's Bank — Title Guar- 
antee and Loan Company — Building and Loan Associa'ions. 

THE relations of a city to its radiating lines of travel will always indi- 
cate the measure of its present and future prosperity. Georgia was 
one of the first States in the Union to encourage railway enterprise, and 
it is a notable fact that her pioneer road, the Central, made Savannah its 
starting point. The progress of this road is inseparably connected with 
the history of Savannah, and not only shows the city's advancement but 
that of the State as well. Its history is full of interest and instruction, 
and is well worthy of consideration. 

The Central Railroad was chartered December 14, 1835. Colonel 
Crugar made the first experimental survey in 1834. at the cost of the 
city of Savannah. In 1835 the Central Railroad and Hanking Company 
was organized with W. W. Gordon, the originator of the scheme, as pres- 
ident. In 1836 it began work, and on October 13. 1843, tne roa d was 
completed to Macon, Ga., a distance of one hundred and ninety miles, on 
which day a train passed over the whole line to the depot at Macon. L. 
O. Reynolds was chief engineer of construction. In July, 1838, passen- 
ger trains began running regularly the first twenty-six miles. In 1838 

480 History of Savannah. 

the charter of the branch road to Augusta was granted, and Savannah 
subscribed $100,000 to construct it. 

During the year 1842 Mr. W. W. Gordon, the projector and genius 
of this enterprise, died, and Mr. R. R. Cuyler was elected president. 
Forty years later the Central Railway Company, in grateful recognition 
of Mr. Gordon's great service, erected a beautiful monument to his mem- 
ory in the Court House Square on Bull street. No stronger tribute could 
be uttered to his memory than the words used by Chief Engineer Rey- 
nolds in his official report for the year 1842. " The steadiness and deter- 
mination with which he pursued the great object of benefiting his native* 
State and this city, and promoting their prosperity, ought to give his 
name a place among the most distinguished of public benefactors. It 
was an object which was remembered in his latest aspirations to heaven, 
but a few moments before he yielded up his spirit to Him who gave it." 

In April, 1845, tne railroad owed $440,095 of bonds. Its stock had 
risen from $20 a share to $50, and its bonds from 75 cents to $1.00 value. 
This year the Macon and Western Railroad was completed. The neces- 
sity of the connection with Augusta and Columbus was strongly pressed. 
The Central Railroad subscribed $250,000 to the Southwestern Railroad 
Company. In 1849 William M. Wadley became superintendent, suc- 
ceeding Mr. Reynolds. The Southwestern was opened from Macon to 
Oglethorpe in July, 1850. The Central Company invested in 1850, $20,- 
OOO in the Milledgeville and Gordon Railroad, $95,000 in the Augusta 
and Waynesboro, and $100,000 in the Fort Valley and Columbus Rail- 
road. The first named road was opened to Midway in October, 185 1 ; 
the Augusta Railroad to Station 1 in November, 1851 ; the Fort Valley 
and Columbus in 185 I. 

In 1 85 1 the capital stock of the Central was $3,000,000, of which 
$205,000 was appropriated to banking, The road was valued at more 
than $3,000,000. 

In 1853 Mr. William M. Wadley resumed control as superintendent. 
In this year the reports show for the first time the statements of kinds of 
freights. The road carried 1 19,019 bushel of corn ; 2.709,863 pounds of 
copper ore, and 77,987, hides. 

Although yellow fever desolated Savannah in 1854. but a single trip 
was lost on the line of this road, the company having at this time 283 

Railroads. 481 

miles of road on a capital of $5,382,000, including the leased branches of 
the Augusta and Milledgeville roads. The year 1865 witnessed a re- 
markable growth of business. The reserve fund had grown to $578,260. 
The cotton freights more than doubled, reaching 390.485 bales; hides, 
179,374; copper ore, 14,348,146 pounds ; wheat 427.358 bushels. 

In 1856 the Central yielded up the lease of the Augusta and Waynes- 
boro road. In 1857 the Southwestern Road was completed to Albany, 
in which the Central had $318,000 of stock. The Mobile and Girard 
Railroad and the Charleston and Savannah Railroad were both under 
way. The Memphis and Charleston was finished, which gave the Central 
737 miles of connection with the Mississippi at Memphis. 

Emerson Foote became superintendent of the Central in 1857, but in 
1858 was succeeded by Mr. George W. Adams. In 1857 the Central 
took stock in the New York and Philadelphia steamship companies, thus 
beginning the policy it has so largely carried out. This was both a bold 
and politic stroke of financial management. In 1859 this steamship in- 
vestment was increased to $280,000 This year the company carried 
96,000 bales of cotton in one month, and made its first engine in its own 
works, and built its first passenger car. 

Up to the close of the year 1859 the Central Railroad Company had 
done a great work, not only in the construction of its own lines, but in 
aiding to build the railroad system of the State It had paid nearly half 
a million to the Southwestern Railroad ; $100,000 to the Augusta and 
Savannah Railroad ; $30,000 to the Montgomery and West Point Rail- 
road, subscribed all of the iron used in building the Gordon and Eaton- 
ton Railroad, paid mostly for the steamship lines, and granted nearly 
$400,000 of endorsement to the Western Railroad, the Columbus Rail- 
road, and the Mobile and Girard Railroad. 

The year i860, the last year before the war, demonstrated a magnifi- 
cent culmination of prosperous progress. The consolidated wealth of 
the road was [$6,590, 173 ; railroad capital, $4,366,880; bank matters, 
$1,236,018; bonds and stocks in other companies, $928,441 ; reserve 
fund, $1,221,095 ; outstanding bonds only $86,067; income from rail- 
road, $1,696,998 ; income from bank, $113,371 ; railroad expenditures, 
$950,450; dividends, $458,340; carried to reserve fund, $377,050; cot- 
ton shipments, bales, 413.3 14; way cotton shipments, bales, 129,405; pas- 

482 History of Savannah. 

sengers, 105,823; lumber shipments, feet, 8,170,378 ; fertilizer shipments, 
pounds, 18,540,980 cars, 729 ; engines, 59. 

The war put its destructive hand on this great railroad. Its income 
was reduced at one stroke $657,385, or over one-third. It carried freight 
for the Confederate government at fifty per cent, under its regular rates, 
and took into its treasury $342,600 of Confederate treasury notes. In 
1862 it leased the Augusta and Savannah Railroad and patriotically 
subscribed, to various charitable and war funds. The transportation of 
troops was the principal business, and the cotton fell off almost to nothing. 

The year 1864 was a particular severe one to the company. From 
Gordon to Savannah 139 miles of the railroad was destroyed by Sher- 
man's army, and for forty miles wide its line was devastated. The pres- 
ident, Colonel R. R. Cuyler, died, and W. B. Johnston was elected in his 
place. The latter served for one year when he was succeeded by Colonel 
William M. Wadley. 

At the time President Wadley assumed charge, but little had been 
done to put the road in running order. ' He immediately started ener- 
getically upon the rehabilitation of the road. 

The year 1867 saw the Central Railroad well re-established. Its 
capital stock was $4,661,800, representing the railroad and its appurten- 
ances, worth $4,472,000 and $869,803 of stocks and bonds in other com- 
panies. The loss by war in bank operations had been $485,055. The 
expenditure in renewing the railroad was $1,357,140. The cotton busi- 
ness grew to 272,427 bales. 

Seeing in the construction of rival lines and the loss of through busi- 
ness by competition injury to his road, Mr. Wadley began that far- 
reaching plan of expansion, which has resulted in the present massive 
and profitable railway and steamship scheme of transportation. It is at 
once the pride of Georgia, and has maintained against all encroachments 
the commercial supremacy of Savannah as a great cotton port. Mr. 
Wadley projected with a broad generalship, and his successors have 
carried out his grand ideas. In 1S6S he invested in the Montgomery and 
West Point Railroad, the Western Railroad from Montgomery to Selma 
and the Mobile and Girard Railroad, and a through freight system with 
the New York steamers was established. In 1869 the Central Railroad 
leased the Southwestern Railroad, and bank agencies were established at 

Railroads. 483 

Macon and Columbus as well as at Albany. In 1870 Mr. Wadley 
bought for the company the Vale Royal Plantation, on the canal next to 
the river, where the splendid wharves of the road now lie. This year 
the guano business ran to 90,000,000 pounds. In 1871 Mr. Wadley 
leased the Macon and Western Railroad as another protective measure 
in his broad plan of development. He also began branches to Blakely 
and Perry. In 1872 Mr. Wadley bought six steamships, paying $600,- 
000 in bonds. In March of this year Captain W. G. Raoul became as- 
sistant roadmaster of the company. 

In 1875 the Western Railroad of Alabama was bought by the Cen- 
tral Railroad and Georgia Railroad for $1,643,128 each. This year the 
Ocean Steamship Company was chartered and organized with a capital 
stock of $800,000, and the Central Railroad sold to this company its six 
steamships and wharf property. Mr. Wadley was elected president. 

In 1876 the Southern Railway and Steamship Association was or- 
ganized with Mr. Virgil Powers as general commissioner. Captain W. G. 
Raoul was made superintendent of the Southwestern Railroad. The Cen- 
tral had a prosperous line of steamers on the Chattahoochee River. 
During this year Savannah was visited by a yellow fever pestilence which 
desolated the city and cut down the receipts of the road. The road 
never stopped a day. 

The year 1878 was signalized by the resumption of dividends which 
had not been paid in three years. Four new steamships were bought 
and put on the line. The capital stock of the steamship company was 
increased to $800,000, while its property was worth $1,300,000. 

In 1879 the Central obtained a controling interest in the Vicksburg 
and Brunswick Railroad Company and the Montgomery and Eufaula 
Railroad Company. In 1880 Captain W. G. Raou' was made vice-pres- 
ident of the company as the assistant of the president. 

In 1 88 1 the board issued $3,000,000 of debentures, or certificates of 
indebtedness, to the stockholders The Ocean Steamship Company had 
grown until its earnings ran to $466,442, netting $301,121. Four new 
steamers were bought this year, making the investment in steamships 
$1,598,734. A line of steamers was bought to run to Philadelphia. It 
had built a cotton press, $60,000; an elevator, $23,254, and a ware- 
house, $18, 26S. Among its purchases was the famous steamer Dcssoug. 

484 History of Savannah. 

which had brought the Obelisk from Alexandria in Egypt' to New York,' 
This year Mr. Wadley effected the lease of the Georgia Railroad at a 
rental of $600,000 a year. 

On the ioth day of August, 1882, the genius of this magnificent Cen- 
tral system, Colonel William M. Wadley, died at Saratoga, in the sixty- 
ninth year of his age, and in his seventeenth year as president of the 
company. General E. P. Alexander was elected president. His report 
summarizes the condition of the road : Mileages — 1,1 50 miles, main sys- 
tem ; estimating steamship company at 250 miles; connecting system, 
458 miles; total, 1,608 miles; capitalized at $25,995,150 and stocked 
at $7,500,000, making an aggregate of $33,495, 1 50, or $20,830 per mile. 
The 458 miles connecting system were the Central's proportion in 857 
miles of railway, making the whole mileage it influenced 2,009. 

The growth of the great corporation has been constant. At the close 
of the year 1888 the mileage of the road was as follows: Central Rail- 
road proper and branches, 333 miles; Savannah, Griffin and North Ala- 
bama Railroad 60 miles ; Upson County Railroad, 16 miles; Southwest- 
ern Railroad and branches, 334 miles; Montgomery and Eufaula Rail- 
road, 80 miles ; Columbus and Western Railroad, 157 miles ; Mobile and 
Girard Railroad, 85 miles; Columbus and Rome Railroad, 50 miles; 
East Alabama Railroad, SJ miles; Eufaula and East Alabama Railroad, 
40 miles ; Eufaula and Clayton Railroad, 21 miles; Port Royal and Au- 
gusta Railroad, 112 miles; Port Royal and Western Carolina Railroad, 
229 miles ; Augusta and Savannah Railroad, 53 miles ; Buena Vista and 
Ellaville Railroad, 30 miles; total, 1,637 miles. 

Its lines cover Georgia and Eastern Alabama with a net- work of steel, 
and run through South Carolina from seaboard to mountains, worth al- 
together nearly $50,000,000, and giving employment to thousands of 

The freighting facilities of this road are unsurpassed, and a visit to the 
company's yard and wharves will reveal a wonderful scene of activity 
and interest. In the Central's yards in Savannah are 1 1 miles of track, 
two warehouses (800 and 300 feet in length respectively), and a cotton 
platform capable of holding 20,000 bales of cotton. The company's 
wharves are a revelation of enterprise, and constitute a scene of business 
activity not to be excelled anywhere. There are upon the wharf prem- 

Railroads. 485 

ises 30 acres of improvements, viz., 10 acres of platforms on piles, IO 
acres undercover of sheds, 5,700 feet of wharf front, including 700 feet 
of lumber wharves, 5 acres of naval stores wharves, wharf room for 50,- 
OOO bales of cotton, storage houses for 100,000 tons of fertilizers, 10 
miles of track, 4 great cotton warehouses, with a capacity of 30,000 bales, 
a grain elevator capable of holding 270,000 bushels, a cotton compress 
compressing 3,200 bales of cotton per diem, and numerous platform and 
track scales. The working force at the wharves (full complement) is 
800 men and 18 special policemen, commanded by a sergeant, who is also 
assisted by numerous watchmen, assuring perfect order throughout all 
the departments. 

The Ocean Steamship Company, which forms such an important part 
of the Central Railroad system, has a fleet of ten magnificent steamships 
plying between Savannah and the Northern ports, making regular sched- 
ules from this city to New York, Boston, and Philadelphia. The follow- 
ing steamships compose the fleet: Nacoochee, City of Savannah, City of 
Augusta, Tallahassee, Chattahoochee, City of Macon, Gate City, Dessong, 
City of Birmingham and Kansas City. 

The City of Birmingham was added to the line in 1889, and was 
built at Roach's ship- yard Chester, Pa., for this company. She has 
triple expansion engines of 1,500 horse-power. Her cargo capacity is 
about 2,400 tons on a draft of 17 1-2 feet. She carries 7,000 bales of 

The Kansas City made her first trip about the beginning of the pres- 
ent year. She is the fastest and finest steamship in the Atlantic coast 

The steamers of the fleet carry 5,000 to 7,000 bales of cotton each, 
and IOO or more first-class passengers, and have long been known to the 
traveling public as unsurpassed in safety, speed, comfort and elegance. 

The Ocean Steamship Company contemplates building two additional 
steamers for t'.ie line, and in the comparatively near tuture a daily line of 
steamers will doubtless be in operation between Savannah and New York. 

The line formed by the Ocean Steamship Company and the Central 
Railroad and connections is already carrying a large freight traffic be- 
tween the east and Memphis, Kansas City, and other points west, actu- 
ally competing successfully in rates and time with the all rail routes. 

486 History of Savannah. 

General G. M. Sorrel is general manager of the Ocean Steamship 
Company. The general officers of the system are as follows : President, 
E. P. Alexander; cashier, T. M. Cunningham; general manager, Cecil 
Gabbett ; general manager Ocean Steamship Company, G. M. Sorrel ; 
comptroller, Edward Mclntyre ; traffic manager, W. F. Shellman ; gen- 
eral freight agent, G. A. Whitehead ; general passenger agent, E. T. 
Charlton ; general counsel, Pat Calhoun. 

The Central Rail Road and Banking Company is the greatest single 
instrumentality of advancement in this section of the country, and its 
splendid ocean steamships, extensive wharves, elevators, compresses, ter- 
minal facilities and banking houses, are magnificent monuments to the 
wisdom of its founders. Savannah has a particular reason to be proud 
of the "old Central," through whose achievements in no little degree is 
due her present wealth and population. 

Savannah, Florida and Western Railway, a worthy contemporary of 
the Central, was first known as the Savannah and Albany Railroad. 
Under this title a charter was secured and an organization effected in 
1853. Dr. John P. Screven was the president of the company until his 
death, and to his foresight and energy the State of Georgia and the city 
of Savannah are in a great measure indebted for this enduring monument 
of his public skill and wisdom. With Dr. Screven were associated Col- 
onel Nelson Tift, the earliest projector of railroads in Northern Georgia, 
John Stoddard, Hiram Roberts, William Duncan, H. D. Weed, and Dr. 
R. D. Arnold. 

In 1854 the name of the company was changed to the Savannah, Al- 
bany and Gulf Railroad Company. The importance of securing for the 
city of Savannah the business of southern Georgia and Florida was per- 
ceived by the citizens of Savannah, and a subscription of one million dol- 
lars was obtained from the city toward building the road. About this 
time a charter was obtained by another company named the Atlanta and 
Gulf Railroad Company for the construction of the line west of Screven 
station, sixty-eight miles from Savannah, for which State aid was obtained 
amounting to one million dollars, while the city of Savannah also sub- 
scribed two hundred thousand dollars. The latter company, however, 
consolidated with the Savannah, Albany and Gulf Railroad Company in 

Railroads. 487 

The road was completed to Thomasville when the war began, when 
further progress was arrested until 1867 when it was opened to Bain- 
bridge. During the period of the war the company derived no profit from 
the property, and when the Confederacy terminated, the road was almost 
a ruin. For nearly one-third of its length the track was torn up and the 
depots and bridges burned. The work of re-construction, however, be- 
gan soon after the war closed, and the road was opened for business in 
March, 1866. In the same year it was connected with the Florida Rail- 
road at Lawton. 

For some years after the war the road proved an unprofitable invest- 
ment. The impoverished condition of the territory through which it then 
passed as well as unwise management, threatened its very existence. ■ At 
this critical period Mr. H. B. Plant, with some other capitalists, bought 
the property, and under his management it has become a giant in the 
railroad world. After its purchase by its present owners its name was 
changed to the Savannah, Florida, and Western Railway Company, but 
is best known as the " Plant system." 

The policy of its management has been comprehensive, far-seeing and 
sagacious, and it is now one of the best equipped railroads in the coun- 
try. It has made connections, opened up new industries, tapped fresh 
regions of trade and created remunerative business. The line runs from 
Charleston through Savannah to the Chattahoochee river, and to Jack- 
sonville, with branches to Albany, Bainbridge, Gainesville, Brunswick, 
Port Tampa, Thomasville and Monticello, with a steamship line from 
Tampa to Havana and Key West. Its own proprietary and leased lines 
make more than eight hundred miles under one management. 

The business in naval stores was the creation of this company. A 
few years ago the State of Georgia did little in this line, and to-day it is 
the largest naval stores market in the world. In 1873 the production of 
naval stores was 19,000 barrels. In 1884 it was 425,761 barrels, and in 
1887 it was 787,337 barrels. 

One of the most important enterprises of the company was to build a 
short line from Waycross to Jacksonville, seventy-six miles, which re-* 
duces the distance by rail from Savannah to Jacksonville, to 172 miles. 
This line is known as the Waycross and Florida Railroad Company, and 
is under separate management, but belongs to the " Plant System." H. 

488 History of Savannah. 

S. Haines is president of the road, and William P. Hardee is secretary 
and treasurer. Another bold and progressive step of this company was 
the extension of the road from Bainbridge Junction to Chattahoochee, 
linking it to the great west by a connection at Chattahoochee with the 
Pensacola and Atlantic Railroad, making a shorter route from the sea 
coast cities to Pensacola, Macon and New Orleans. 

It will be seen that the Savannah, Florida and Western Railway has 
done a wonderful work. Aside from its local traffic in the orange Eldor- 
ado of the world, that wonderful sanitarium of the invalid, it is now the 
vital part of a great trunk line and the channel for foreign travel. Its 
officers are : H. B. Plant, president ; W. S. Chisholm, vice-president ; 
R. B. Smith, secretary; H. S. Haines, general manager; R. G. Fleming, 
superintendent; A. A. Aveilhe, assistant superintendent; W. B. McKee, 
comptroller ; W. P. Hardee, general freight and passenger agent ; J. M. 
Lee, treasurer; W. W. Dowell, cashier; O W. Jackson, master trans- 
portation ; C. D. Owens, traffic manager. 

The Savannah and Tybee Railroad Company was incorporated in No- 
vember, 1885. The construction of the road from Savannah to Tybee 
Beach, a distance of nineteen miles, was commenced in August, 1886, 
and completed in April. 1887. To Captain D. G. Purse, the president 
of the company, must be given principal credit for the accomplishment 
of this long desired road. Mr. Purse's grandfather Thomas Purse, was 
prominently identified with the construction of the first railroad in Geor- 
gia. Since the construction of the Tybee Railroad, Tybee Island has be- 
come easy of access, and is now the most popular resort of Savannahians. 


Savannah passed through the monetary troubles incident to the disas- 
ters of the War of 18 12, the bankruptcies of 1837, tne monetary troubles 
of 1842, and the national panic of 1857 with unusual credit. But during 
the late civil war all of the Savannah banks invested in Confederate bonds 
and currency, and when the war ended all except the Central Railroad 
Bank were obliged to suspend. Besides the Central there were in success- 
ful operation previous to, and during the war, the Bank of the State of 
Georgia, Planters, Farmers and Mechanic's, Marine, Bank of Commerce, 
and the Bank of Savannah. 






Banks. 489 

The oldest bank in Savannah is that of the Central Rail Road and 
Banking Company. It was incorporated in 1836. It, in connection 
with the railroad has had a most prosperous career. The policy of the 
bank has always been a conservative one, and it has thus been enabled 
to withstand the storms of severe crises and panics. The capital of the 
company is $7,500,000. The officers of the bank are : E.P.Alexander, 
president; T. M. Cunningham, cashier; A. G. Ulmer, assistant cashier; 
directors, E. P. Alexander, S. M. Inman, C. H. Phinizy, E. M. Greene, 
J. C. Calhoun, A. Vetsburg, H. T. Inman, P. Calhoun, J. K. Garnett, Joe 
Hull, Evan P. Howell and James Swan. The bank building is located at 
No. 115 Bay street. 

The Merchants National Bank was incorporated in 1866. Its present 
capital is $500,000. This was one of the first banks of Savannah to re- 
sume business after the war. It is located on the northeast corner of 
Drayton and St. Julian streets. The officers are: J. L. Hammond, pres- 
ident; S. P. Hamilton, vice-president; Thomas Gadsden, cashier; direct- 
ors, M. Maclean, F. M. Bloodworth, G. L. Cope, S. P. Hamilton, S. 
Guckenheimer, S. Herman and J. L. Hammond. 

The Savannah Bank and Trust Company was organized in 1869, and 
has a capital of $400,000, Its officers are: J. D. Weed, president: J. 
C. Rowland, vice-president; James H. Hunter, cashier; directors, J. L. 
Hardee, R. G. Irwin, J. D. Weed, C. A. Reitze, D. C. Bacon, J. C. Row- 
land, J. Lyons, M. Y. Maclntyre, W. Conly, Isaac G. Haas, Edward Ka- 
row, of Savannah, and W. Walter Phelps, of New York. 

The Southern Bank of the State of Georgia was organized in 1870. 
Its capital is $500,000. The present officers are: John Flannery, presi- 
dent; Horace A. Crane, vice-president; James Sullivan, cashier; direct- 
ors, Eugene Kelly, of New York, E. A. Weil, John Flannery, J. B. Duck- 
worth, S. B. Palmer, Lee Roy Myers, Horace A. Crane. 

The National Bank of Savannah was incorporated in October, 1S85, 
and commenced business with a capital of $250,000. It is located at 
120 Bryan street. The officers are: Herman Myers, president; Will- 
iam Garrard, vice-president; T. F. Thompson, cashier; A. L. Rees, 
assistant cashier; directors, Herman Myers, William Garrard, Joseph J. 
Dale, A. A. Einstein, William E. Guerard, Henry Bendheim, George 
J. Baldwin, Jesse P. Williams, Frank X. Douglass, S. A. Woods, and A. 

49o History of Savannah. 

The OgletJiorpe Savings and Trust Company was organized in 1887, 
and has a paid up capital of $125,000 and an authorized capital of $500,- 
OOO. The officers are: J. J. Dale, president; Herman Myers, vice- 
president; James Sullivan, cashier; directors, J. J. Dale, W. Garrard, H. 
Myers, J. Lyons, W. E. Guerard, A. Hanley, S. Meinhard, J. P. Will- 
iams, G. J. Baldwin, L. Kayton, C. C. Schley. 

The Citizens Bank on the corner of Drayton and Bryan streets, was 
opened January 3, 1888. It has an authorized capital of $500,000, but 
the present working capital is $200,000. The officers are: William 
Rogers, president; C. H. Dorsett, vice-president; G. C. Freeman, cashier; 
directors, William Rogers, C. H. Dorsett, G. N. Nichols, J. H. Estill, D. 
Wells, J. R. Young, H. C. Cunningham, D. R. Thomas. 

The Title Guarantee and Loan Company of Savannah has by its 
charter banking priviliges. Its authorized capital is $500,000. George 
H. Stone, is president ; Isaac Beckett, secretary ; E. L. Hackett, cashier, 
and M. J. Solomons, treasurer. 

The private bankers are Charles H. Olmstead & Co., (Charles H. 
Olmstead, Henry Hull and Francis S. Lathrop) and Henry Blun. 

Savannah has several loan, savings and building associations which 
have had a most salutary bearing on the financial history of the city for 
the last few years. They have been the means of encouraging small sav- 
ings and the excellent manner in which they have been managed has 
made them profitable to all interested in them. 

Among the oldest of these associations is the Jasper Mutual Loan 
Association which was organized in 1882. P. W. Meldrim, is president 
and secretary. The directors are, J. C. Rowland, H. Myers, Thomas 
Daniel, J. S. Wood, George Turner, R. B. Reppard. 

The Railroad Loan Association was organized in 1883. The officers 
are, William Rogers, president; R E. Mimms, treasurer; H. C. Cunning- 
ham, secretary and solicitor; the directors are, A. R. Lawton, jr., George 
N. Nichols, H. C. Cunningham, H. F. Train, E. Mclntyre, W. S. King, 
W. W. Rogers, William Kehoe. 

The Chatham Real Estate and Improvement+Company was organized 
in June, 1885. Its present capital is $300,000 but its authorized capital 
is $500,000. The officers of the company are, J. H. Estill, president; 
C. H. Dorsett, vice-president ; M. J. Solomons, secretary and treasurer ; 

Loan Associations. 491 

A. R. Lawton jr., attorney; directors, C. H. Dorsett, Lee Roy Myers, 
M. J. Solomons, W. P. Schirm, H. P. Smart, H. C. Cunningham, C. S. 
Connerat, William Kehoe, W. G. Cooper, F. H. Thompson. 

The Catholic Library Hall Association was organized in 1887. The 
capital stock is $20,000. The officers are, John Flannery, president; P. 

F. Gleason, vice-president; William Kehoe, treasurer; directors, A. 
Hanley, P. F. Gleason, J. F. McCarthy, W. J. Harty, A. Fernandez. M. 
A. O'Bryne, P. J. O'Connor, J. F. Harty, J. Flannery. 

The Metropolitan Savings and Loan Company was organized in 1887 
and has a capital stock of $100,000. The officers are: W. B. Stillvvell, 
president; A. P. Solomon, vice-president ; W. L. GIgnilliat, secretary ; 
W. L. Wilson, treasurer; directors. W. B. Stillwell, B. A. Denmark, J. 
P. Williams, M. Y. Maclntyre, G. W. Allen, C. H. Wilson, J. R. Young, 
A. P. Solomon, E. F. Bryan, W. J. Lindsey, H. M. Hutton, I. G. Haas. 

The remaining associations of this character are: 

The Equitable Building and Loan Association. — J. S. Collins, presi- 
dent ; W. K. Wilkinson, treasurer ; J. L. Whatley, secretary. 

Excelsior Loan and Savings Company. — R. F. Harmon, president ; 

W. A. Walker, treasurer ; S. L. Lazaron, secretary ; directors, R. F. 

'Harmon, W. F. Chaplin. W. A. Walker, S. L. Lazaron, W. T. Leopold, 

J. T. Wells, B. C. Wright, H. S. Dreese, C. E. Broughton, G. M. Ryals, 

W. F. Hogan. 

Franklin Savings and Security Company. — C. P. Miller, president; 

G. H. Miller, vice-president and secretary; directors, Levi Hege, R. S. 
Mell, A. J. Miller, J. O. Morse, C. F. Snedeker. 

Pulaski Loan Association. — R. D. Walker, president ; G. Bourquin, 
treasurer; William Garrard, secretary; directors, A. L. Hartridge, A. B. 
La Roche, G. S. Haines, N. O. Tilton, I. A. Solomon. R. F. Harmon. 

Southern Mutual Loan Association. — M. J. Solomon, president; C. 
S. Hardee, treasurer, W. D. Harden, secretary and attorney; directors, 
R. B. Reppard, A. S. Bacon, J. H. Estill, J. C. Rowland, C. H. Dorsett, 
J. W. Fretvvell. 

The Merchants and Mechanics Loan Association. — D. G. Purse, presi- 
dent ; A. Wylly, treasurer; J. Lawton Whatley, secretary; directors, J. 
C. Rowland, B. H. Levy, S. J. Wheaton, H. J. Reiser, G. F. Byrnes, M. 
Helmken. , 

492 History of Savannah. 

The Workman s and Traders' Loan and Building Association. — 
George W. Lamar, president; W. L. Wilson, treasurer; J. L. Whatley, 
secretary; directors, V. S. Studer, S. J. Wheaton, C. A. Fleming, J. 
Asendorf, William Scheihing, L. Alexander. 



First Religious Instructors — Careers of the Wesleys in Savannah — Work of George 
Whitefield — Christ Church — St. John's Church — Congregation Mickva Israel — B'Nai 
B'reth Jacob Synagogue — Lutheran Church — Independent Presbyterian — First Pres- 
byterian — Methodist Churches — Baptist Churches— Roman Catholic Churches — Col- 
ored Churches. 

AMONG the one hundred and twenty-five persons who, in 1733, ac- 
companied Oglethorpe and assisted him in founding Savannah, was 
a minister of the Church of England, by the name of Henry Herbert, to 
whom was entrusted the spiritual guidance of this little flock, all of whom 
were believers in the Christian religion, as one of the conditions of their 
becoming colonists was that they should take the oath against the doc- 
trine of transubstantiation. Catholics, consequently were excluded, and 
were not admitted in Georgia until it became a royal province in 1752. 
Henry Herbert organized the first Episcopal congregation in Georgia, 
and for one hundred and fifty-six years Christ Church, which he founded, 
has had an existence in Savannah Services were held in Oglethorpe's 
tent, or in open air, as the weather permitted, until late in 1733, when 
a court-house was erected on Bull street, at what is now the northeast 
corner of Bay lane, in which services were held until 1 750. 

In 1736 the little hamlet of Savannah was increased in population by 
the arrival of three hundred settlers, among whom were two remarkable 
men, Charles and John Wesley, whose subsequent careers have influ- 
enced the theologies of England and America in a wonderful manner. 
The vessel carrying them cast anchor off Tybee Island on the 5 th of Feb- 

Churches. 493 

ruary, and early in the morning of the following day the voyagers landed 
on Coxspur Island, where, surrounded by his fellow-passengers, John 
Wesley, the father of Methodism, first lifted his voice in prayer, in a land 
where the present generation sees his followers exceeding in numbers 
those of any other Christian denomination. 

John Weslev had been appointed by the society for propagating the 
gospel in foreign parts. On the 7th of March, 1736, he preached his first 
sermon in America upon the text from the Thirteenth Chapter of St 
Paul, First Epistle to the Corinthians, n Christian charity," the service be- 
ing held, so tradition says, on the site of Andrew Hanley's paint store on 
Whitaker street. Thus, through the Wesleys, is Savannah inseparably 
linked with the rise of Methodism in America, which is further proved by 
Wesley himself who says: "The first rise to Methodism was in 1729, 
when four of us met together in Oxford. The second was in Savannah 
in 1736, when twenty or thirty met at my house." 

Another instance in the religious history of Savannah which gives 
peculiar prominence to the place was the establishment of a Sunday- 
school in the parish of Christ Church by Rev. John Wesley, which was 
without doubt the first attempt in this manner to instruct the young in 
biblical truths in the world. This occurred nearly fifty years before Rob- 
ert Raikes began this form of Sunday instruction in Gloucester, Eng., 
and eighty years before the first school was established in New York. 
The Sunday-school started by Wesley was continued by Whitefield at 
Bethesda, and is still carried on, being the oldest Sunday-school in the 
world. Nor does this finish the identification of John Wesley with Sa- 
vannah. Here his first book of hymns was written, which was printed in 
Charleston in 1737. But one volume has survived. It is a small book 
of some seventy- four pages, bearing a title page as follows : " A collec- 
tion of psalms and hymns, Charleston, printed by Timothy Lewis, 1737." 

The mission of the Wesleys proved, however, unfortunate and brief. 
Their religious zeal outran their discretion, and they were soon embroiled 
in conflicts with the authorities and the people whom they did not un- 
derstand. There were faults on both sides. In the summer of 1736 
Charles was sent back to England with dispatches by Oglethorpe, who 
followed him soon after, and on the evening of the 2nd of December. 
1737, John Wesley " Shook off," as he said, " the dust off my feet and 

494 History of Savannah. 

left Georgia, after having preached the gospel there (not as I might, but 
as I was able) one year and nearly nine months." Embarking from 
Charleston about the 15th of December, John Wesley arrived in the 
Dozvns in February, 1738, passing his friend and brother Methodist of 
Oxford, George Whitefield, outward bound for Georgia, neither knowing 
the other's proximity. 

Whitefield arrived in Savannah May 7, 1738, and having more tact 
and worldly wisdom than the Wesleys, and from his parentage and early 
associations better adapted to cope with the rude minds of which the 
colony was chiefly composed, he succeeded where they had failed and 
laid in Savannah the foundation of his subsequent American reputation 
as an earnest pastor, teacher, and eloquent pulpit orator. The announce- 
ment of his death in Newburyport, Mass , in July, 1770, was received in 
Savannah with profound sorrow. A clergyman of that day writing to a 
brother clergyman in England, said: "You can have no conception of 
the effect of Mr. Whitefield's death upon the inhabitants of the province 
of Georgia. All the black cloth in the stores was bought up. The pul- 
pit and desks of the church, the benches, the organ-loft, the pews of the 
governor and council, were covered with black. The governor and coun- 
cil, in deep mourning, convened at the State house, and went in proces- 
sion to church, and were received by the organ playing a funeral dirge. 
The Presbyterian church was also draped in mourning, and its pastor, 
Rev. Dr. Zubley, preached an appropriate sermon on his death, from the 
third verse of the twelfth chapter of Daniel, ' They that be wise shall 
shine as the brightness of the firmament, and they that turn many to 
righteousness as the stars forever and ever.' " 

Much relating to the early religious history of Savannah and the State 
of Georgia, has been recorded in the preceding chapters of this volume, 
and " It furnishes," says William B. Stevens, in his History of Georgia " a 
striking group of facts, that John Wesley, the leader of the greatest reli- 
gious movement of the eighteenth century ; that Charles Wesley, the 
purest and most popular hymnist of the age; that George Whitefield, 
whom Christian and infidel pronounced the greatest preacher of his gen- 
eration ; that James Oglethorpe, one of the noblest philanthropists of his 
country; that Christian Gottlieb Spangenburg, the first Moravian bishop 
in America, and David Nitschman, the founder of the settlement of Beth- 

Churches. 495 

lehem, in Pennsylvania, were all personally and intimately connected with 
Georgia, and contributed to shape its character and its institutions." 

In the following pages we have attempted to give as full a history of 
each religious denomination of Savannah as is possible in a work of this 

Christ Church. — The history of this church dates from July 7, 1733, 
when the lot upon which the present edifice stands was laid out, but no 
attempt was made to build upon it until in 1740 when a frame building 
was commenced. Six years later it was still in an unfinished condition 
as President Stephens at that time wrote of it: "The roof of the church 
is covered with shingles, but as to the sides and ends of it, it remains a 
skeleton." It was not completed until 1750 when on the 7th of July of 
that year, it was formerly dedicated. The great fire of 1796 reduced it 
to ashes, after which it was rebuilt but was greatly damaged by the gale 
of 1804. The present church built after the Grecian Ionic order of arch- 
itecture was commenced in 1838, the corner-stone being laid on the 26th 
of February, of that year. Upon the stone the following inscription 
was placed. 

I. H. S. 

Glory to God. Christ Church. 

Founded in 1743. Destroyed by fire 1796. 

Refounded on an enlarged plan in 1803. 

Partially destroyed in the hurricane of 1804. 

Rebuilt in 1810. Taken down in 1838. 

The corner-stone laid (February* 26, 1838) of a new edifice to be erected ("according to 
a plan furnished by James Hamilton Crouper, esq., of Georgia) by Amos Scudder, 
mason, and Gilbert Butler, carpenter, under the direction of William Scarborough, 
William Thorne Williams, Robert Habersham, William P. Hunter, Dr. F. Bartow, 
building committee. 

Rev. Edward Neufville, pastor. 

George Jones, M.D., William Thorne Williams, Robert Habersham, William Scar- 
borough, R. R. Cuyler, William P. Hunter, and P. M. Kallock, M.D., vestrymen. 

Rev. Henry Herbert was the first pastor of the congregation who as 
previously stated came to Georgia with Oglethorpe in 1733. He was 
however soon succeeded by Rev. Samuel Quincy who remained until 
1735 when Rev. John Wesley became pastor. The latter's pastorate was 
brief, as in 1736 Rev. William Norris succeeded him, Rev. William Metcalf 

496 History of Savannah. 

was next appointed, but he died before he entered upon his duties, and his 
place was filled by Rev. Mr. Orton who died in 1 742. The next pastor was 
the renowned Rev. George Whitefield under whose pastorate the church 
greatly flourished, and he may be almost regarded as the founder of the 
church as under him the parish was regularly ordained in 1843 and the 
first church building erected. Rev. T. Bosomworth who succeeded 
Whitefield was displaced and Rev. Bartholomew Zouberbuhler was ap- 
pointed. The latter remained in charge until 1763, and during his rec- 
torship Colonel Barnard presented the church with the first organ ever 
seen in Georgia. From 1763 to 1768 and from 1775 to 18 10, and from 
1815 to 1820 there is no record to show who were the rectors in charge. 
Rev. Hadden Smith was rector in 1774. He was a pronounced loyalist 
and his views gave great offense to the Liberty party. In July, 1775, 
he was forbidden to officiate in Georgia and the doors of Christ Church 
were closed against him. The Savannah Gazette declared him an enemy 
to America, and so excited was the popular feeling against him that he 
was forced to flee from the city with his family. Services were discon- 
tinued during the early period of the war but were resumed after the 
capture of the city by the British. 

From 1 8 10 to 18 14 Rev. John V. Bartow, officiated as rector. Dur 
ing his pastorate the church was rebuilt. In 1815 the first confirmation 
services in Georgia were held in this church by Bishop O'Hara of South 
Carolina, sixty persons being presented by the pastor Rev. Mr. Cranston. 
Rev. A. Carter who succeeded Mr. Cranston, died in 1827. He was 
followed by Rev. Edward Neufville who died in 1851, after having filled 
his responsible position for nearly a quarter of a century. " He was," 
says Bishop William Bacon Stevens, '* a charming man, a loving, tender 
pastor and was respected by the entire community. Never have I heard 
our litany read with more unction and effectiveness than by him, while 
his reading of the Bible was like an illuminated exposition of it, so ex- 
quisite were his modulations and so sweet and musical his voice." He 
was succeeded by Rev. A. B. Carter who remained only a short time, 
when Right Rev. Bishop Stephen Elliott became pastor. The latter re- 
signed charge of the church temporarily in November, 1859, and Rev. 
Dr. J. Easter was in charge for a short time prior to the arrival of Rev. 
Dr. Batch in February, i860. Bishop Elliott resumed the rectorship in 

Churches. 497 

1861 when Rev. Charles H. Coley was called to assist him. Bishop 
Elliott died in 1866. He was a man of fine mental attainments, of great 
piety, and thoroughly beloved for his exalted Christian character. 

Rev. Mr. Coley remained in charge of Christ Church, after Bishop 
Elliott's death, until the fall of 1868 when he accepted a call to another 
field of labor. The church was temporarily supplied for some months 
thereafter, when Rev. J. M. Mitchell was ordained rector. The present 
pastor of the church is Rev. Robb White. 

St. John's Church. — St. John's parish was organized in 1840 and for 
some time services were held in a building on South Broad street west of 
Barnard street. This church is contemporaneous with the creation of the 
Episcopate of Georgia, and was consecrated on the 28th of February, 
1841, five weeks after the consecration of the first bishop of Georgia, 
Rev. Stephen Elliott, who became the first pastor of the church. The 
present church building was erected in 1853 and dedicated by Bishop 
Elliott. It is a gothic structure, built after the style which prevailed 
in England in the thirteenth century of the Christian era. During the 
war the members of this church were particularly active in benevolent 
work. St. John's Aid Society being organized in December, 1861, and 
St. John's Hospital being opened in January, 1862, the latter being the 
first in the city to receive sick and wounded Confederate soldiers. The 
following rectors have officiated in this church : Revs. Rufus M. White, 
George H. Clarke, C. F. McRae, and Samuel Benedict. The present 
pastor, Rev. Charles H. Strong became rector in 187S, and under hi s 
labors the church has enjoyed a remarkable degree of prosperity. There 
are nearly five hundred families in the congregation and about the same 
number of communicants making St. John's the largest Episcopal parish 
in. the State and one of the largest in the South. 

Congregation Mickva Israel. — A few days after Oglethorpe's arrival 
on the site of Savannah, thirty or forty Israelites arrived direct from 
London. Most of them a few years later departed for the older and 
more prosperous town of Charleston. But three of the original families 
remained, the Minis, Sheftall and DeLyon families. This small number of 
Jews however brought with them two scrolls of the Law and the Ark, and 
soon after organized the congregation of xMickva Israel. It is impossible 
to ascertain with reasonable certainty the exact spot where the Hebrews 


498 History of Savannah. 

first assembled for the purpose of divine worship, but tradition has it 
that a room near the market in the neighborhood of Bay street lane was 
the place. Here they worshipped until the congregation was tempor- 
arily dissolved by the removal of most of the Hebrew families to Charles- 
ton in 1740 or 1 74 1. Several years later an effort was made to reorgan- 
ize the congregation. Mordecai Sheftall fitted up a room in his own 
house on Broughton street where services were held until the Revolu- 
tionary War caused their suspension. In 1786 the congregation was re- 
established and two years later a charter of the congregation was 
granted by Governor Edward Telfair. 

It was not until 18 1 5 that the first synagogue was erected on the site 
of the present building on the corner of Liberty and Whitaker streets. 
The lot was granted by the city council for the purpose. In 1829 this 
wooden structure of small dimensions was destroyed by fire, but fortu- 
nately the building was insured, and the Seraphim and Ark were saved 
from injury. A brick building was erected on the same site in 1838 and 
here the congregation continued to worship until the present Gothic 
temple was erected. During the early history of the congregation no 
regular clergyman was engaged to perform divine services which, added 
to the fact that the laws of the congregation prevented foreign Jews be- 
coming members, caused the organization to make little progress. 
When the latter restriction was removed in the middle of the present 
century, new life was infused into it. In 1852 Rev. Jacob Rosenfeld 
the first regular minister was appointed. He continued until 1861, when 
he resigned and the congregation was again without a minister until 
1867, when Abraham Einstein having been called to the presidential 
chair, Rev. R. D'C. Lewin was secured Rev. Isaac P. Mendes the 
present pastor belongs to a family of ministers, his uncle Abraham P. 
Mendes presiding over the Hebrew congregation of Newport, R. I., and 
his cousin H. Pereira Mendes over that of Shearith Israel, New York 
city. The present pastor of Mickva Israel began his labors in Savannah in 
[877, and his been very successful in promoting the interest of the con- 

The Congregation of B'nai B'rith Jacob was founded in September 
i860, and owes its origin to a society bearing the name of B'nai B'rith 
which existed prior to the formation of the congregation. In 186 1 it 

Churches. 499 

was chartered and commenced holding services in Armory Hall. The 
first president was Rev. J. Rosenfeld who officiated as minister until 
1865 when Mr. Simon Gertsman commenced officiating as lay reader. 
In 1867 the corner-stone of the present building was laid by Rev. R. 
D'C. Lewin, and in September of the following year the synagogue was 
dedicated. In January, 1868, Rev. J. Rosenfeld was elected the first 
paid minister of the congregation. 

The Congregation of Chebrah Talmud Torah was organized in re- 
cent years. B. M. Garfunkel is president. 

Lutheran Church. — The early population of Savannah was largely 
composed of Salzburgers, who during the period between 1736 and 1744 
fled to Georgia to avoid religious persecution. Those who remained in 
Savannah formed the nucleus of a church organization in 1744. For 
several years the members had no regular minister and only occasional 
services were held. A small church was built on the site of the present 
church on the eastern side of Wright square, where in 1759 Revs. Raben- 
horst and Wattman officiated. Some time prior to the Revolutionary War 
Rev. Mr. Bergman took charge of the church. In 1787 the church was 
reorganized, but the services were conducted in the German language of 
which the younger portion of the congregation was ignorant and in con- 
sequence a want of interest was manifested, and the church was closed. 
No effort was made to revive the organization until 1824 when Dr. Back- 
man of Charleston gathered the families of the Lutheran faith and suc- 
ceeded in resuscitating the congregation. Rev. Stephen A. Mealy took 
charge of the congregation in this year and conducted the services in 
English. He remained until 1839 when he accepted a call to Philadel- 
phia and was succeeded by Rev. N. Aldrich in 1840. In 1843 a brick 
edifice was erected, upon the site of the original church at a cost of $15,- 
OOO. In the last few years a new church building has been erected, 
which is the third edifice built on the same site. In the rear of the pul- 
pit is a memorial window to Thomas Purse, a member of the church for 
more than half a century and one of Savannah's most respected citizens. 
In 1850 Mr. Aldrich was succeeded by Rev. A. J. Karn who remained 
until 1859, f rom which time the church was closed until 1861, when Rev. 
J. Hawkins took charge, but he remained only a few months. After his 
departure the church was again closed until June, 1863, when Rev. D. M. 

5<do History of Savannah 

Gilbert was installed pastor. The present pastor is Rev. W. S. Bowman 
under whose efforts the church has become much strengthened. 

Independent Presbyterian Church. — The following history of this 
church is compiled from a sketch which appeared in the May number of 
the Old Homestead: " The congregation of ""This church it is reasonable 
to suppose was organized some time previous to 1756, as in this year it 
is ascertained the congregation obtained a grant of a lot upon which to 
build a church from the Colonial government trustees. The grant was 
made to James Powell, Robert Bolter, James Miller, Joseph Gibbons, 
William Gibbons, Benjamin Farley, William Wright, David Fox, and 
James Fox. This lot upon which the first church was built is between 
Bryan and St Julian streets, facing west on Market square and extend- 
ing east to Whitaker street. After the completion of the church, a brick 
edifice, a call was extended to Rev. John J. Zubly who accepted and re- 
mained pastor until 1778. He took charge of the church in 1760 and in 
1770 the degree of D.D. was conferred upon him by the college in New 

" After Dr. Zubly, the pulpit was supplied bv Rev. Mr. Phillips until 
1790, and by Rev. Mr. Johnston until 1793. Both of these gentlemen 
were sent out to Savannah by Lady Huntingdon, to have especial charge 
of the orphan asylum established by herself and Whitefield at Bethesda, 
whose one hundred and thirty-ninth anniversary was celebrated Tues- 
day, April 23, 1889. Rev. Mr. McCall was called in 1794, but died in 
1796. Rev. Walter Monteith came in 1797, and left in 1799, but it is 
uncertain whether he was the regular pastor or not During his stay, 
in 1796, the church was destroyed by fire, and until a new one was built 
the congregation worshiped in the Baptist church, the Baptist congrega- 
tion having no pastor until they called Dr. Holcombe ; after which the 
Presbyterian congregation used the Baptist church half of each Sunday 
until the new church was finished, in the year 1800. 

"This second church was built on a lot purchased by the congrega- 
tion and situated on St. James square or Telfair place, between York 
and President streets. It was a frame building and was blown down 
during the great storm in 1804. 

"In 1800 Rev. Robert Smith was called to take charge of the church. 
He died in 1803 and was succeeded by Rev. Robert Kerr who also died 

Churches. 501 

soon after. Rev. Samuel Clarkson then discharged the duties of pastor 
until 1806. 

" In 1806 all the original trustees being dead the Legislature passed 
another act chartering the church and appointed nine new trustees. In 
the fall of this year Rev. Henry Kollock became pastor. This distin- 
guished divine was born in New Jersey in 1778 and at the early age of 
thirteen was licensed to preach. Under the administration of Dr. Kol- 
lock the congregation grew rapidly and in 1 8 17 the corner stone of a new 
church was laid and two years later the building was completed. This 
edifice, recently destroyed by fire, stood on the corner of South Broad 
and Bull streets. It was one of the handsomest in an architectural sense 
in the country. It was described 'as a poem in architecture, a dream 
in stone, and a petrified religion.' The total cost of the building, not 
including the five lots, was $96,108.67-5-. The proposed width of the 
middle aisle was 12 feet, but was afterwards reduced to 11. The side 
aisles were 5-5- feet, the width of pews on broad aisle 3 feet 2 inches, 
length 12 feet; width of pews on side aisles, next the wall, 6 feet 4 
inches, length 5 feet 6 inches, being nearly square, with seats on two 
sides. The other pews on the side aisles were 9 feet long and 3 feet 2 
inches wide. The galleries were 13 feet wide. The size of the main 
building was 80 by IOO feet, and accommodated 1,350 people. The 
height of the steeple from the ground to the top of the lightning-rod was 
223 feet. Inside the building, from the center of the dome to the floor 
was 44 feet. 

"" Notwithstanding the large capacity of the building, old members 
of the congregation say that during the services held by Dr. Kollock the 
building could not comfortably contain the congregation. John H. 
Green, of New York, was the architect, and for grandeur of design and 
neatness of execution it was not surpassed by any in the United States. 

" On May II, 18 18, the pews on the lowest floor were sold at public 
auction for sixty thousand dollars, and that same year the church raised 
Dr. Kollock's salary to four thousand dollars and sent him to Europe for 
the summer. In May, 18 19, the church was finished, and the services 
were deeply and solemnly impressive. 

"On December 29, 18 19, Dr. Kollock died very suddenly at the par- 
sonage, aged forty-one years. His remains were surrendered to the 

502 History of Savannah. 

trustees at their earnest solicitation by his widow, on condition that her 
body should be placed by his at her death. A vault was erected in the 
old cemetery, in which his remains were deposited. A monument was 
placed over the vault, surrounded by an iron railing. The memorial 
tablet placed in the church was destroyed by the recent fire. At the 
death of this great man the city was draped in mourning, the stores were 
closed, and universal grief expressed. All the city officers, members of 
the bar, societies, judges, children of the schools, and citizens generally 
attended his funeral. 

"The organ was finished in 1820, at a cost of $3,500, and Lowell 
Mason, the well known composer of church music, was engaged. It was 
during this engagement of Lowell Mason's that he composed the well- 
known tune of ' Missionary Hymn,' and set it to the words of the hymn 
' From Greenland's Icy Mountains,' written by Bishop Heber, for use 
at a missionary meeting in the church where it was sung for the first 

" After the death of Dr. Kollock the pulpit was supplied by Rev. 
William Wallace and Rev. Mr. Capers for one year. In January, 1821, 
Rev. Mr. Otterson was engaged to supply the pulpit, at a salary of $125 
per month, and after him Rev. Mr. Magee preached for a short time. 
Rev. Daniel Baker was called, but declined. Rev. Dr. Snodgrass was 
called January, 1822, from North Carolina as regular pastor, at a salary 
of $2,500, but remained only until June, 1823. The Rev. Samuel B. 
Howe D.D., of New Brunswick, was then called and remained until the 
summer of 1827. 

" Rev. Dr. Baker temporarily filled the pulpit after Dr. Howe's death 
until the winter of 183 1, when Dr. Willard Preston was called from Mad- 
ison, Ga. He was a Congregational minister, who never had any con- 
nection with the presbytery. He preached his first sermon on Christmas, 
183 1, and received his call, at a salary of twenty-five hundred dollars, on 
January 14 following. He found two hundred and sixty-eight commu- 
nicants when he took charge. 

" The old organ, upon which large sums had been expended, was 
ruined by the great storm of September 8, 1854, and it was concluded to 
procure a new one by subscription. It was finished in 1856, at a cost of 
$6,000. In this same year a furnace was placed in the church at a cost 
of $522. Previously the church had never been heated. 

Churches. 503 

"Dr. Preston's health being very feeble at this time, he applied for 
leave of absence, stating that he had served the church for twenty- four 
years and had been absent but four times. Leave was granted, and $650 
raised to defray his expenses. His health declined, and on April 26, 
1856, he died, at the age of seventy-two, having been pastor for over 
twenty- five years. A tablet to his memory was placed in the church, 
and a monument to his name in Laurel Grove cemetery. In 1857 a lot 
was purchased in this cemetery to be kept as a burial spot for the pas- 
tors of the church who die in its service. 

" After the death of Dr. Preston several ministers preached at different 
times. Those who remained the longest were Rev. W. M. Baker, from 
August 3, 1856, for six weeks; Rev. D. H. Porter, pastor of the First 
Church, for three months. That church was unfinished then. Dr. Har- 
denberg, of New York, filled the pulpit from November, 1856, until June. 
1857; Rev. C. W. Rogers from June, 1857, until November, 1857, at 
which time Rev. I. S. K. Axson, D.D., was called from Greensboro, Ga., 
at a salary of three thousand dollars. He accepted the call in Novem- 
ber. In 1863, on account of the fabulously high prices caused by the 
war, the congregation presented him with $1,000, and in 1864 with $3,- 
500 more. In the latter year the trustees added $1,500 to this amount, 
in addition to his regular salary. In 1866 Dr. Axson's life was insured 
for $5,000 by the trustees, for the benefit of his family. 

" As far as can be ascertained, the following are all the legacies which 
have been left the church: In 1841 Mr. James Wallace left the church 
$2,000 for the purpose of erecting an iron railing about the lot. In 1855 
the church became residuary legatee under the will of Mrs. Martha Wil- 
liams, and though not yet in possession of the property, receives there- 
from a nice annuity. In i860 Mrs. Susan Couster left half of her prop- 
erty to the church and half to her son, but the trustees declined to re- 
ceive it, relinquishing all claim in favor of the son. In 1S61 Mr. Hut- 
chinson left $1,000 to the church. Miss Mary Telfair, who died in 1875, 
left the church the building on the southwest corner of Bull and Brough- 
ton streets, with the stipulation that the church should care for her lot in 
the cemetery, give $1,000 every year towards the support of feeble Pres- 
byterian Churches in Georgia; that the lot on which are now the ruins 
of the Presbyterian Sunday school should never be sold, and that neither 
the pulpit or galleries in the church should ever be materially altered. 

504 History of Savannah. 

" In 1833 the lot was purchased on the corner of Bull and Hull streets, 
on which are now the ruins of the once handsomest Sunday-school build- 
ing in the south. A commodious structure was erected in that year, and 
Mr. James Smith succeeded Mr. Coe as superintendent. He in turn was 
followed by Captain Bee, in 1835. The latter died in 1844, and Captain 
John W. Anderson served as superintendent until his death, in 1866. 
John D. Hopkins served from 1867 to 1874, during which year William 
H. Baker was chosen. He was succeeded by Mr. John I. Stoddard, the 
present superintendent. In 1884 a new Sunday-school building, a source 
of pride to the people and a credit to the church, was erected, at a cost 
of about $27,000. It was built from the accumulations of dividends 
made available under the Telfair will. 

" In 1886, on account of the failing health of its beloved pastor, the 
congregation made Dr. Axson pastor emeritus, and called Rev. Leonard 
W. Bacon, of New York, to the pastorate. He accepted and served one 
year, from December, 1886, to December, 1887. He was succeeded by 
Rev. Allan F. DeCamp, who acted as pastor for several months during 
1888, and on February of this year Rev. J. Frederick Dripps, of Phila- 
delphia, was called He began his pastorate on Sunday, March 31, and 
occupied the pulpit but once before an event took place that fills a page 
in the history of the church and marks an epoch that will never be for- 

*' On Saturday, 6th of April, 1889, a ^ re broke out in the city, at a 
point quite remote from the church. No one, at first, thought for a mo- 
ment that the old structure could be menaced or imperiled by the flames. 
The building in which the fire originated was several blocks away, and 
wide streets and a large open square intervened. The wind was high, 
and the fire department being powerless, embers, sparks, cinders, and 
other burning material were carried across the area and lodged on the 
projecting works of the church's tower. No one was expecting a hap- 
pening of this character, and no one was ready to extinguish it when a 
trifling blaze was kindled. When first noticed the blaze was so small 
that a cupful of water could quench it, but that small amount was not 
ready, and the flames gradually crept up the tower, growing greater in 
volume and intensity each moment, greedily and hungrily environing it 
in their baleful embraces and spreading out, over, around, and under it 

Churches. 505 

and the roof, wrapped the sacred edifice in their destructive coils. The 
old bell, which for many years called the people to prayer and praise, 
rang out a mournful signal to the community, and the hearts of thou- 
sands of people who looked helplessly on were filled with an inexpressi- 
ble sadness. 

"The fire soon devoured the tower, which, tottering fell, and the old 
bell in its descent rang out its last plaintiff note, which was human-like 
in its pitiful tones. The falling timber communicated its combustible 
material to the interior of the church, and the flames remorselessly swept 
on, leaping from pews to pulpit, from walls to dome, filling the stately 
edifice with an indescribable awe and horror. The old church was 
doomed, and in an inconceivably short time the stately edifice was a mass 
of ruins. Its old mahogany pulpit, its richly stained windows, its memo- 
rial tablets, its baptismal fonts, its magnificent organ, its records, and 
other things inseparably associated with it for years, were destroyed. 

"The destruction of this church, while altogether inevitable under the 
circumstances, was a public calamity. It entailed a loss on the congre- 
gation -of near $150,000, and while it maybe rebuilt in exact conformity 
with the original plans, yet the old associations, the venerable history, 
and the well remembered mahogany pulpit will not be there. 

"The handsome Sunday-school building was also destroyed. That 
was another great loss ; not so much in the money value, not so much 
for the intrinsic worth, but it severed what might have been a connect- 
ing link which would inseparably keep up the history of the church if the 
school had been saved and the church lost. The loss on this building 
and furniture was $35,000 The only insurance on all the property was 
$39,000, and that amount, with other available means on hand, will leave 
the trustees with about $55,000 as a nucleus for a building fund. 

"The following is a complete list of the pastors who have served the 
church : 

" Rev. John Joachim Zubly, D.D., called in ij6o 4 left in 1778 ; Rev. 
M. McCall, called in 1794, died in 1796; Rev. Robert Smith, called in 
1800, died at the north in 1803 ; Rev. Henry Kollock, D.D., called in 
1806, died in 18 19; Rev. VV. D. Snodgrass, D.D., called in 1822, resigned 
in 1823 ; Rev. Samuel B. Howe, D.D, called in 1823, left in 1827 ; Rev. 
Willard Preston, D.D., called in 1831, died in 1856; Rev. I. S. K. Ax- 


506 History of Savannah. 

son, called in 1857, made pastor emeritus in 1886 ; Rev. Dr. Leonard W. 
Bacon, called November, 1886, resigned November, 1887; Rev. J. Fred- 
erick Dripps, called in February, 1889, installed April 21, 1889. Rev. N. 
P. Quarterman, assistant pastor, called in 1869, resigned in 1873. Rev. 
E. C. Gordon, junior pastor, called in 1875, resigned in 1880 ; Rev. Rob- 
ert P. Kerr, junior pastor, called in 1 88 1 , resigned November, 1882. 
The pulpit in the interim from this date until the installation of Dr. 
Dripps was temporarily filled by several clergymen. 

" The early records of session having been lost, all the elders who 
served from the organization of the church are not known. Thomas 
Young was an elder during the year 1800, and subsequently John Gib- 
bons, John Bolton, John Hunter, Edward Stebbins, and George Handle 
were elected. In Dr. Kollock's time John Millen, Dr. John Cumming. 
Benjamin Burroughs, and Moses Cleland served the church. Afterwards, 
and prior to 1829, George W Coe, John Lewis, and George W. Ander- 
son were elected, and since then the following served : Judge Law, James 
Smith, Captain Benjamin G. B. Lamar, John Stoddard, G. B. Cumming, 
John W. Anderson, John Hopkins, Charles Green, William H. Baker, C. 
H. Olmstead.T. H. Harden, Randolph Axson, Joseph Clay, W. L. Wake- 
lee, and D. R. Thomas." 

The congregation of the Independent Presbyterian Church have for- 
mally resolved to undertake the. restoration of their church building to its 
original form, and the people of Savannah are promptly responding to 
the appeals of the committee authorized to solicit funds for this purpose. 

First Presbyterian Church. — In 1827 George G. Faires, Lowell Ma- 
son, Edward Coppee and Joseph Cumming withdrew from the Indepen- 
dent Church, and with a few others organized the First Presbyterian 
Church of Savannah. Services were first held in the old Lyceum Hall, 
on the corner of Bull and Broughton streets. In 1833 the congregation 
took possession of a small wooden structure on the south side of Brough- 
ton street, between Barnard and Jefferson streets, where they worshiped 
until 1856. The present church edifice on Monterey square was com- 
menced in 1856, but was not completed until June, 1872, when it was 
formally dedicated. The following have officiated as pastors of this 
church : Revs. Mr. Bogg, James C. Stiles, C. C. Jones, Mr. Holt, C. 
Blodgett, J. L. Merrick, T. F. Scott, J. L. Jones, B. W. Palmer, J. B. 

Churches. 507 

Ross, John Jones, C. B. King, David H. Porter, and the present pastor, 
J. W. Rogan. 

Anderson Street Church completes the list of Presbyterian churches. 
It is of comparatively recent origin. Rev. R. Q. Way is pastor. 

The first preacher sent to Savannah to propagate the doctrines of 
Methodism was Rev. Beverly Allen, who came in 1785. He was fol- 
lowed by Revs. Hope Hull, Thos. Humphries, John Major, John Craw- 
ford, Phillip Mathews, Hezekiah Arnold, Wheeler Grisson, John Bonner, 
Jonathan Jackson, John Garvin, and Samuel Dunwoody. Notwithstand- 
ing the efforts of these worthy men, Methodism made slow progress, and 
it was not until 1806 that Samuel Dunwoody succeeded in organizing a 
Methodist society. Meetings were held in the houses of the members, 
and for a few years Rev. Hope Hull preached in a cabinet-maker's shop. 
In 18 13, while the congregation was under charge of Rev. James Rus- 
sell, a house of worship was commenced on the northeast corner of Lin- 
coln and South Broad streets. It was completed in 18 16 and was called 
Wesley Chapel. After being enlarged, remodeled and repaired several 
times it was sold in 1866 and converted into a private residence. The 
congregation then purchased the building at' the corner of Wayne and 
Drayton streets, formerly belonging to the German Lutheran congrega- 
tion. This was used for nearly eleven years. During this time the con- 
gregation was largely increased, and a more commodious building be- 
came a necessity. The erection of the Wesley Monumental Church was 
then undertaken, the corner-stone being laid in 1872 by the late Dr. 
Lovick Pierce. The church is now nearly completed, and will be one of 
the most imposing church edifices in Savannah. It is intended as a 
monument to John Wesley, the father of Methodism, and built 
from the united contributions of the Wesleyan Methodists throughout 
America, England and Canada. 

Some of the greatest preachers in the South have been pastors in 
charge of old Wesley Chapel, among them being Revs. William Capens, 
James O Andrew, and Geo. F. Pierce, all of whom were afterward elected 
bishops ; Ignatius A. Few, the first president of Emory College ; Elijah 
Sinclair, founder of the Wesleyan Female College ; Daniel Curry, James 
Sewell, Lovick Pierce, E H. Myers, R. J. Corley, all noted preachers, 
were pastors of Wesley Chapel, or Trinity Church, and did much to 

508 History of Savannah. 

strengthen the hold Methodism has taken in Savannah. Rev. A. M. 
Wynn, the present pastor of Wesley Monumental Church has been in 
charge since 1874. 

Trinity Methodist Church on the west side of St. James square was 
commenced in 1848, during the pastorate of Rev. Alfred T. Mann, and 
completed in 1850. It is a plain structure, entirely unornamented, and 
unpretending in its architectural details, but is one of the most commo- 
dious churches in Savannah, having a seating capacity for two thousand 
in the auditorium and gallery. In members it is one of the strongest 
churches in the city. 

New Houston M. E. Church was organized a few years ago. Its 
pastor is Rev. J. W. Simmons. 

Baptist Church. — About the year 1795 a Baptist house of worship 
was erected on Franklin square by different denominations both here and 
in South Carolina. In 1799 Rev. Henry Holcombe was chosen pastor 
of the congregation, and on April 17th of the following year the church 
was dedicated The lot upon which it was located was conveyed to the 
church in fee simple by the corporation of Savannah. The charter of 
the incorporation was granted in 180 1. It was drawn up by Hon. John 
McPherson Berrien and signed by Governor Josiah Tattnall. Services 
were held in the Franklin square church until 1833, when the congrega- 
tion moved to the new brick edifice on Chippewa square, which is still 
used by the congregation. The Church was enlarged in 1839 during the 
ministry of Rev. J. G. Binney. who died some years later while homeward 
bound from Burmah, India, where he had been laboring as a missionary. 

Rev. Henry Holcombe, the first pastor of this church, served for 
twelve years. He was the author of the first literary work published in 
Georgia called the " Georgia Analytical Repository." In the order 
named the following served as pastors of this church after .Mr. Holcombe: 
W. B. Johnson, D D., Benj. Scriven, James Sweat, Thomas Meredith, 
Henry O. VVyer, Josiah S. Law, Charles B. Jones, J. G. Binney, and Al- 
bert Williams. 

It was during the pastorate of the last named minister in 1847 tnat 
the church divided into two branches, known as the First and Second 
Baptist congregation, although the former never changed its corporate 
name. The Second congregation purchased the building then owned by 

Churches. 509 

the Unitarians, on the southwest corner of Bull and York streets, where 
they continued to worship until February 6, 1859, when they dissolved 
and a reunion of the Baptists of Savannah occurred. The pastors of the 
Second Church were Revs. Henry O. Wyer, J. P. Tustin, and M. Winston. 

Rev. Joseph T. Roberts succeeded Mr. Williams as pastor of the First 
Church in 1847. Rev. Thomas Rambant became pastor in 1849 and re- 
mained in charge until 1855, when Rev. J. B. Stiteler, after one year's ser- 
vice, was followed by Rev. S. G. Daniel. Rev. Sylvanus Landrum be- 
gan his pastorate in 1859 and remained several years. The present pas- 
tor is Rev. J. E. L. Holmes. 

The building of the Second Church was sold, and with the proceeds 
a lecture and school room was built in the basement of the First Church 
building in 1861, and in 1862 the former parsonage on the corner of 
Jones and Drayton streets was purchased. 

Recently a wooden structure has been built on Duffy street, known 
as the Duffy Street Baptist Church, where Rev. W. S. Royal officiates as 

The Catholic religion was established in Savannah during the latter 
part of the preceding century. The first church building was erected in 
Liberty square and was known as St. John the Baptist. The first priest 
to officiate here was a Frenchman by the name of L'Abbe de Mercier. 
His successor was of the same nationality, L'Abbe Cavi. In 1838 the 
congregation had so much increased as to render necessary a larger 
church edifice, and in 1839 a new building was erected on the southeast 
corner of Drayton and McDonough streets, now the present Catholic 
Library Hall. The Rev. J. F. O'Neill was the presiding priest at this 

The Cathedral of St. John on the east side of Abercorn, at the cor- 
ner of Harris street, is a magnificent and capacious edifice. It is in 
charge of Bishop Becker, Rev. Edward Cafterty, vicar general, assisted 
by Rev. T. M. Reilly and Rev. J. F. Colbert. 

St. Patrick's parish was organized in 186$. An old cotton ware- 
house was soon after converted into a church by Right Rev. Bishop Ferat, 
but afterwards was torn down and rebuilt by Bishop Gross at an expense 
of $6o.OOO. Rev. Father McMahon is in charge of the parish. 

The parish of the Church of the Sacred Heart was formed in recent 

5 10 History of Savannah. 

years. The church edifice is located in the southeastern part of the city 
and the congregation is under the care of the Benedictine Fathers, the 
Rev. William Meyer, O. S. B. being the pastor. These three parishes 
have a membership of about five thousand. 

The Catholic diocese of Savannah comprising the entire State of Geor- 
gia was establiahed in 1853. Right Rev. Thomas A. Becker is bishop 
in charge, and Very Rev. Edward Cafferty is vicar-general. 

A church was erected on Bay street near Lincoln street for seamen 
in 183 1 by Joseph Penfield and named in his honor Pejifield Mariner s 
Church It afterwards came under the management of the Savannah 
Port Society, which was organized in 1843 " for the purpose of furnish- 
ing seamen with regular evangelical ministrations of the gospel, and such 
other religious instructions as may be found practicable." John Lewis, W. 
W. Wash, Asa Holt, Robert M. Goodwin, John Ingersoll, William Duncan, 
Robert Lewis, Samuel Philbrick, S. Goodall, Benjamin Snider, J. R. Wil- 
der, Thomas Clark, Michael Dillon, Charles Green, Rev. P. A. Strobel, 
Rev. E. F. Neufville, Rev W. Preston, William Crabtree, Joseph Felt, 
John Stoddard, Joseph George, Edward Wiley, Green Fleetwood, Edward 
Padelford, Joseph Cumming, John J. Maxwell, Mathew Hopkins, J. C. 
Dunning, and D. B Williams, were among the founders. The church 
on Bay street was subsequently sold and the purchase money applied to 
the erection of a church building on the west of Franklin square between 
Congress and St. Julian streets, where services were regularly continued 
for some years. 

First African Baptist Church. — This is without doubt the first body 
of Christians wholly of the negro race organized in this country. A 
church organization was perfected in 1788, when Andrew Bryan, a man 
of pure negro blood, was ordained as the pastor by Abraham Marshall, a 
white Baptist minister. A church edifice was built on Bryan street near 
Farm, and here the present large brick house of worship stands. It is a 
commodious, neat structure, comfortably furnished and recently made at- 
tractive by the additions of stained glass memorial windows. It was in 
this church that the Rev. Andrew Marshall, a celebrated colored preacher, 
ministered for several years before the civil war, commanding the respect 
and confidence, of white and blacks. Born a slave and twice sold, Rev. 
Marshall purchased his freedom from his third master and became a free- 

Churches. 511 

man by his own exertions. In the pastorate of this church he was 
earnest, devoted, and intelligent, educating himself, and exercising a great 
moral influence. He possessed great natural eloquence and a cultivation 
of delivery acquired by association with his masters, who were gentlemen 
of education and refinment. The whites went frequently to hear him. 
His funeral in 1856 was one of the largest and most impressive known to 
Savannah; whites and blacks joining to pay the last tribute of respect to 
the memory of a truly good and able man. The present pastor of this 
church is Rev. U. L. Houston. 

Another colored church organization worthy of mention is the Episco- 
pal Parish of St. Stephens, the outgrowth of the Savannah River Mission, 
which in 1855 was inaugurated by Rev. S. W. Kennedy under the 
direction of Right Rev. Bishop Elliott. When Mr. Kennedy began his 
labors, there were only five colored persons in the city who were mem- 
bers of the Episcopal Church. In three years fifty communicants had 
been secured. The congregation has now expanded into a large one and 
is now under the pastoral charge of Rev. J. S. Andrews 

The remaining religious organizations not already mentioned are of 
comparative recent organization. They include : Christian Church on 
the southeast corner of Bolton and Howard, Rev. T. E. White, pastor; 
the Congregational Church on Taylor street, and the New ChurcJi society. 

The colored population of Savannah is well supplied with churches. 
Those of the Baptist denomination are as follows : Bethlehem Church, 
north side of New Houston, west of Cuyler street ; First African, corner 
of Price and Harris streets ; First Church, corner of Montgomery and 
Byran streets ; Mount Zion, West Broad street ; Second Byran, corner of 
Waldburg and West Broad streets ; Second Church, Houston street. 
The Methodist Churches are : Asbury Church, Gwinnett, near West 
Broad street; Bethlehem Church, East Broad, near Gwinnett street; 
Mount Zion Church, West Broad, near Gaston street; Noah's Ark Church, 
corner of Third and Drayton streets ; St James Tabernacle, corner of 
Randolph and Perry streets ; St. Phillip's Church, New street, near West 

Academies and Schools. 

That the first school-house erected in Georgia was for the instruction 
of Tomo-chi-chi's Indians is a historical fact of more than casual interest. 

5i2 History of Savannah. 

Down on the west side of Savannah, in what is known now as Yamacraw. 
the Moravian missionaries put up a small building which they called the 
Irene. The old mico of the Yamacraws took a deep interest in the 
school and watched its progress day by day. This institution was a 
religious school, and the savages were instructed in the tenets of Christi- 
anity quite as freely as in the English tongue. 

At first there were few children in the infant colony to teach. The 
same building, which was utilized as church and court-house, did service 
from time to time as a school-house. Catechisms and primers and tes- 
taments seem to have been the chief text-books. A list of the books 
donated and bought for the children of the colony of Georgia makes al- 
most amusing reading in this age. 

In 1737 Delamotte was teaching between thirty and forty children 
to read, write and " cast accounts," and John Wesley catechised them 
every Saturday and Sunday afternoon. Of the early teachers George 
Whitefield was by far the best. One of the Wesleys in his diary refers to 
Whitefield's successful labors as a pedagogue. 

It was Charles Wesley who impressed upon Whitefield the necessity 
of founding an orphan school and home in Georgia. An application 
made by Whitefield to the Georgia trustees for assistance was met by a 
grant of five hundred acres of land as a home for the proposed institu- 
tion. Funds were needed to erect buildings, and Mr. Whitefield went 
zealously to work in England to raise money, and he was successful in 
this too. He preached out in the open fields, and "so wonderful were 
these open air ministrations, so eloquent was he in utterance, and so pow- 
erful in thought and argument that multitudes flocked to him." White- 
field had been in Savannah about 1736. When he returned in 1 740 he 
had one thousand pounds sterling toward his orphans home. In March 
of this last mentioned year Mr. Whitefield laid the first stone of the home. 
Though Bethesda, which is the name given the home, is several miles out 
of the city, it is fully as much a Savannah institution as though it were 
within the limits. This was the first effort on a large scale in Georgia 
to care for the young generation's education. Bethesda has ever done a 
great work, and the horizon of its usefulness is steadily extending. In 
the meantime the Moravian school had gone down and the missionaries 
moved to Pennsylvania. Whitefield's "house of mercy" grew so rapidly 

Academies and Schools. 513 

that in 1764 the founder petitioned for the authority to convert his in- 
stitution into a college. This request was refused, so he made it an acad- 
emy, and in 1769, when he visited it, he found the school in every re- 
spect exceeded his most sanguine expectations. After the great preach- 
er's death fire and financial distress and a hurricane followed each other 
in close succession and the home went down. Of late years the Union 
Society has had control of Bethesda and has restored it in a great meas- 
ure to the condition in which its founder had left it. 

Prior to the Revolutionary War Savannah's educational advantages 
were the finest in the colony, but they were necessarily meager. Private 
schools, something like the parish schools of to-day, offered about all 
there was to be had here in the way of instruction. The best teachers, 
generally, were the clergymen. While the great war was in progress all 
efforts for education were relaxed and absolutely nothing was d^nr dur- 
ing the distractions of the period. Peace was followed by public schools, 
which had been provided for in the constitution of 1777, one section of 
which said that schools should be erected in every county, and main- 
tained out of the income of the State. Savannah's chief educational in- 
stitution for a century past, the Chatham Academy, was established by 
act of February I, 1788. This institution and the academies of Effing- 
ham, Liberty and Glynn, were endowed from the proceeds of confiscated 
property and amercements of the estates of British loyalists. There were 
not many of these latter to be sure, but those whose estates were taken 
owned valuable property. Governor Wright and Lieutenant-Governor 
Graharne were in this number. 

For the next half century the high schools of Georgia were limited to 
the academies of a few counties and the colleges to the single one Frank- 
lin, at Athens, now the State University. The acaderries of the low or 
seacoast country were those of Chatham, Effingham, Liberty and Glynn 
counties. Before matriculating at Franklin College, the Savannah boys 
had to travel more than 200 miles by stage or private conveyance. So 
inconvenient was this journey that many youths from the coast country 
went by sailing vessels to New York and Boston and entered Princeton, 
Yale, Harvard and Brown. Now and then one would cross to Liver- 
pool and complete his education in an English school or university. The 
few Savannah boys who received a collegiate education were, as a rule, 


514 History of Savannah. 

prepared at the Chatham Academy. Those who received what was 
termed an academic course were considered fortunate. Many of the 
brightest minds in the State could not reach even that, says one writer, 
and they had to be content with private country schools, generally called 
" old field schools." 

In those old days back in the thirties Chatham Academy was for the 
times and the community a fine institution. The building was large, and 
its style of architecture, while possessing little that was especially strik- 
ing, gave the institution " an air of consequence and gentility," as has 
been aptly remarked of it. 

For many years Rev. George White, a native of Charleston, ruled 
over this school. He had half a dozen assistants, each with a room and 
from 30 to 50 scholars to himself. The average roll at this period was 
250 boys and girls. Pure democratic principles governed the institution, 
and pupils attended without regard to sex or social condition. The poor- 
est and the richest sent their children there. Dr. White's discipline over 
teacher and scholar was rigid. He was firm, industrious and faithful. 
His fundamental principle in teaching was to thoroughly "ground" the 
pupil. Reading, writing, and arithmetic, or " the three r's," were the 
foundations, and he sought to have them laid well. Then he aimed to 
have all his pupils excel in reading and elocution, and the boys he drilled 
in military tactics. It was not the principal's fault if his pupils did not 
spell, read, and declaim well when they left school. He had a room with 
some of the more advanced scholars, but he gave his personal supervision 
to all of the classes. He knew personally every pupil, studied the dispo- 
sition of each one, and kept the relative advancement of all in his mind. 
No assistant was allowed to chastise. That privilege was reserved by 
the principal. The strap was his favorite for correcting, and he applied 
it frequently but rarely severely. Solomon's maxim of " spare the rod 
and spoil the child" he took literally. Therein though, he was not dif- 
ferent from the other teachers of his day who had a similar belief. 

It is recorded that toward the close of his life, when it was too late to 
be appreciated by the majority of the boys who were Dr. W'hite's pupils, 
his views on corporal punishment underwent a change, and he regretted 
having formerly put such a strict construction upon the maxim. The 
strap was an instrument of punishment reserved exclusively for the boys. 

Academies and Schools. 515 

When the girls violated a rule they were crowned with the peaked cap. 
A pretty story told by an old pupil is to this effect: On one occasion 
a girl was, sent by her teacher to Dr. White's room for punishment. She 
was a little beauty that all the boys loved, and the doctor too. He 
either felt that she deserved extreme punishment or he desired her to 
escape any punishment. So he inquired what boy would take a whipping 
for her. Many were ready for the sacrifice, but Milton Luffburrow was 
the quickest, and he won the honor. The little beauty was Miss Valeria, 
one of the daughters of Captain Merchant, of the U. S. A. 

Dr. White was the author of the " Statistics of Georgia," and the 
" Historical Collections" of Georgia. After teaching for several years he 
gave up the principalship of the academy, and devoted himself to the 

From Dr. White's day to the present the Chatham Academy has 
maintained a high reputation. Its corps of teachers have usually been 
efficient, and the thousands of men and women in Savannah who never 
enjoyed other advantages than those afforded by this school attest its 
thoroughness. It is a part of the public school system, and is the city's 
high school for boys and girls. Of all its teachers not one has imparted 
instruction as Mr. Bogart, who retired from the profession in July, 1889, 
after being connected with the school for more than thirty years. Sa- 
vannah's public schools have now an attendance of 4,500 children, 3,000 
whites, and 1,500 blacks. 

In addition to the public schools are many private schools, including 
two academies for boys and two for girls, The Savannah and The Acad- 
emy for Boys, Oglethorpe Seminary and St. Vincent de Paul Academy. 
This last named school was organized in 1844 by the Sisters of Mercy 
and is still conducted by that order. 

5 16 History of Savannah. 


THIS is emphatically the age of the printing press and it may be said 
that the character of a community is known and best represented 
by its newspapers. Savannah has always given a liberal support to its 
newspapers, and journalism here has been conspicuous for its strong 
and conservative character. For more than a century and a quarter the 
city has not been without a newspaper. Four morning and two after- 
noon papers have existed at one time, and there has never been a time 
within the past fifty years that the city has not had at least two daily 
papers — either two morning papers or a morning and an afternoon 

The first paper published in Savannah was the Georgia Gazette which 
made its appearance on the 7th of April, 1763. This was the eighth 
newspaper to appear in the Colonies, and was edited by Mr. James John- 
son. It flourished as a weekly until 1799 when it was suspended. This 
pioneer journal of Georgia was a great undertaking at the time even if it 
did compare unfavorably with the more pretentious papers of to-day. 
Local news was confined to marriages, deaths, and arrival of vessels, and 
most of the reading matter pertained to political affairs. 

The Georgia Republican was the second newspaper to enter the field 
of Savannah journalism. The first number appeared on the 1st of Janu- 
ary, 1802, as a semi- weekly, edited and owned by John F. Everett, 
under whose name it continued until March 10, 1807,, when John J. 
Evans became associated with Mr. Everett under the firm name ot Ev- 
erett & Evans. Under the new proprietors it was changed to a tri- 
weekly issue and the name of The Republican and Savannah Evening 
Ledger was adopted. In June, 18 IO, Mr. Evans assumed entire control, 
and continued its publication.alone until January 1, 18 14, when Frederick 
S. Fell became editor and proprietor. Mr. A. Mclntyre became a co- 
partner in March, 18 17, under the firm name of F. S. Fell & Co. and a 
few months later the paper was enlarged in size and changed to a daily 

The Press. 517 

and continued as such during the fall and winter months when it re- 
turned to tri- weekly issues. 

Several changes occurred in the- proprietorship of the Republican 
from 18 17 to 1 83 1, but during these years Mr. Fell continued as sole or 
part owner, his connection with the paper terminating with his death in 
the year last named. Emanuel De La Motta continued its publication, 
ilone from 1831 to June 1, 1837, when I. Cleland became associated 
with him under the firm name of De La Motta & Cleland. Mr. De La 
Motta withdrew in 1839, and in the year following William Hogan 
joined Mr. Cleland as partner. A few months later Mr. Cleland with- 
drew and Charles Davis became part proprietor with Mr. Hogan. Under 
these proprietors the Republican began active advocacy of Whig princi- 
ples : Adopting as a motto " Union of the Whigs for the sake of the 
Union," and was changed from an afternoon to a morning issue. 

In August, 1849, M f - Hogan disposed of his interest to Joseph L. 
Locke, when the latter became senior editor and Mr. Davis commercial 
editor and business manager. Mr. Davis's health having become im- 
paired he sold his interest in the paper to Francis J. Winter in 1847, 
but the latter's death in 1848 left Mr. Locke sole proprietor. 

Mr. Locke sold his interest to his editorial associate P. W. Alexander 
in 1853 who in connection with A. W. Moore published the Republican 
under the firm name of P. W. Alexander & Co. This copartnership 
continued for two years when Mr. Moore retired and James R. Sneed 
became a partner with Mr. Alexander. The latter withdrew in 1856 
and sold his interest to Mr. Sneed and F. W. Sims. Mr. Sneed disposed 
of his interest in 1858, but continued as editor until the capture of the 
city by General Sherman. 

The Republican office and its contents were taken possession of by 
military authority in December, 1864, under the direction of General 
Sherman, for the purpose of publishing a paper in the interest of the 
Federal government. John E. Hayes, the war correspondent of the 
New York Tribune, who had been following General Sherman's army, 
was installed as editor. He continued in the position of editor and pro- 
prietor up to the time of his death in September, 1868. At the death of 
Mr. Hayes the paper was sold at public auction to James R. Sneed its 
former editor and proprietor, who conducted it about a year when it was 

5 18 History of Savannah. 

sold to Colonel William A. Reed. At the end of a few months Colonel 
Reed announced its suspension. It was again revived by Messrs. Scud- 
der & Hardee, who after a year's trial disposed of it to the Advertiser, a 
new paper started in 1868, which then appeared under the name of the 
Advertiser and Republican. Success did not attend the enterprise and in 
1875 the subscription was sold to the Morning News. 

Besides the editors and proprietors named in the foregoing pages 
there were connected with the Republican as associate editors during its 
prosperous years from 1845 to the l as t year of the war: S. T. Chapman, 
Edward DeLean, Thomas H. Harden, and Thomas W. Lane. The dis- 
tinguished writer Dr. William A. Caruthers also contributed to its pages. 
During the first twenty years of its existence the Republican took sides 
with the then Republican or Jeffersonian party, and warmly sustained 
General Jackson for the presidency in 1828. It subsequently became a 
whig organ and throughout the existence of that party was loyal to that 
organization, but did not support General Scott for the presidency. 
When the secession of the Southern States was proposed it vigorously 
opposed the idea, but when Georgia seceded it allied itself with her des- 
tiny and until its voice was silenced by Federal power was foremost in 
giving encouragement to the aims and council of the Confederacy. 

The Savannah Georgian commenced publication on the 25th of No- 
vember, 18 18, edited by Dr. John M. Harney. Dr. Harney's connec- 
tion with Savannah journalism was brief He was a man of considerable 
literary attainments, but an erratic character, and whose management of 
the Georgian did not meet with the approval and support of the people 
of the city. He became disgusted with his failure to receive encourage- 
ment, and after two years trial sold his paper to I. K. Tefft and Harry 
James Finn. He was the author of the well-known poem, in which in 
bidding farewell to Savannah he heaps curses upon the city. Mr. Finn 
was not long connected with the paper. He came to Savannah in 18 1 8 
when he appeared as an actor at the opening of the Savannah theater. 
After his newspaper venture he returned to the stage, and at the time of 
his death a few years later he had won wide fame as one of the best rep- 
resentatives on the American stage in the role of light comedy. 

Mr. Tefft edited the paper for some time when he sold it to George 
Robertson, who associated his brother William Robertson with him. Dr. * 




The Press. 519 

R. D. Arnold and William H. Bullock became joint editors and proprie- 
tors in 1832. In 1835 Mr. Bullock purchased Dr. Arnold's interest, and 
conveyed it to Henry R. Jackson and Philip J. Punch, who subsequently 
admitted S. S. Sibley as a partner. When General Jackson retired P. B. 
Hilton became part owner with Messrs. Punch & Sibley. After this sev- 
eral changes in proprietors occurred, until the Journal and Courier were 
merged with it, when it came under the control of Albert R. Lamar and 
a few years later in 1859 its publication was suspended. 

The Savannah Museum appeared in 1 820 as a daily edited by Kep- 
pel & Bartlett. It was in existence for some years, but it failed to find 
the road to success, and was discontinued. 

The Morning Neivs made its first appearance on January 15, 1850. 
It was issued from the premises 1 1 1 Bay street, where it had its quarters 
until it moved to where it is now published. The gifted and lamented 
Colonel W. T. Thompson was its first editor, and held that position, with 
the exception of a few months during the occupation of the city by the 
Federal army, until he was called to his reward in 1882. It was a vig- 
orous paper from the first, maintaining then, as it does to-day, the stand- 
ard of honest Democracy, independent of the dictation of politicians. It 
passed through the great struggle of 1861-65, and came out, like all 
other Southern newspapers, in a rather dilapidated condition. In June, 
1867, the present proprietor, Colonel J. H. Estiil, purchased an interest 
in the Morning Neivs, and the following year he bought out the other 
owners, since which time he has retained the sole control. 

Through the trying years, from 1865 to 1870, the Morning News 
maintained its position as a defender of the rights of the people, then 
threatened by carpet-baggers. It battled against those Radical leaders 
and their negro cohorts, who, with the aid of Federal bayonets, had 
seized the governments of the Southern States. It never compromised 
itself by in any way indorsing the rule of those plunderers or by recog- 
nizing their leaders. With the restoration of the government of the 
Southern States to the control of their people, Georgia became prosper- 
ous, and at once took her position as the Empire State of the South. 
The State had passed from under the Confederate rule to that of the 
United States, and the army being disbanded the people supposed peace 
was restored. A provisional governor (Johnson) was appointed by Pres- 

520 History of Savannah. 

ident Johnson. Then an election was held, and the people called that 
pure statesman, the late Charles J. Jenkins, to the gubernatorial chair. 
He was removed and General Ruger, an army officer, was made military 
governor. Under this bayonet government Bullock was forced upon the 
people. Legislatures chosen by the people were repeatedly dissolved or 
disbanded by the rough hand of despotism. At last, in 1 870, Bullock- 
fled the State. Georgia was reconstructed for the fifth time, but this 
time on the basis of free government. 

These facts are only mentioned as a part of the history of the Morn- 
ing News. Its fearless course during those trying years gave it a place 
close to the hearts of the people. 

In addition to its political course it was a newspaper without a rival 
as a news- gatherer. No other paper in the South had as yet awakened 
to the importance of furnishing live news. It organized the first system 
of special correspondents, and, for several years, was the only Southern 
paper that kept a regular correspondent at Washington and New York 
the year round. The Morning News has never turned aside from its 
line of duty as a newspaper to engage in personal controversies, but has 
never hesitated to defend the right or attack the wrong. It has always 
been its aim to furnish the latest news in the most acceptable form to 
its readers, and discuss all matters open to discussion in a fair and impar- 
tial manner. It has never believed that a newspaper was a place wherein 
any and every man should be permitted to vent his undigested and often 
prejudiced views on important public questions, but has asserted its right 
to be its own judge of what should go in its columns and what should 

In this progressive age there is probably no business that has under- 
gone such great changes or has so much improved within the past twenty 
years as that of publishing a daily newspaper. A few years since a 
journal in the South that was provided with what is technically called a 
fast single-cylinder printing machine, of a capacity of 1,500 to 1,800 
sheets per hour, was considered a well-equipped establishment. But few 
were provided with a machine for folding papers. In 1869 the Morning 
News introduced the first folding machine ever put to work in a daily 
paper office in Georgia, and it was considered by many a piece of reck- 
less extravagance. Now the humblest of the dailies in the South folds 

The Press. 521 

its issues by machinery. About the same time the machine for putting 
the addresses of the subscribers on papers was introduced into the Morn- 
ing News office. This was the first mailer used in Georgia if not in the 
entire South. The addressing of papers with a pen or pencil, the same 
names written day after day, was one of the bugbears of a newspaper 
office. A mail writer who would not occasionally miss a page or two of 
the mail book was a vara avis. If a subscriber failed to get his mail it 
was impossible to say whether it was the neglect of the newspaper's mail 
clerk, or the carelessness of the post office officials. The mailing ma- 
chine and the daily register of all mail sent out, is an unimpeachable 
witness as to who is at fault if a paper is not duly received. These fa- 
cilities for publishing a newspaper came none too soon, as the pressure of 
the increasing telegraphic service, and the demand of the public for the 
latest news was already being felt by the newspapers. 

A very radical change had also taken place in the editorial depart- 
ment during the period referred to. Before the construction of the 
Charleston and Savannah Railroad the fast mail from the North came by 
steamer from Charleston. The steamers rang their bells as they passed 
by the Exchange building on their way to the wharf at the foot of West 
Broad'street. The telegraphic service in those days was very limited, 
and the live news was gleaned from Northern papers. The editors of 
the Savannah dailies — there were three at that lime — agreed that if the 
steamer's bell rung after six o'clock in the evening they would not take 
their Northern papers out of the post-office until the following morning. 
At the time we speak of, however, fifteen years ago, many of the morn- 
ing papers "closed up " their forms by 10 to 12 o'clock in the evening, 
except on extra important occasions. 

One to two columns of telegraph news was considered a full service. 
With many it was supposed the zenith of newspaper publishing — at least 
in the smaller cities — had been attained. It was generally supposed that 
the limit of judicious expenditure had been reached. It had been with 
many newspapers. There was a remarkable decrease in the number of 
papers in the principal cities. The increased expenses could not be met 
by an augmented income, and the question was solved by the death of 
many old-time journals. The " fittest survived." The demand for later 
news caused the single-cylinder presses to give way to the double-cylin- 


522 History of Savannah. 

ders. Provision was made against accidents, and duplicate presses, fold- 
ing machines, engines and boilers were added to the costly equipments. 
The telegraph service increased gradually from l,8oo words per day un- 
til it reached 6,000. These improvements were gradual. Two years 
ago, with one step almost, an immense advance was made in Southern 
journalism. This change was necessitated by the fast mails, which 
placed the large dailies of the North and West on the news stands in 
many of the Southern cities some time during the day after their publi- 

The newspapers had been improving, but the people's desire for news 
was still ahead of the supply. The first move to meet the new state of 
affairs was an increase in the service of the Associated Press. The quota 
of words per day was increased to almost double what it had been, and 
a better system of gathering news established. Publishers a few years 
ago growled when their assessment for telegraphing was $50 per week. 
The cost of this service increased tenfold, and where a column or two of 
freshly-gathered news sufficed, a page and more now scarcely supplies 
the demand. The Morning News, for instance, in the place of a few ir- 
regular correspondents, has now over one hundred and fifty accredited 
correspondents. To keep pace with these improvements the entire in- 
ternal arrangements of the newspaper had to be changed. Ways and 
means for a quicker handling of the immense amount of news accumu- 
lating after 9 o'clock in the evening had to be devised, and, instead of a 
paper going to press at midnight, the working hours were advanced clear 
into the morning. Four o'clock in the morning became the closing 
hour. Here another difficulty presented itself — that of how to begin 
printing the edition of a morning paper at that hour and deliver it to all 
of its subscribers at the usual time. Everybody wants the latest news, 
and wants it at as early an hour as possible. A paper must not only be 
printed on time, but delivered on time, for the average reader of city 
papers would as soon go without his breakfast as without his favorite pa- 
per. The question of purchasing new and expensive machinery to over- 
come the time lost in waiting for the latest news was the next to present 
itself to the newspaper people. Some were in doubt as to the wisdom 
of investing a large sum of money in a perfecting press, which might 
scarcely be put in operation before a better one was invented. 

The Press. 523 

The price of the improved machines ranged from $30,000 to $50,000. 
The increasing circulations of the papers of the Northern and Western 
cities had long since developed the necessity for faster machines even 
than the immense eight and ten cylinder presses then used to print the 
metropolitan dailies, and as " necessity is the mother of invention," the 
perfecting press was evolved from the thoughts of many brains. The 
web perfecting press developed new and presumably undreamed of fa- 

These machines priot &om an endless web of paper, which once 
started into the machine runs along, as it were, of its own accord. This 
dispenses with the " feeders," and permits of the papers being printed on 
both sides at the same time. The idea of printing from a long roll of 
paper seems to have occurred to manufacturers years before it was suc- 
cessfully applied. The question of original invention is somewhat dis- 
puted. A perfecting press was patented by Sir Rowland Hill, the famous 
advocate of cheap postage in England in 1835, Dut never came into prac- 
tical use. Wilkinson, of New York, added various improvements to the 
Hill machine between 1842 and 1859. I n ^49 Jacob Worms, of Paris, 
patented a small machine for book work, in which he used curved stereo- 
type plates cast from matrixes made of papier mache. This invention 
made the perfecting press practicable. 

Worms' machine, however, was not a success, because it could not 
deliver the sheets after they were printed. In 1853 Victor Beaumont, 
of New York, patented an effective cutting blade, which made the deliv- 
ery of the sheet possible. This invention is now used in all web presses. 
In 1858 Bullock invented the press called by his name, making at that 
time a model from which fair work was obtained. This model was fed 
by rolls of paper at each end, double lines of paper passing each other at 
the center, but no machine was ever built on this plan. In 1S59 Augus- 
tus Applegate, a well-known English mechanic invented a press some- 
thing like a Bullock, but made no provision for delivering the sheet. No 
machine was ever built on this plan. Bullock in the meantime had not 
been idle, and in 1861 put up his first press in Cincinnati. It was 
not a perfect machine, but it was a step to the right direction, and he 
finally improved it so that his press printed and delivered 8,000 sheets 
per hour. Messrs. R. Hoe & Co. had not been idle. Taking advantage 

524 History of Savannah. 

of the experiments of others, and with their thorough knowledge of what 
was needed by newspapers, they set to work and produced a thoroughly 
satisfactory and rapid perfecting press, which for speed, economy, sim- 
plicity and good workmanship excelled all other machines then i-n exist- 

The smaller newspapers looked on amazed at the increasing demands 
upon their capital to meet the expense of such machines. The price 
simply placed them beyond reach. The few newspaper men of this class 
who had enough money to buy one were more inclined to retire from 
business than to spend their all for a press. However, their hopes of a 
cheaper perfecting press, one suitable to the wants of the lesser dailies, 
were realized when a few years ago Hoe & Co. invented the perfecting 
press to print from movable type. This machine, costing about $30,000, 
was at once put into a number of offices. In 1884, however, the same 
firm invented a new machine, to print from stereotype plates, of much 
more simple mechanism. But three of these presses had been built 
when one was ordered from Messrs. Hoe & Co. for the Morning News. 
The introduction of the web perfecting press marked a new era in the 
newspaper business in Savannah. 

The Morning News building is six stories high (with a well-lighted 
basement), and is surmounted by a two-story tower. 

The first floor of the building on the corner of Whitaker street and 
Bay lane is used exclusively for the business department. The space in 
front of the counter is paved with colored tiles. A neat iron railing en- 
closes two-thirds of the floor, and inside is divided into the cashier's, the 
subscription clerk's and the advertising departments. In the rear is the 
proprietor's private office and another room for business purposes. 

Just here it will not be out of place to state that the Morning News 
consists of the two distinct establishments under one name, and one man- 
agement, namely the Morning News newspaper and the Morning News 
Steam Printing House. To those who are not familiar with its businesses 
it appears to be all one homogeneous concern, but to those who are ac- 
quainted with the workings it is distinctly and positively two businesses. 
One half of the building, namely, on the corner of Bay lane, is almost 
exclusively used for the purpose of publishing and printing the Daily and 
Weekly Morning News, while the other half is entirely devoted to book 
and job printing, lithographing and blank book manufacturing. 

The Press. 525 

The room next to the business office is the headquarters of the job 
departments. Reams of papers of all kinds, and the variety is legion, 
are piled upon the tables and shelves — cards and card boards, envelopes, 
and everything needed in a business which includes the printing of a 
visiting card to a big three-sheet poster, or from a city directory to a 
mammoth ledger. 

Speaking tubes connect this floor with each workroom, and an Otis 
passenger and freight elevator gives ready communication with the floors 
above and below. Speaking tubes and a dumb waiter also give ready 
means of communication between the counting room and the editorial, 
reportorial and newspaper composing rooms. 

The Savannah Daily Times which is the first successful evening daily 
ever published in Savannah, was founded December r, 1882, by Richard- 
son & McNulty. Mr. B. H. Richardson had been connected with the 
Morning Neivs for several years, most of the time as city editor. Alexis 
McNulty had been bookkeeper for the publisher of the same paper. 
They started by issuing a four-page, six- column paper. The first of the 
year they increased the number of columns to seven. Afterwards it was 
enlarged to an eight-column paper. In the course of a year or two Mr. 
Richardson's name appeared alone as the publisher, his associate having 
retired. E. M. W. Johnston, a brilliant young writer occupied the chief 
editorial chair for a year or more, and then Captain W. T. Waller filled 
it, Mr. Richardson acting as business manager and managing editor. 
After changing the form of the paper to eight pages, six columns to a 
page, and publishing it in that form for two years he sold his interest and 
Gazaway Hartridge, esq, took charge nn January I, 1887. Mr. Hart- 
ridge is managing editor and president of the Savannah Times Publish- 
ing Company. The Sunday morning edition of the Times was discon- 
tinued in 1885. 

Under its present management the Times has been markedly im- 
proved. It is Democratic and has a reputation for reliability, impartially 
and independence. The measure of its prosperity may be judged by 
the fact that within fifteen months after it passed into the control of the 
present management, it had built a handsome new home, three stories 
high, on Bryan street, near Drayton, and was fitted out with new presses, 
new type and new machinery, so that it is now fully equipped. It receives 

526 History of Savannah. 

the United Press dispatches and has the largest city circulation of any- 
paper daily or weekly. 

For over thirty years William T. Thompson was editor of the Morn- 
ing News. He was a man of well-known literary ability and author of 
" Major Jones' Courtship." Associated with him at different periods as 
editorial writers were Major T. A. Burke, E. O. Withington, J. N. Car- 
doza, Dr. James S. Jones and Z. W. Mason. For a number of years 
Joel Chandler Harris of world-wide reputation as a humorist, was associate 
editor upon the News. 

The Evening Journal made its appearance in 185 I, edited by J. B. 
Cubbidge. The following year the Savannah Daily Courier was started 
by S. T. Chapman, and the Evening Mirror by W. B. Harrison. The 
Mirror had but a brief existence, and the Journal and Courier were 
merged into one paper, known as the Journal and Courier and published 
by Chapman & Cubbidge. Mr. Chapman died in 1854, when the paper 
was suspended for a short time until it was purchased by R. B. Hilton. 
In 1857 it was merged in the Georgian and the consolidated papers were 
published under the name of the Georgian and Journal. 

In 1859 the Evening Express was started by Ambrose Spencer and 
J. H. Estill. Its publication discontinued in i860. 

The Daily Advertiser, a free circulating journal was first issued in 
September 1865, by Theodore Hamilton and M. J. Divine. George N. 
Nichols soon after purchased the paper, and under his management it was 
twice enlarged. In January 1868, it was again enlarged and changed to 
a subscription paper under the editorial management of S. Yates Levy. 
Mr. Levy was a bold and vigorous writer and during the reconstruction 
period so keen were his articles upon the tyrannical action of the military 
that an order was sent from General Meade to either suppress the paper 
or moderate the tone of its editorials. Soon after Mr. Levy was obliged 
through military pressure to retire from the editorial chair. Edward L. 
Beard and George G. Kimball then took control of the paper and con- 
ducted it for a short time as a free journal. 

The Georgia Familien Journal is an eight page German weekly. 
It is published every Saturday, and has a large circulation in Georgia, 
North and South Carolina, Florida and Alabama. 

The Savannah Local was first issued as a free journal in 1877, by Mr. 

Public Libraries. 527 

Ely Otto. In 1878 its name was changed to the Penny Local, when 
it became a subscription paper. In January, 1885, its name was changed 
to the Savannah Local. It is published weekly as an independent family 
journal, but favors the prohibition cause. Ely Otto is editor and pro- 

The other newspapers of Savannah are the Savannah Independent 
and Brotherhood and the Savannah Tributie. Both are weekly publica- 
tions. The former is devoted to secret society news and is published by 
W. Orr & Co. ; the latter is published in the interest of the colored 


Georgia Historical Society — Catholic Library Association — Telfair Academy, Arts 
and Sciences — Savannah Parks and Suburban Attractions — Forsyth Park — Parade 
Ground — Beaulieu — Tybee Island — -Thunderbolt — Isle of Hope — Jasper Springs — Dau- 
fuskie Island — Bonaventure — Laurel Grove Cemetery — Cathedral Cemetery — Greene, 
Confederate, Gordon and Jasper Monuments. 

JUST eighty years ago, on January 6, 1809, a meeting was held in the 
Exchange attended by men of all professions and callings — the law- 
yer, the physician, the minister, the merchant, the plain citizen — called 
together for the purpose of establishing a public library in Savannah. 
There were seventy-one gentlemen present, among them we find the 
names of Rev. Henry Kollock, Dr. Lemuel Kollock, John M. Berrien, 
Dr. J. Bond Read, James M. Wayne, Charles Harris, Dr. John Cum- 
ming, Dr. John Grimes, George Woodruff, William T. Williams, Alex- 
ander Telfair, James Bilbo, Dr. J. E. White, William B. Bulloch, George 
Jones, A. G. Oemler, D. T. Bartow, Alfred Cuthbert, John Bolton, Will- 
iam Gaston, A. Low, J. P. Williamson, Dr. William Parker, Hugh Mc- 
Call, Thomas Young. These names are intimately associated with Sa- 
vannah history. They, as well as the remainder of the seventy-one, 

528 History of Savannah. 

have all passed away but the work they inaugurated has been fruitful for 
good beyond the power of calculation. The assemblage of such a num- 
ber of prominent citizens out of as small a population as Savannah then 
possessed is a proof of an interest in literary matters at that period, which 
it is doubtful has grown with the city's growth and strength. 

This meeting was the initiatory step toward the formation of the Sa- 
vannah Library Society, and at a subsequent meeting held- on the 6th 
of March, following, a constitution and by-laws were adopted. Dr. John 
Cumming was elected chairman, A. G. Oemler, librarian, and the name 
of the Savannah Library Society was adopted. A room in the second 
story of the Chatham Academy was secured for library purposes which 
they were permitted to use free of charge. 

Hon. John MacPherson Berrien succeeded Dr. John Cumming chair- 
man, in 1810 by the title of president and continued in that office until 
1818 when he was succeeded by Rev. Dr. Henry Kollock. After the 
death of Dr. Kollock, the presidents were in succession, Alexander Tel- 
fair, John C. Nicoll, R. \V. Habersham, A. Telfair, VV. W. Gordon, Dr. 
Cosmo P. Richardsone, M. H. McAllister. 

The society did not flourish. In 1837 it nearly collapsed. In 1838 
a new impetus was given it principally through the exertions of Captain 
William Crabtree, jr., and Homes Tupper. In the latter year the follow- 
ing officers were elected: President, H. M. McAllister; vice-president, 
William Crabtree, jr., ; secretary and treasurer, W. Morel ; managers, 
Rev. George White, R. W. Pooler, A. G. Oemler, R. D. Arnold, Homes 

In 1838 Mr. William Morel resigned as secretary, treasurer and libra- 
rian and Captain William Bee was elected in his place. In 1839 tne 
same officers were elected, except that J. Wray was substituted as man- 
ager in place of Rev. George White. 

Georgia Historical Library. — It was in the spring of 1839 that a new 
movement was inaugurated to establish another society for the purpose 
of rescuing from oblivion the records of the past and furnishing authen- 
tic data for the history of Georgia. The origin of this society is given 
in the second volume of the "Georgia Historical Collections," from which 
the following is quoted: 

"The necessity of some historical institution had long been felt by 

Georgia Historical Society. 529 

literary men, but no effort had ever been made for its establishment. 
The splendid autographical collection of I. K. Tefft, esq., together with 
the many valuable documents in his possession pertaining to the colonial 
and revolutionary history of Georgia, suggested the importance of such 
a society and it was immediately determined by Mr. Tefft and Mr. Will- 
iam B. Stevens to proceed without delay to its formation. This measure 
was first decided on toward the close of April, 1839, and at the sug- 
gestion of Mr. Tefft, the latter endeavored to prepare the way and awaken 
attention to the subject by two articles on this topic, which appeared in 
the Savannah Georgian of May following. These individuals were 
now joined by a third, Richard D. Arnold, M.D." 

On May 24, 1839, a meeting was held at the Savannah Society room 
in pursuance of a call signed by I. K. Tefft, R. D. Arnold and VV. B. 
Stevens. At an adjourned meeting held on June 4, following, the society 
was fully organized by the adoption of a constitution and by-laws, and 
the election of the following officers : President, Hon. John McPherson 
Berrien; vice-presidents, Hon. James W. Wayne, Hon. W. B. Bulloch; 
corresponding secretary, I. K. Tefft: ; recording secretary, William Bacon 
Stevens; treasurer, George W. Hunter; librarian, Henry Kirk Preston; 
curators, William Thorne Williams, Charles S. Henry, John C. Nicolls 
William Law, Richard D. Arnold, Robert M. Charlton, Mathew Hall 

At the session of the Georgia Legislature of 1839 the society was 
duly incorporated, and it was made the custodian of the copies of the 
manuscript in the State paper office at London, relating to the history of 
Georgia which has been transcribed by the Rev. C. W. Howard as agent 
of the State. 

In the act of incorporation the following names appear as the origi- 
nal incorporators of the society: J. M. Berrien, James M. Wayne, M. H. 
McAllister, I. K. Tefft, Wm. B. Stevens, Geo. W. Hunter, H. K. Pres- 
ton, Wm. T. Williams, C. S. Henry, J. C. Nicoll, Wm. Law, R. M. 
Charlton, R. D. Arnold, A. A. Smets, J. W. Anderson, Wm. B. Bulloch, 
J. H. Burroughs, J. Balfour, Wm. H. Bulloch, T. B. Bartow, James Barn- 
ard, Morgan Brown, G. B. Cumming, Solomon Cohen, Joseph Cum- 
ming, D. C. Campbell, J. H. Couper, W. A. Caruthers, W. H. Cuyler, 
Edward Coppee, Wm. Crabtree, jr., Arichibald Clarke, Wm. Duncan, 


530 History of Savannah. 

Wm, C. Daniell, Geo. M. Dudley, J. De La Motta, jr., J. S. Fay, S. H 
Fay, W. B. Fleming, J. F. Griffin, Robert Habersham, W. Neyle Haber- 
sham, J. C. Habersham, E. J. Harden, S L. VV. Harris, Geo. Jones, J 
W. Jackson, P. M. Kollock, G J. Kollock, Ralph King, T. B. King 
Wm. McWhir, J. B. Mallard, John Millen, W. H. Miller, J. S. Morel, M 
Myers, J. F. O'Neill, E. Neufville, E. A. Nisbit, A. Porter, Thos. Paine 
Willard Preston, Edward Padelford, Thos. Purse, R. W. Pooler, Wm 
Robertson, L. 0. Reynolds, J. Bond Read, R. H. Randolph, F. M 
Robertson, George Schley, James Smith, Wm. H. Stiles, B. E. Stiles, J 
L. Shaffer, Chas. Stephens, Wm. P. White, John E. Ward, George 

The Georgia Historical Society and the Savannah Library Society 
continued to occupy the same room on the northwest corner of Bay lane 
and Whitaker street, but maintained separate organization, until in June, 
1847, when a union was effected, by which the Georgia Historical be- 
came the possessor of the books — some 2,500— and other property of 
the Savannah Library Society. 

In June, 1849, tne society took possession of quarters on Bryan 
street in a building erected for its use by private donation and the liber- 
ality of the city council. In this building, which still stands, the upper 
story was devoted to library purposes while the lower floor was occupied 
by the Farmers' and Mechanics' Bank until the close of 1865. 

The present home of the Georgia Historical Society is located on the 
corner of Whitaker and Gaston streets, fronting on Forsyth park. It is 
known as Hodgson Hall. This fine building was erected by Mrs. Mar- 
garet Telfair Hodgson {nee Telfair) as a memorial to her husband, Mr. 
William B. Hodgson, who was an active member of the society during 
his life in Savannah. The building 94x41 feet was begun in 1873, but 
Mrs. Hodgson dying without making formal provision for its construc- 
tion, her elder sister, Miss Mary Telfair, took up the work and being 
Mrs. Hodgson's residuary legatee, made a deed in trust of the lot and 
building thereon, the residuary estate being charged with the expense of 
completing the structure. Miss Telfair died in 1874, but the work was 
carried on agreeably to the legal term of the deed and in September, 
1875, the library of the society occupied Hodgson Hall. The formal 
dedication took place on the thirty-seventh anniversary of the society, 

Georgia Historical Society. 531 

February 14, 1876, upon which occasion was unveiled the full length 
portrait of Mr. Hodgson which was painted by Mr. Carl L. Brandt. 

The society has some 16,000 volumes and has published several his- 
torical works of value relating to Georgia and the city of Savannah. 

The following is a list of the officers of the Georgia Historical Society, 
from its organization, June 4, 1839. 

Presidents. — Hon. John M. Berrien, June 4, 1839, to February 12, 
1841, and February 13, 1854, to January 1, 1856; Hon. James M. 
Wayne, February 12, 1841, to February 13, 1854, and February 12, 
1856, to February 17, 1862; Hon. Charles S. Henry, February 17, 
1862, to August 19, 1864; Right Rev. Stephen Elliott, D.D., Septem- 
ber 12, 1864, to December 21, 1866; John Stoddard, esq., February 12, 

1867, to February 12, 1868; Hon. Edward J. Harden, February 12, 

1868, to April 19, 1873 ; George W. J. DeRenne, esq., June 2, 1873, to 
March 2, 1874; Hon. Henry R. Jackson, elected March 2, 1874. 

First Vice-Presidents — Hon. James M. Wayne, June 4, 1839, to 
February 12, 1841 ; Matthew H. McAllister, esq., February 12, 1 841, to 
February 12, 1851; Hon. Charles S. Henry, February 12, 185 1, to Feb- 
ruary 17, 1862; Right Rev. Stephen Elliott, D.D., February 17, 1862, 
to September 12, 1864; John Stoddard, esq., September 12, 1864, to 
February 12, 1867; Hon. Solomon Cohen, February 12, 1867, to Feb- 
ruary 12, 1868; William M. Charters, M.D.. February 12, 1868, to Jan- 
uary 6, 1883; General G. Moxley Sorrel, February 12, 1883, to Feb- 
ruary 12, 1889; Colonel John Screven elected February 12, 1889. 

Second Vice-Presidents. — William B. Bulloch, esq., June 4, 1839, to 
February 12, 1841; Hon. William Law, February 12, 1841, to February 
12, 1853; Right Rev. Stephen Elliott, D.D., February 12, 1853, to Feb- 
ruary 17, 1862 ; John Stoddard, esq., February 17, 1862, to September 
12, 1864; Hon. Solomon Cohen, September 12, 1864, to February 12, 
1867; Hon. Edward J. Harden, February 12, 1867, to February 12, 
1868; General Alexander R. Lawton, February 12, 1868, to February 
14, 1870; Juriah Harriss, M.D., February 14, 1870, to November 7, 
1876; General G. Moxley Sorrell, February 12, 1877, to February 12, 
1883; General Alexander R. Lawton, February 12, 18S3, to February 
12, 1888 ; Colonel John Screven, February 12, 1888, to February 12, 
1889; Colonel C. H. Olmstead. elected February 12, 1889. 

532 History of Savannah. 

Corresponding Secretaries — Israel K. Tefft, esq., June 4, 1839, to 
December 12, 1853, and February 13, 1854, to June 30, 1862; Alexan- 
der A. Smets, esq., December 12, 1853, to February 13, 1854; Colonel 
Charles C. Jones, jr., July 14, 1862, to February 12, 1866; Richard D. 
Arnold, M.D., February 12, 1866, to February 14, 1870; William Gray- 
son Mann, esq., February 14, 1870, to July 4, 1881; William W. Paine, 
February 13, 1882, to August 5, 1882; Captain Robert Falligant, 
elected February 12, 1883. 

Recording Secretaries. — Right Rev. William Bacon Stevens, D.D., 
June 4, 1839, to February 12, 1842 ; Henry K. Preston, esq., February 
12, 1842, to February 12, 1844; Richard D. Arnold, M.D., February 
12, 1844, to February 13, 1854; Rev. J. P. Tustin, February 13, 1854, 
to February 12, 1855 ; William S. Basinger, esq., February 12, 1855, to 
February 12, 1856; R. C. Mackall, M.D., February 12, 1856, to No- 
vember 10, 1856; Easton Yonge, M.D., November 10, 1856, to Febru- 
ary 15, 1880; Samuel B. Adams, esq., May 3, 1880, to February 12, 
1884; William N. Holt, esq., February 12, 1884, until his death; Chas. 
N. West, March 1887, to February 12, 1889; Beirine Gordon, esq., 
elected February 12, 1889. 

Treasurers. — George Wallace Hunter, esq , June 4, 1839, to Febru- 
ary 12, 1841 ; Hon. Solomon Cohen, February 12, 1841, to February 

12, 1844; Hon. Edward J. Harden, February 12, 1844, to February 13, 
1854; William S. Basinger, esq., February 13, 1854, to February 12, 
1855 ; Alexander A. Smets, esq., February 12, 1855, to May 9, 1862 ; 
William S. Bogart, esq., elected July 14, 1862. 

Librarians. — Henry K. Preston, esq., June 4, 1839, to February 12, 
1842, and February 12, 1844, to February 12, 1847; Right Rev. Will- 
iam Bacon Stevens, D.D., February 12, 1842, to February 13, 1843; 
Alexander A. Smets, esq., February 13, 1843, to February 12, 1844; 
Robert H. Griffin, esq., February 12, 1847, to February 12, 1848; Rich- 
ard D. Arnold, M.D., February 12, 1848, to February 12, 1849; Chas. 
E. Tefft, esq., February 12, 1850, to February 12, 185 1 ; Louis Knorr, 
M.D., March 12, 185 1, to February 12, 1853; John B. Mallard, esq., Feb- 
ruary 12, 1853, to February 13, 1854; Rev. William Epping, February 

13, 1854, to February 12, 1857; James F. Cann, esq., February 12, 1857, 
to February 12, 1868; John S. F. Lancaster, esq., February 12, 1S68, 
to July 5, 1869; William Harden, esq., elected July 5, 1869. 

The Telfair Academy of Arts and Sciences. 533 

Savannah has two other library associations, the Catholic Library 
Association and the Youths' Historical Society. The former was or- 
ganized in 1877 and has a library of 1,000 volumes and a membership 
of 125. The officers are: P. F. Gleason, president; W. P. Dowling, 
vice-president; J.J. Gleason, financial secretary; J. F. Harty, recording 
secretary; J. P. Doolan, secretary. The library hall is located on the 
southeast corner of Drayton and McDonough. 

The Youths' Historical Society was organized in 1874 and has a li- 
brary of about 1,500 volumes. The officers are : M. S. Herman, presi- 
dent; H. H. Hayms, treasurer; A. E. Dryfus, librarian. 

The Telfair Academy of Arts and Sciences is comparatively a new 
factor in the artistic and scientific life of Savannah, and owes its existence 
to the public spirit and liberality of Miss Mary Telfair, who died in 1874. 
At her death she left it in trust to the Georgia Historical Society, the 
family homestead, with her books, pictures, and statuary, for a perpet- 
ual art and science academy. The will was contested and several years 
were passed in litigation over the matter, but its validity was finally es- 
tablished, and on the 3d of May, 1886, the home of the Telfair family in 
Savannah was dedicated and opened as the Telfair Academy of Arts and 
Science. It is located on Telfair place formerly known as St. James 
square. It is a handsome building, with ample room and finely adapted 
to the purposes intended. Although in comparative infancy, it has been 
enriched with many fine paintings and products of the sculptor's art. It 
is under the control and management of a special committee of the 
Georgia Historical Library, and since it was opened Carl L. Brandt, an' 
artist of decided ability, has been its director. Mainly through Mr. 
Brandt's efforts it may truthfully be said the academy has made more 
than a fair beginning towards making Savannah one of the art centers of 
the country. 

Forsyth Park, the principle pleasure ground in Savannah, is one of the 
most beautiful parks in the United States, and one of which the citizens 
are especially proud. It was laid out by the city council, in 185 I, and 
was named in honor of John Forsyth, at that time minister to Spain, but 
who had previously served the Commonwealth of Georgia in the Con- 
gress of the United States, and as governor. The park contains about 
twenty acres which are laid oft" in serpentine walks and grass-plots, inter- 

534 History of Savannah. 

spersed with clumps of flowers, fanciful mounds and structures of ivy and 
other luxuriant runners and climbers. The forest of stately pines con- 
trasting charmingly with the variety of trees of smaller growth and na- 
tive scrubs, is perhaps the most pleasing feature of the park. A neat iron 
fence incloses the grounds. The main gates, fronting on Bull street, are 
capped with unexploded shells, memorials of the civil war, and open 
upon the broad walk, guarded at the entrance by sphinxes, which leads to 
the artistic fountain that graces the center of the park. This fountain is 
said by some to have been modeled after the design that took the prize 
at the first international exhibition at London in 1844, while others claim 
it to be a copy of the fountain in the Place de la Concorde, Paris. The 
basin of the fountain bears the broad, verdant leaves of water lilies upon 
its bosom, the whole encircled by a parterre of exquisite flower bearers, 
within an abundant well-kept hedge of enonymus, sustained by a solid 
iron railing. 

The main plan of the park was designed by William Bischoff, a dis- 
tinguished landscape gardener in his native country, Bavaria. John B. 
Hogg somewhat altered and modified the original plans, and to the skill 
and taste of both of these gentlemen the city is indebted tor the pleasing 
effect the park presents, its greatest charm being its modesty, simplicity, 
and the unique conservation of the native forest pine. 

South of Forsyth Park is the "extension" or parade ground of the 
volunteer soldiery of Savannah, containing about thirty acres which are 
yet unadorned except by a few trees and the Confederate monument. 
The boundaries of Forsyth Park and extension are Gaston street on the 
north, Drayton on the east, New Houston on the south, and Whitaker 
on the west. 

The country around Savannah is beautiful in its peculiarities of land- 
scape, composed of forest, swamp, highland and lowland, all richly dressed 
in luxuriant green of many shades, lighted here and there with the va- 
ried brilliant colors of leaves and flowers. It is in the main a flat country, 
but its majestic oaks, magnolias, towering pines, and an underwood of un- 
surpassed variety and beauty of foliage, furnish pictures of exquisite soft- 
ness and hue. Savannah is therefore-fortunate in her suburban relations. 
Bonaventure, Beaulieu, Daufuskie Island, White Bluff, Bethesda, Thun- 
derbolt, Isle of Hope, Jasper Spring, Battery Park, and Tybee Island, all 

Suburban Resorts. 535 

of easy access from the city, present many attractions to the tourist, in- 
dependent of their historical associations. 

Beaulieu, a charming spot on the Vernon River, only a few miles from 
Savannah, was originally a plantation of five hundred acres, granted to 
William Stevens, president of the colonial council, and confirmed by Gen- 
eral Oglethorpe. He gave it the present name on account of the fancied 
resemblance of the place to Beaulie, a manor of His Grace, the Duke of 
Montgomery. By some the name was spelled Biewly ; how it was 
changed to Beaulieu is not ascertained Upon Steven's settlement of 
the place, the few residents were constantly annoyed by predatory at- 
tacks from the Indians and Spaniards, and were compelled to fortify their 
huts in order to retain possession. The place was, during the Revolu- 
tionary War, occupied by a small force of British troops. On Sunday, 
the 1 2th of September, 1779, Colonel Thomas Pinckney, with a com- 
mand of 1,200 men sent from the fleet of Count D'Estaing in long 
boats, landed at Beaulieu, the British troops to the number of thirty re- 
tiring upon their approach. It is stated, owing to the men under Pinck- 
ney being exposed in the boats, that had this little handful of " red coats" 
made any resistance, a landing could not have been effected without 
very serious loss, and possibly the patriot forces might not have been en- 
abled to accomplish their object at all. Several skirmishes between the 
opposing forces subsequently took place at and around Beaulieu. 

The place is delightfully located, and is now the site of a number of 
beautiful residences. It is about seven miles from the ocean, and is in 
every respect a most charming location. The surroundings of the place 
are picturesque, and elicit admiration of all visitors. 

Tybee Island has become the most popular and valuable resort near 
the city. It is an ocean-washed island at the entrance of the Savannah 
harbor. The recently completed Savannah and Tybee Railroad, by 
means of which the island is easily reached, has had a powerful effect in 
popularizing the place. It is one of the chains of islands extending 
along the sea- coast from Charleston, South Carolina to Fernandina, Flor- 
ida, and on its lovely beach, four miles long, the waves of the Atlantic 
roll up in gentle surf inviting to safe and delightful bathing. Near the 
light-house on the north end of the island, is the Martello Tower, a not- 
able object of interest to tourists. It is supposed to have been built by 

536 History of Savannah. 

the Spaniards who visited the island before Oglethorpe's time. Tybee 
Island is noted in American history as the scene of the first capture of 
a British vessel by an American commissioned man-of-war at the com- 
mencement of the Revolutionary struggle, while it was an important 
point during the late civil war. In the last few years many improve- 
ments have been made to meet the wants of the thousands who visit the 
island in summer, and there are now to be found comfortable hotels on 
the front beach, in immediate sight of the ocean. Several residences 
and cottages in addition give the place the appearance of a first-class 
sea-side village. 

Thunderbolt another popular resort with the citizens of Savannah, is 
situated on the branch of the Warsaw River, about four miles from the city. 
It is reached by the coast-line railroad of which it is the terminus, or by 
the shell road. It is a small village, with nothing particularly striking 
about the place other than its invigorating sea breeze, fine oaks, delight- 
ful shade, and excellent fish and oysters. It is the main source of the 
supply of fish and oysters for the Savannah market. According to local 
.tradition, the place received its name from the fall of a thunderbolt and 
the gushing forth of a spring from the spot where the bolt struck. The 
spring is pointed out with faith and pride by the old inhabitants. 

Isle of Hope is a pleasant seacoast village on the Skidaway River, 
six and a half miles from Savannah, and is reached by railroad. Its 
early settlement dates back to 1737. Henry Parker, John Fullafield and 
Noble Jones were the first settlers and proprietors, the last of whom had 
a fine residence at the south end known as " Wormsloe," of which the 
ruins can yet be seen. The island is in the shape of a horseshoe and 
from any prominent position on its bluff, overlooking the river, a good 
view of the surrounding country may be had. The waters in the imme- 
diate vicinity abound in fish, crabs and oysters, and it is considered one 
of the most healthful resorts on the coast. 

Jasper Springs is located on the Augusta road, about two miles from 
the city and is noted as being the scene of the bold exploits of Sergeants 
Jasper and Newton, previous to the siege of Savannah. Sergeant Jas- 
per, after his gallantry at Fort Moultrie, was granted a roving commission 
by Colonel Moultrie, commanding the Second South Carolina Regiment, 
with the privilege of reforming his own command. The scouts of Jas- 





''■■' % '..^t"~~r * '""' 

Suburban Resorts. 537 

per's were of great assistance to the American army, frequently obtained 
valuable information, which could not be procured in any other way. 
At one time Jasper came into Savannah, and remained here several days, 
during which time he collected valuable information concerning the num- 
ber and position of the British forces, and furnished it to General Lin- 
coln. On one occasion Jasper met, near Ebenezer, a lady named Mrs. 
Jones, who was in great distress about her husband. He had taken the 
oath of allegiance to the British Government; afterwards joined the 
American army, and was captured by the British, who determined to 
hang him, with others who were to be carried to Savannah, in fact were 
then on the way to the city for that purpose. Jasper's sympathies were 
aroused, and he promised to rescue Jones if it were possible. He con- 
sulted Sergeant Newton, who was with him, but no definite plan was ar- 
ranged, though they decided to follo'.v the guard, and take advantage of 
what opportunity offered for accomplishing their purposes. Early the 
next morning, after the interview between Jasper and Mrs. Jones, a guard 
of British soldiers, comprising a sergeant, a corporal and eight men, left 
Ebenezer for Savannah, with the prisoners in irons. The wives and chil- 
dren of two or three of the prisoners followed. Jasper and Newton kept 
on the trail of the party, and upon coming near the Spring, got ahead of 
them and hid in the bushes, presuming, as the sequel proved correctly, 
that the guard would halt to get water, and a chance to rescue the pris- 
oners would be presented. Upon reaching a point in the road opposite 
the Spring, which was pleasantly located in the grove, the guard halted 
and stacked arms, two men being left with them in charge of the pris- 
oners. The rest of the guard, not apprehending the slightest danger, 
went to the Spring. Jasper and Newton were not slow to appreciate the 
situation, and creeping up to the sentinels shot them down, secured the 
stack of muskets and called on the guard, (who returned hastily from the 
Spring upon hearing the fire) to surrender. The Britishers perceiving 
that they were completely at the mercy of the two determined men con- 
cluded discretion was the better part of valor and surrendered. The 
irons were knocked off the prisoners and placed upon the soldiers who 
were conducted to the American camp at Purysburg. The Spring is 
visited every year by hundreds of strangers for its historical interest. 
The water is pure and cool. 


53§ History of Savannah. 

Battery Park was opened in the summer of 1 880, and is a resort 
established by private enterprise. It is at the terminus of a street rail- 
way line within the suburb known as Brownville. The grounds occupy 
a portion of the breastwork for a battery thrown up during the late civil 
war for the defense of Savannah. Within this park picnics and social 
parties meet during the summer. Attached to the grounds is a good 
rifle range with the conveniences for target shooting. 

Daufuskie Island, a somewhat historic place, is another point of in- 
terest on the coast and is a favorite spot for excursion parties. The island 
is some six miles in length and has ever been noted for the abundance 
of fish, oysters, crabs, etc., to be obtained in the waters surrounding it. 
Daufuskie is the Indian name and it is presumed from the number of 
mounds, tomahawks and arrowheads that have been discovered that it 
was a favorite resort of the red men One portion of the island is known 
as "Bloody Point" for which name, tradition thus accounts: The mas- 
sacre of Bloody Point was previous to the Revolutionary War. The 
islands of Port Royal and St. Helena were pretty thickly settled with 
white population when Hilton Head, Daufuskie, Pinckney, and the 
other neighboring islands were held in possession by a few isolated 
Indians, or were altogether uninhabited ; they formed a kind of neutral 
ground between the white and red men. The Indians from Georgia 
were in the habit of making frequent inroads upon the white settlements, 
killing the inhabitants, and carrying off whatever plunder they could 
gather, to their remoter homes in the further south — they formed large 
war parties, and would proceed as far north as Hilton Head, where thev 
would skulk about until a fair chance offered, when they would cross 
Broad River, and ravage the neighboring settlements — hence the name 
Skulk Creek, (and not Skull as is now written.) 

The Indians were in the habit of returning to Skulk Creek after these 
invasions, and would elude pursuit among its numerous nooks and wind- 
ings. Upon one of these occasions, after having committed a number of 
murders, and having loaded their canoes with whatever plunder they 
could collect, and having secured a quantity of " fire water," it is pre- 
sumed from the sequel, they passed through Skulk Creek on their return 
south without stopping at their old haunts, and never halted until they 
reached Daufuskie, where they thought they would be beyond the reach 
of the whites. 

Cemeteries. 539 

A very strong and determined party of whites went in pursuit of 
them. On reaching Hilton Head, they learned from a few Indians, of a 
friendly tribe, that their enemies had not halted, but had proceeded on 
south. Having induced these friendly Indians to join them as guides, 
they continued their pursuit further south ; when they had gone as far 
as Daufuskie, they discovered from the smoke of their camp, that the 
Indians had halted at the southeast point of the island, and had put all 
their boats a short distance up what now is known as New River, to avoid 
the surf which breaks at that point; and when the whites landed at the 
northeastern portion of the island, the red devils, at the extreme south- 
east point, were enjoying themselves in an unwonted round of convivialty 
and feasting. Having effected a safe landing, the whites moved cau- 
tiously and stealthily around the island, until they got between the In- 
dians and their boats, thus effectually cutting off the retreat of the sav- 
ages. The first intimation the Indians had of the presence of the aven- 
gers, was a shower of bullets; they were shot down, bayonetted, sabered 
and were finally driven into the sea. 

The surprise was complete — the massacre was dreadful — the white 
sands were crimson with blood, and the earth was strewn with wounded, 
dying and dead, and almost a whole tribe had been wiped out of exis- 
tence in a few minutes. A few, very few, escaped by swimming, some 
to the opposite marsh, and one swam to Tybee, a distance of three miles. 
From the dreadful carnage at this spot, it received the name of "Bloody 
Point," which it still retains at this time, it being the extreme southeast- 
ern point of South Carolina. 

Among the cemeteries of Savannah the old or brick cemetery on 
South Broad street, stands first in age. Here were interred the remains 
of the early settlers of Savannah and of their posterity until sanitary rea- 
sons required in 1852, that it should be closed, and another site for sep- 
ulture provided further removed from the dwellings of the living. The 
old vaults and tombs are left, though their contents, the hallowed rem- 
nants of mortality, have been transferred to the other cemeteries of lat- 
ter date. A few, however, still repose undisturbed, and the cemetery is 
preserved in reverence. 

Evergreen Cemetery, better known as Bonaventure, famous for its 
magnificent avenues of stately live oaks is almost an ideal resting place 

540 History of Savannah. 

of the silent dead. It is historic ground and the following description of 
the place was written by the late Commodore Josiah Tattnall, the gallant 
hero-sailor who sleeps beneath the moss covered branches of the oaks, 
near the spot where he was born. 

" Bonaventure. — This beautiful tract of land bearing this name, and 
enclosing the Evergreen Cemetery was first settled in or about the year 
1760, by Colonel John Mulryne, who came to this country from Eng- 
land, and removed from Charleston, S. C, to Georgia. 

"The high ground, an extended river view, etc., made it one of the 
choicest sites near the city of Savannah and the first house — a large brick 
one — was erected at that time, facing the center walk of the old garden. 
This garden extended in terraces from the plateau to the river, the ter- 
races being supported by blocks of tabby (a concrete of shell and lime) 
that yet remain in tolerable preservation. This house was destroyed by 
fire in the latter part of the last century, during a dinner entertainment. 

" In 1 76 1 this property came — by the marriage of Josiah Tattnall, of 
Charleston, S C, with Mary, the daughter of Colonel John Mulryne, 
into the possession of the Tattnall family, Governor Tattnall (of Georgia) 
being born there in 1765. 

"This marriage is of peculiar interest in the history of Bonaventure, 
since from it, date the avenues of magnificent trees which form the pride 
and chief feature of interest of the place. They were planted at that 
time, and tradition has it, in the forms of the letters M and T, the initials 
of the families of Mulryne and Tattnall. ,The majority of these trees 
were of the live oak species others being mingled with them. These lat- 
ter the hand of time, and the gales of the Atlantic have long ago laid 
low, while the sturdy live oaks with their hoary heads of moss, still defy 
the wintry blasts, and their rustling leaves whisper a ceaseless lullaby 
over the quiet and peaceful sleepers at their feet.- 

" In the year 1847 this property passed (by purchase) into the hands 
of Captain P. Wiltburger, who had long associated the quiet and peace 
of the place, its patriarchal trees, and their deep, solemn shade, its calm 
and seclusion, as a fit receptacle for the departed of this earth, as a resting- 
place for the weary pilgrims of life. With him originated the idea of de- 
voting Bonaventure to its present and final use, and his remains sleep 
under the foliage of its trees. 



" Circumstances prevented for a time the execution of this wish, but 
it was taken up by his son, Major W. H. Wiltburger, and the formation 
of the present Evergreen Cemetery Company was the result of his efforts. 
In this connection it may be interesting to notice that the first adult 
buried at Bonaventure was the wife of Governor Tattnall, who died there 
in 1803, being soon followed to the grave by her honored husband. 
Previous to that time several children of the family had been buried 

Bonaventure came under the control of the Evergreen Cemetery Com- 
pany in 1849. It is located about three and a half miles from the city 
and contains one hundred and forty acres. It contains many fine speci- 
mens of mortuary architecture, which time has invested with hallowed 
remembrances. Lofty oaks, draped with weeping festoons of moss, whose 
luxuriant growth makes the shade impenetrable to the sun's rays, have 
made this silent city of the dead a peerless combination of the sublime 
and picturesque. 

Laurel Grove Cemetery, although not as grandly beautiful as the fa- 
mous Bonaventure, is nevertheless an attractive " resting place of the 
dead." The history of this cemetery is as follows : On the 9th of May, 
1853, Hon. R.Wayne, mayor of Savannah, in accordance with ordinance 
previously adopted by council, issued his proclamation closing the old or 
brick cemetery on South Broad street, as a burial ground, on the first of 
July ensuing. 

The ordinance adopted the 3d of June, 1852, set apart a tract ofland 
on Springfield plantation belonging to the city, as a public cemetery, 
and conferred upon it the title " Laurel Grove." The place was en- 
closed with a neat railing, connecting with a pillar of granite at each of 
the corners. The interior was laid out in avenues, walks, and lots ; the 
plan of the same being furnished by James O. Morse, civil engineer. 

The establishment of this cemetery was rendered necessary by the 
crowded state of the old cemetery, a small area of ten acres, which had 
been a place of sepulture for more than one hundred years. The rapid 
extension of the city limits, made that cemetery almost a central position, 
and on the score of health, it was deemed advisable to provide another 
place beyond the bounds of the city for the repose of the dead. 

On the 10th of November, 1S52, the cemetery was formally dedicated 

542 History of Savannah. 

with imposing ceremonies. The services were opened by a prayer from 
the Rev. Dr. Willard Preston, of the Independent Presbyterian Church, 
Hon. R. M. Charlton recited an eloquent and appropriate original poem, 
which was followed by a chaste and beautiful address by Hon. Henry R. 
Jackson. The ceremonies were then closed by an impressive prayer from 
the Rev. Dr. Lovick Pierce, of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

The first interment was made in October, 1852. Besides the many 
beautiful and artistic monuments and tombs which mark the graves of 
loved ones, there is an inclosure in the cemetery that attracts attention, 
the lots in which are deposited the remains of the Confederate dead. 
Here repose nearly fifteen hundred heroes of the civil war, who have 
been gathered from the distant battlefields on which they fell and had a 
soldier's burial. This noble work was accomplished by the Ladies' Me- 
morial Association of Savannah, which with sacred care has watched over 
their graves, and on each recurring Memorial day decorates them with 
the bright flowers of spring and early summer. A marb!ie statue repre- 
senting Silence, which originally stood in the Park Extension, keeps 
guard over the bivouac of the heroic dead. Each grave is marked by a 
neat marble headstone. 
V The Cathedral Cemetery, or Roman Catholic burial ground, is situ- 
ated on the Thunderbolt road, two miles from the city. It was opened 
in August, 1853. Right Reverend F. X. Gartland, the first bishop of 
the diocese of Savannah, and Bishop Barron, of a foreign diocese, were 
buried here, both victims of the yellow fever in 1854. Right Reverend 
John Barry, another bishop of the diocese lies buried in this cemetery. 

The Jewish cemetery adjoins Laurel Grove. 

No single feature of Savannah more favorably impresses the stranger 
than the monuments to heroic characters which grace the public squares 
of the city. The oldest of these is the Greene monument which stands 
in Johnson Square. It was erected as a. tribute of gratitude to the dis- 
tinguished Revolutionary hero, General Nathanael Greene. The corner- 
stone of the monument was laid by General Lafayette in March, 1825, 
but the monument was not finished until 1829. It is a plain marble 
shaft, on one side of which is an appropriate inscription, and on the other 
a medallion of General Greene in bronze. 

At the same time General Lafayette laid the corner-stone of the 

Public Monuments. 543 

Greene monument, he performed a similar service to a proposed monu- 
ment to Count Casimir Pulaski, which was to have been erected in Chip- 
pewa Square. This stone, laid in Chippewa Square, together with an- 
other of equal size united to it by copper bands, and containing the re- 
cords of the day, was relaid in Monterey Square in October, 1853, when 
the corner-stone of the present Pulaski monument was laid with impres- 
sive ceremonies, the military under command of Colonel (now General) 
A. R. Lawton, the various Masonic bodies and the citizens en masse par- 
ticipating. The shaft is fifty feet high, and is surmounted by a statue 
of Liberty, holding the banner of the stars and stripes ; on the front in 
relievo, is the statue representing Count Pulaski after he received his 
mortal wound, in the act of falling from his horse, still grasping his 
sword. The date of the event, October 9, 1779, is recorded above. 

The Confederate monument which stands in the Park extension was 
completed in April, 1875, by the Ladies' Memorial Association 'of Sa- 
vannah, and unveiled shortly after, with imposing ceremonies, the entire 
volunteer military of the city, civic societies and associations participating, 
an appropriate address being delivered by Hon. Julian Hartridge. 

The corner-stone of this monument was laid on the 16th of June, 
1874, with Masonic ceremonies, the military being present in force. The 
ceremonies were opened by prayer from Grand Chaplain Richard Webb, 
Grand Master Irwin laying the stone. An address was delivered by 
Col. George A. Mercer, and the ceremonies were closed by a salute of 
eleven guns, fired by the Chatham Artillery, the oldest military organi- 
zation in the State of Georgia. 

The monument cost $25,000, and is built according to a design fur- 
nished by Mr. Robert Reid, of Montreal, Canada. In style, the design 
is modern Italian, and stands about fifty feet in height from the base to 
the crown of the marble figure, by which it is surmounted. The monu- 
ment sets on a terrace of earth work six feet high, by forty feet square, 
and surrounded by a stone coping; the terrace being reached by stone 
steps from either of the four facings. On the corners are pedestals which 
stand out from the Monument proper, and are each graced by a life size 
marble statue of a soldier on duty. 

On the base of the pilasters are appropriate mottoes. The front 
panel on the first stage shows a figure in alto relievo, representing the 

544 History of Savannah. 

South mourning ; the reverse panel shows another figure also in alto re- 
lievo, of a military character. The two sides or lateral panels, bear in- 
scriptions, one of which is 

"To the Confederate Dead ; " 
the other, 

" Come from the four winds, O Breath, and breathe upon 
these Slain, that they may live." — Ezek. xxxii, 9. 

The shaft is capped by a bronze statue of a Confederate soldier at 
" parade rest," the generous gift of G. W. J. DeRenne, esq. Ease, grace 
and manliness distinguish the figure, and the accessories of musket, w r orn 
hat and tattered clothing are true to the life, reproducing with wonderful 
exactness the rents, patches, darns and rude sewing that betray the hard- 
ship and deprivations the Southern Confederate soldiers had to endure in 
their gallant but painful struggle of four years of unsuccessful warfare. 

The Gordon Monument which stands in Chippewa Square was erected 
by the Georgia Central Railroad and Banking Company in honor of W. 
W. Gordon, the first president of the company, a man of exalted charac- 
ter, and one who did much to advance the material prosperity of the 

The Jasper monument in Madison Square was unveiled on the 22d 
of February, 1888. The occasion was a memorable one in the history 
of the city. The president of the United States, Grover Cleveland, and 
party, Governor John B. Gordon and staff, were among the notable per- 
sons present. A heroic bronze figure of Sergeant Jasper surmounts a 
pedestal holding aloft the flag. The poise of the figure is magnificent, 
and has been greatly admired. It is the work of Mr. Alexander Doyle, 
a sculptor who at an early age has achieved great success in his art. 

Benevolent Organizations. 54$ 



NO city in the country according to its population is better supplied 
with societies for the amelioration of the wants of the poor and dis- 
tressed and for the purpose of fostering fraternal relations than Savannah. 
This speaks stronger than anything else could of the natural kindness of 
heart of the people, and is a characteristic which has been prominent 
from the time the first settlement was made on the site of Savannah. 

The renowned divine George Whitefield is prominently associated 
with Savannah as being the founder of Bethesda Orphan House. The 
project was suggested to him by General Oglethorpe soon after his ar- 
rival in 1738, and enlisted the full energies of his active and powerful na- 
ture. He secured from the trustees a grant of five acres of vacant 
ground anywhere he might select. With the aid of James Habersham 
a site was selected about ten miles from Savannah on a branch of the 
west fork of Burnside River. In 1740 the erection of the Orphans' 
House was begun. He, Whitefield, named it Bethesda and in behalf of 
his beloved enterprise he awakened by his eloquence the interest of the 
people of two continents. 

Whitefield's Orphan House had a somewhat varied career. In 1750 
we find Whitefield laboring to expand his noble charity into a college, 
and endeavoring to enlist the governor in the project. He was not 
successful, but nineteen years later he succeeded in converting Bethesda 
into an academy with the idea of making it similar in design to the one 
in Philadelphia. The capacity of the house was increased by the erec- 
tion of two wings, each one hundred and fifty feet in length. At the 
first religious services held in the chapel of the new Orphan House 
Academy, the governor, Sir James Wright, the council and assembly 
were invited to attend. The Georgia Gazette of January 31, 1770, in 
giving an account of the services says : " Last Sunday, His Excellency 
the Governor, Council and Assembly, having been invited by the Rev- 


546 History of Savannah. 

erend George Whitefield, attended divine service in the Chapel of the 
Orphan Home Academy, when prayers were read by the Reverend Mr. 
Ellington, and a very suitable sermon was preached by the Reverend 
Mr. Whitefield from Zachariah, fourth chapter, ninth and tenth verses 
to the general satisfaction of his auditory. After divine service the 
Company were very politely entertained with a plentiful and handsome 
dinner, and were greatly pleased to see the useful improvements made 
in the house in so much forwardness, and the whole executed with taste 
and in a masterly manner ; and being sensible of the truly generous and 
disinterested benefactions afforded to the province, through his means, 
they expressed their gratitude in the most respectful terms." 

Whitefield's death which occurred in July, 1770, was a severe blow- 
to this long fostered and cherished institution. After his death the 
Home passed to the care of Lady Huntingdon to whom Whitefield in his 
will bequeathed the charge in the following words: "'I will and bequeath 
the Orphan House in Bethesda and likewise all buildings, lands, books, 
and furniture belonging thereto, to that lady elect, that Mother in Israel, 
that mirror of true and undefiled religion, the Right Honorable Selina, 
Countess of Huntingdon. In case she should be called upon to enter 
upon her glorious rest before my decease, to Honorable James Haber- 
sham a merchant of Savannah." 

Lady Huntingdon had only fairly begun her active charge of the 
Home when all the buildings were destroyed by lightning just previous 
to the War of Independence. This misfortune, together with the bloody 
struggle between the Colonies and the Mother Country was almost a 
death blow to this great charity. After the destruction of the buildings 
by fire, Lady Huntingdon contributed largely from her private means to 
restore them. 

In 1788 another effort was made to make Bethesda what Whitefield 
had labored so zealously to accomplish, and in the Georgia Gazette of 
June 3d of this year appears the following notice : " To the public. 
Bethesda College near Savannah instituted by the Reverend G. White- 
field, Chaplain to the Right Honorable the Countess Dowager of Hunt- 
ingdon, is to be opened the twenty-fourth instant under the patronage 
of her Ladyship, whose warm zeal to promote the happiness of mankind 
in spreading religion and learning in this State, is above praise, and by 

Benevolent Organizations. 547 

whose authority and appointment, the Reverend David Phillips, late from 
England, anxious to carry her Ladyship's pious designs into the fullest 
execution, solicits the attention of such Ladies and Gentlemen and 
Guardians of Youth, as are desirous of sending young gentlemen for in- 
struction in every branch of useful and polite literature, comprehending 
English grammatically, Writing and the use of Figures, and every branch 
of the Mathematics, the use of the Globes, Latin, Greek and French in- 
cluding Board, Washing, etc., in the following terms, viz. thirty guineas 
per annum for each student without distinction of age, or class of educa- 
tion. Punctuality is expected in four quarterly payments. A line for 
admission to the Reverend David Phillips, Superintendent, or the Rev- 
erend Benjamin Lindsay, Rector of Christ Church Savannah, Classical 
Tutor of the said College, will have immediate attention from their de- 
voted much obliged humble servant, David Phillips." 

This last attempt to make Bethesda an educational institution was 
not successful, and after various vicissitudes the property was sold under 
an act of Legislature, passed December 23, 1808, and the proceeds di- 
vided as follows : one-fifth to the Savannah Poor House and Hospital 
Society and the remainder equally between the Union Society and Chat- 
ham Academy. 

Union Society. — This benevolent society is nearly contemporaneous 
with Bethesda Orphan House founded by Whitefield. In 1750 five large- 
hearted men, of five different religious denominations, formed themselves 
into a charitable club with the particular purpose of caring for, and main- 
taining orphan children and relieving distressed widows. They styled 
themselves the St. George's Club as there was already in existence an 
association of Scotch emigrants confined exclusively to Scotchmen. At 
what time the " St. George's Club" was transformed into the Union So- 
ciety does not precisely appear, as the rec )rds of the society were de- 
stroyed by the British troops when they evacuated Savannah in the sum- 
mer of 1782. The assumption of its new name was an expression and 
a proof of a liberality of sentiment and feeling most honorable to its 
founders and their early associates, who laid aside distinctions of faith 
when so noble an object for combined effort was presented. It is to be 
regretted that, owing -to the destruction of the records, we are able to 
give the names of only three of the original five members : Benjamin 

548 History of Savannah. 

Sheftall, a Jew; Peter Tondee, a Catholic, and Richard Milledge, an 
Episcopalian. Each member contributed two pence weekly to carry out 
the object of the organization. Three members formed a quorum for 
regular meetings, and the 23d of April, the calendar day of the canoni- 
zation of England's patron saint, St. George, was the occasion of the an- 
niversary celebration. 

During the Revolution the society had a remarkable experience. 
When Savannah was captured by the British in December, 1778, a large 
number of the citizens, among whom were four members of the Union 
Society, were arrested and sent on board the prison ships. Some days 
afterwards, the prisoners holding office in the American army were sent 
on parole to Sunbury a few miles south of Savannah, on the sea coast, 
and among these were the four members of the Union Society — Morde- 
cai Sheftall, John Martin, John Stirk, and Josiah Powell. They were 
retained here for four years, during which time they held their meetings 
and observed the anniversary of their society, John Powell having been 
elected president and John Martin secretary. At the first anniversary 
April 23, 1779, an entertainment was provided for the society by a num- 
ber of British officers, who participated in it. The toasts and sentiments 
expressed mark the high-toned, chivalric courtesy of that period. The 
first was, the " Union Society" by the president ; the second was " Gen- 
eral George Washington " by a British officer ; the third, " The King of 
Great Britain," by an American officer. 

These four gentlemen preserved the existence of the society, which 
in 1786 was incorporated by the Legislature of the State, with the title 
of the Union Society. In 1854 the board of managers of the society 
purchased one hundred and twenty-five acres of the Bethesda estate and 
erected buildings for the accommodation of the orphans under its charge 
and removed them thither. The civil war again necessitated the tem- 
porary abandonment of Bethesda and it was occupied first by Confeder- 
ate and subsequently by Federal soldiers. With the return of peace it 
was again restored to the uses to which it had been originally dedicated 
in the incipiency of the Colony. In 1870 the main building was begun 
but was not finished for several years after. It stands near the site of 
Whitefield's " Big House of Mercy," a monument to that great philan- 
thropist. The tree under which, it is said, Whitefield preached to the 
Indians is pointed out. 

Benevolent Organizations. 549 

On the 23d of April, 1888, the one hundred and thirty-eighth annual 
report of the society was submitted by the president, in which it was 
stated that of the one hundred and six boys under the care of the society 
during the year, eighty-nine were. still in the institution. 

The following list embraces the presidents of the society so far as 
known. From 1750 to 1778 there is no record to show who filled the re- 
sponsible position. In 1779 Josiah Powell was president, in 1786 Will- 
iam Stevens, in 1790 Noble Wimberly Jones, frcm which year to the 
present the following have respectively held the position : Joseph Clay, 
Joseph Habersham, William Stevens, George Jones, James P. Young, 
Mathew McAllister, Joseph Habersham, Charles Harris, General David 
B. Mitchell, William B. Bulloch, William Davis, J. McPherson Berrien, 
James Johnston, Dr Moses Sheftall, John Hunter, Richard W. Haber- 
sham, Steele White, Thomas Polhill, Dr. R. D. Arnold, Solomon Cohen, 
Edward Padelford, Joseph S. Foy, Robert D. Walker, John M. Cooper, 
William M. Wadley, Abram Minis, J. H. Estill. • 

St. Andrew's Society, an association of Scottish sons, was organized 
about 1790, and in point of age it ranks second to the Union Society. 
By some it is claimed to be of equal age. The exact date of its birth is, 
however, uncertain. Its first president was General Lachlan Mcintosh, 
with Sir George Houstoun as vice-president The purpose of the society 
is stated to be " to cherish the recollections of our homes and the birth- 
place of our fathers ; to promote good-fellowship among Scotchmen and 
their descendants in this adopted country ; and to extend to unfortu- 
nate Scotchmen and their families assistance and counsel in case of neces- 

During the War of 1812 it seems the society was not maintained, as 
we find no record of its meetings. It was reorganized in 1819. In 1849, 
or 1850, the society purchased the lot on the southwest corner of Brough- 
ton and Jefferson streets and erected a commodious hall. During the 
late war the society became financially involved and was obliged to dis- 
pose of the property. Its fortunes were revived soon after the war, and 
the society is now in a flourishing condition. Meetings are held in 
Knights of Pythias' Hall. The present officers are P. M. Dougan, presi- 
dent ; Thomas Ballantyne, first vice-president ; J. M. Lang, second vice- 
president ; H. A. McLeod, secretary and treasurer ; W. W. Fraser, cor- 

550 History of Savannah. 

responding secretary ; J. Malloch, William Falconer, and D. G. Alexan- 
der, stewards. 

Female Orphan Asylum. — When the Union Society was organized in 
1750, the purpose of the organization was the care and education of or- 
phans and destitute children, without distinction of sex. In 1801 a sep- 
aration was suggested by Rev. Henry Holcombe, pastor of the Baptist 
Church, in Savannah, which gave rise to the Female Orphan Asylum. 
The first board of directors was composed of the following ladies : Mrs. 
Elizabeth Smith, Mrs. Ann Clay, Mrs. Jane Smith, Mrs. Sarah Lamb, 
Mrs. Margaret Hunter, Lady Ann Houstoun, Mrs. Holcombe, Mrs. Han- 
nah McAllister, Mrs. Susannah Jenkins, Mrs. Ann Moore, Mrs. Moore, 
Miss Rebecca Newell, Mrs. Mary Wall, and Mrs. Martha Stephens. The 
Legislature of Georgia granted an act of incorporation in 1810, and for 
the first thirty-seven years of its existence the work of the society was 
confined to the eastern portion of the city. The scope of -the work grad- 
ually increased, and in 1838 the necessary funds to erect the building on 
the corner of Bull and Charlton streets were secured by Mrs. M. Marshall 
and Mrs. M. Richardsone. The present board is composed of the fol- 
lowing ladies : Mrs. A. Minis, president; Mrs. John Hardee, treasurer; 
Miss L. Gilmer, secretary ; Mrs. Charles Lamar, Airs. George L. Cope, 
jr., Mrs. W. J. Sams, Mrs. C. F. Mills, Mrs. J. W. Lathrop, Mrs Wood, 
Mrs. Smith, Mrs. Whitehead, Mrs. Bowman, Mrs. Maclntyre, Mrs. Van 
Vorst, Mrs. Hull, Miss Saussy, Miss Read, Miss Anderson. 

The Hiberiiian Society — The oldest Irish organization in Georgia was 
organized on March 17, 18 12, and from that time to the present has 
served a most honorable purpose in promoting harmony and sociability 
among its members and in works of benevolence. Among the first mem- 
bers were John Cumming, Zachary Miller, John Dillon, David Beli, Isaac 
Minis, T. U. P. Charlton and James Hunter. The rules of the society 
limit the number of its active members to one hundred, which is re- 
stricted to those of Irish birth or extraction. A constitutional obli- 
gation has rested on the members to dine together on each anniver- 
sary, and this obligation has been faithfully observed, except on the an- 
niversary of 1S63, when the condition of the country from the effects of 
the war precluded the idea of a convivial celebration. The present offi- 
cers of the society are P. W. Meldrim, president ; John R. Dillon, vice- 

Benevolent Organizations. 551 

president; J. F. Brooks, treasurer; Charles F. Prendergast, recording 
secretary ; J. M. Hogan, corresponding secretary ; J. Ward, standard- 

The Savannah Widows Society was organized in 1822 by a number 
of ladies of the city for the purpose of affording relief to indigent widows 
with families, and other destitute women. The work was sustained for sev- 
eral years by annual subscription and voluntary donations. In 1834 the 
city council gave to the society two lots on South Broad street, whereon 
a row of small wooden houses was erected to serve as an asylum for aged 
pensioners. These quarters were used until 1859 when the society, 
through the bequest of Mrs. Doratha Abraham, came into possession of 
the building now used on the corner of Broughton and East Broad streets. 
This has since been known as the Abraham's Home, so named in honor 
of the doner. It is used as a home for aged women without regard to 
religious sect or nationality. The present officers of the society are Mrs. 
J. W. Lathrop, president; Mrs. Octavus Cohen, vice-president; Mrs. J. 
Champion, secretary ; Miss Susan Tufts, treasurer. 

The Hebrezu Benevolent Society was organized mainly through the ef- 
forts of Rudolpe Einstein, Abraham Einstein and Solomon Cohen in 185 I. 
when eighty-one members were enrolled. The object of the society is 
to minister to the necessities of indigent persons of the Jewish faith. J. 
Kohn is president of the society. 

The Savannah Benevolent Association was organized on October 12, 
1854, to meet the cases of distress occasioned by the yellow fever epidemic 
of that year. The organization did a grand work in this trying period of 
the city's history, and has ever since been maintained. The present offi- 
cers are J. I. M. Solomons, president; G. C. Freeman, treasurer; J. M. 
Lewis, secretary ; directors, W. W. Gordon, J. H. Johnston, J. L. Warren. 

The Mary Telfair Home is a benevolent institution for the reception 
of widows with families of small children. The home consists of four 
brick buildings on President street, the gift of Miss Mary Telfair. They 
were first used in 1883. To each family is given a flat of three rooms, 
with partial support in health, and additional aid in time of sickness. 
The home is under the management of the Savannah Widow's Society. 

The Industral Relief Society and Home for the Friendless owes its 
origin to the exertion of Mrs. George W. Wylly, Mrs. Kollock, Mrs. L. 

552 History of Savannah. 

J. Rosenfeld, Mrs. Thomas Purse, Mrs. Robert Mclntyre, Mrs. Alexan- 
der Campbell, Mrs. Luke Cannon, who in 1869 applied to the Superior 
Court for a charter for a charitable institution to be known as The Refuge 
of the Homeless. The society however was not organized until February, 
1875, when the present name was adopted. The main object of the so- 
ciety is to assist the destitute and ignorant ; to give them free instruction 
in industrial pursuits and at the same time to afford women and girls a 
temporary home. The society owns the building where its charities are 
dispensed on the southwest corner of Charlton and Drayton streets. Its 
present officers are Mrs. N. Lovell, president; Mrs. Octavus Cohen, first 
vice-president; Mrs. Julia McLeod, secretary and second vice-president. 

La Societe Francaise de Bienfaisance de Savannah was formed in 
1 87 1 and two years later was incorporated. The object of the society 
is to afford relief to distressed members and Frenchmen in need. Its 
officers are A. Bonnaud, president ; A. L. Desbouillons, vice-president; 
and H. Thomasson, treasurer. 

The Workingmeris Benevolent Association was organized in 1859 and 
was chartered in January, 1869. ^ nas over 300 members and has been 
instrumental in accomplishing much good. T. Keenan is president and 
J. F. Fitzhenry, secretary. 

Savannah Hospital. — This hospital is the outgrowth of the labors of 
a few benevolent citizens of Savannah who in 18 19 erected by private 
subscription a commodious structure on Gaston street, between Drayton 
and Abercorn street, which was used for several years exclusively as a 
hospital for sailors. In 1S30 $18,000 was left to the institution by James 
Wallace and Thomas Young. In 1835 the society was incorporated un- 
der the name of The Poorhonse and Hospital Society, upon the applica- 
tions of Joseph Cumming, S. C. Dunning, R. King, John Gardner, 
Mathew Hopkins, William R. Waring, Charles S. Henry, S. D. Corbett, 
Samuel Philbrick, N. G. Beard, Francis Sorrell, R. D. Arnold, and P. M. 
Kollock. The present commodious building, now used, was erected on 
the site of the old structure in 1877 at a cost of $40,000. It is 200 by 
60 feet, in dimensions and has accommodations for 100 patients. The 
qualifications for admission are that the applicant shall be poor and sick, 
irrespective of other circumstances. Pay patients are received and fur- 
nished with private rooms when desired. The Savannah Hospital, as it 

Benevolent Organizations. 553 

is now called, is complete in all its appointments ; its grounds are exten- 
sive and well cared for and the air of neatness and comfort pervades the 
whole institution. It is under the direction of a board of seven managers 
of whom George J. Mills is president, Ur. William Duncan, superin- 
tendent, and C. H. Colding, resident physician. The corps of physicians 
besides the two named is as follows: Dr. J. D. Martin, Dr. T. J. Charlton, 
Dr. J. P. S. Houstoun, Dr. \V. W. Owens, Dr. M. L. Boyd. 

The Savannah Hospital is supported by the interest upon its invest- 
ments, the moneys received from pay patients, and annual appropriations 
from the city and county, the former appropriating $3,600 and the latter 
$1,000. Several bequests and donations have been made to the hospital, 
the largest being a donation of $100,000 by Mrs. Charles F. Mills, ac- 
cording to an expressed wish of her husband previous to his death. 

The Georgia Infirmary is a charity institution for the support of dis- 
abled colored persons. It originated from an endowment of Thomas F. 
Williams, Richard F. Williams giving the land upon which the building 
was erected. It was incorporated by the Georgia Legislature in December, 
1832. The hospital building is situated on the east side of Bull street, 
near the toll-gate. The city donates $3,600 annually to its support and 
the county $1,500, which with a small amount from pay- patients, in- 
cludes the revenue received for the support of the hospital. It is under 
the direction of a board of thirteen managers, of which John I. Stoddard 
is president. 

St. Joseph's Infirmary, an eleemosynary institution which was organ- 
ized in 1875, * s supported by voluntary contributions and pay-patients. 
It is under the charge of the Sisters of Mercy, Sister M. Eulalia being 
the Sister Superior. The infirmary is located on the northwest corner 
of Taylor and Habersham streets. 

The Telfair Hospital is of recent origin. It is located on the south- 
western corner of new Houston and Drayton streets, the fine brick build- 
ing and grounds used being the gift of Mrs. Margaret Telfair Hodgson 
and Miss Mary Telfair. The officers of the hospital are Mrs. J. F. Gil- 
mer, president; Mrs. John Williamson, secretary; and Mrs. James Ran- 
kin, treasurer. 

Little Minnie Mission on the southwest corner of Jones and Lincoln 
streets, is a home for infants and is a memorial to a child whose death 

554 History of Savannah. 

prompted the project in behalf of the helpless little ones. Miss L. Pitzer 
is matron of the mission. 

The Workingmeri s Literary and Relief Association was organized in 
1877. Its objects are the intellectual advancement of its members and 
to afford relief in case of accident or death. The Savannah, Florida and 
Western and Charleston and Savannah Railroad Relief Association is an 
organization of similar aims. The latter was organized in 1878. 

For several years the Chatham Club was the leading social organiza- 
tion in Savannah. It ceased to exist a few years ago, when most of its 
members united with the Oglethorpe Club. . 

The oldest social club in Savannah is the Harmonie which was organ- 
ized in 1865. It was instituted for social and mental improvement and 
made considerable progress under its first president Mr. Wolf. St. An- 
drew's Hall was first used as club rooms and here many pleasant balls 
and social gatherings were held, which added much to the winter amuse- 
ments of the city. The club became a chartered organization in 1887. 
Its present home is on the corner of Bull and Jones streets, formerly a 
private residence. Emile Newman is president ; I. A. Solomon, jr., vice- 
president ; S. Binswanger, treasurer; A. S. Milius, secretary. 

The OgletJwrpe Club was organized with twelve members in 1875. 
It was first intended to make it a club with a very limited membership, 
but it has since extended its membership to 175. It is in a flourishing 
condition ; is made up of the leading citizens of the city and has finely 
furnished and equipped quarters in the second story of the old Odd Fel- 
low's building on the corner of Broughton and Bull streets. The presid- 
ing officers of the club are George S. Owens, president ; T. M. Cunning- 
ham, vice-president ; R. L. Mercer, secretary ; and John Sullivan, treas- 

The Savannah Turn Verein Club was organized in 1856. It is com- 
posed entirely of Germans and meetings are held the first Sunday in 
each month at their hall No. 187 Broughton street. The officers are 
John Wohanka, president; Henry Kolshorn, vice-president; J. G. C. 
Kruse, secretary; M. L. Byck, treasurer. 

The Standard Club is a social organization but recently organized. 
H. M. Boley, is president ; M. Solomons, vice-president ; S. G. Lowen- 
thal, secretary; and M. D. Hirsch, treasurer. 

Secret Organizations. 555 

Savannah has three gun clubs, the Chatham, Forest City and the Sa- 
vannah Rifle Association. Of the first named the officers are C. A. 
Drayton, president; H. W. Palmer, vice-president; W. H. Connerat, 
secretary and treasurer; G. S. McAlpin, ordnance officer. 

Forest City Club. — E. J. Kieffer, president; J. Reideman, vice-presi- 
dent; C. A. Lamont, secretary and treasurer; J. Rocker, ordnance 

Savannah Rifle Association. — J. W. McAlpin, president; R. Falli- 
gant, vice-president ; J. M. Bryan, secretary and treasurer ; J. P. White, 
ordnance officer. 

The Savannah Yacht Club was organized several years ago ; is strong 
in membership and one of the most popular organizations in the city. 
The club-house is located near Thunderbolt, and during the summer 
months is a favorite resort. The officers are G. A. Mercer, commodore; 
F. S. Lathrop, rear-commodore; T. L. Kinsey, vice-commodore; W. 
D. Johnston, secretary ; M. A. Cohen, treasurer; M. Henderson, John 
Screven, jr., S. P. Goodwin, sailing committee. 

The history of Free Masonry is almost coeval with the birth of the city. 
Solomon Lodge No. 1 was chartered in 1735, only eighteen years after 
the organization of a Constitutional Grand Lodge in London. Although 
Georgia is the youngest of the original thirteen States, it is third in the 
list with chartered lodges, only Massachusetts and Pennsylvania being 
given priority in this respect. 

Tradition has it that Solomon's Lodge was formed as early as 1733, 
but there is little to substantiate this assertion. Even the place of meet- 
ing during the earlier years of the Savannah Lodge is in doubt, but it is 
probable that no regular place was secured until some years after the 
lodge was chartered. Among those who accompanied Oglethorpe to the 
site of Savannah in 1733 there must have been several who were masons, 
for at a meeting of the Grand Lodge in London in the year of the settle- 
ment of the colony, it is recorded that " Deputy Grand Master Batson re- 
commended the new colony of Georgia in North America to the benevo- 
lence of the particular lodges." 

Free Masonry rapidly grew into a strong order in Savannah, and soon 
occupied an important position among the incorporated bodies of the 
town. In 1758 Solomon's Lodge was mentioned as one of the distin- 

Secret Organizations. 557 

common head, the day was celebrated with harmony and good fellow- 

The account does not give the number of lodges participating in the 
meeting. It is evident, however, that Savannah at this time had two 
lodges Solomon's No. I, and Hiram No. 2, for it appears that five out of 
the six officers elected were members of the first named lodge, and the 
remaining office junior grand warden, was filled by a member of Hiram 
Lodge. The grand lodge organized at this time issued new charters to 
the two lodges named, and to a number of others soon after instituted. 

Masonry flourished in Savannah under the grand lodge but the same 
prosperity was not enjoyed by the fraternity at large. In 18 18 outside 
of the large towns the ancient institution had become almost extinct. In 
that year but ten lodges were at work, and of these, three were in Savan- 
nah, viz.: Solomon No. 1, Union No. 10, and L'Esperance No. 31. Hi- 
ram Lodge No. 2, which had been instituted immediately succeeding the 
war for independence, ceased to exist about the beginning of the present 
century. It was revived in 1826, but became defunct a short time after- 

"At the annual communication of the Grand Lodge held in Savannah 
in 1820," says Colonel J. H. Estill, in his history of the two Grand Lodges, 
"the movement, from which was to result a complete revolution in the 
then existing system of Free Masonry, began. It was the consideration 
of 'the constitution or new code of by-laws submitted by a committee 
appointed at a previous communication.' This report was, after numer- 
ous alterations, adopted. Under this constitution it was provided that 
the first two meetings in the year (the Grand Lodge then held quarterly 
meetings) namely, those in March and June, should be held in Savannah, 
and the last two, those of September and December, in Milledgeville, 
then the capital of the State ; the grand officers being elected in Savan- 
nah, at the March communication. This division of honors was devised 
for the purpose of harmonizing the conflicting interests of the upper and 
lower portions of the State, it being almost, if not absolutely, impossible 
for the representatives of all the lodges to meet together at either place 
at any time, owing to the lack of facilities for quick transportation, for 
those were the days when steamboats were just beginning to plow the 
waters, and railroads were still unknown. Though intended to better 

558 • History of Savannah. 

the condition of affairs, it virtually made two grand lodges, with different 
officers and conflicting interests." It is not necessary in this connection 
to follow the history of the two grand lodges which a few years after were 
created, the one named the Savannah Grand Lodge and the other the 
Milledgeville Grand Lodge; but this result was most unfortunate for the 
advancement of Free Masonry in Georgia for several years. Solomon 
Lodge No. i, Union No. 3, and Hiram No. 35, remained with the Savan- 
nah Grand Lodge, while the L'Esperance No. 8, joined the Milledgeville 

Union Lodge No. 3 at this time (1827) was an influential body of Ma- 
sons, and its membership included some of the best citizens of Savannah. 
It was in this lodge that Royal Arch Masonry first made its appearance 
in Georgia, and within its portal was born that flourishing Masonic body 
known as Georgia Chapter No. 3 It had an elegant room en Bull street, 
corner of Bay lane, where the Grand Lodge for a time held its quarterly 
session. It ceased to exist in the great anti- Masonic crusade which oc- 
curred in the United States during the few years following 1826, shortly 
after the alleged expose of Free Masonry made by William Morgan of 
New York. During the excitement which spread all over the country at 
this time, and the warfare made upon the order, Hiram, Union and L'Es- 
perance Lodges of Savannah suspended work, and were never revived. 
Solomon Lodge No. I, alone withstood the storm. 

In 1839 a union of the two grand lodges of Georgia was effected, and 
from that date the Masonic order in the State has had a most prosper- 
ous career From a half dozen lodges it has grown to a present list of 
300 lodges, and an affiliated membership of nearly 15,000 Masons. 

The first hall erected for the meetings of the Savannah Lodges was 
situated on President street, near St. James Square. It was a two-story 
frame building, and for many years was used as a private residence. 
This building was torn down in 1888, and the Morning News of March 
28, 1888, had the following account of the old landmark. 1 The next 

1 Tearing Down the Old Masonic Hall, an Historic Rookery. — The two- 
story wooden building on a brick basement fronting on President street was erected by 
the members of Solomon's Lodge in 1799, and was used by the Masonic fraternity until 
1858, when they removed to the building on the northeast corner of Bull and Brough- 
ton streets, having sold the old site to the city in 1856. The city bought the property 
and that adjoining on the west, which was at one time the residence of General I.ach- 

Secret Organizations. 559 

building used is on the northeast corner of Broughton and Bull streets, 
which was jointly used by the Masonic and Odd Fellows Lodges until 
these two orders erected separate buildings of their own. The present 
Masonic temple is situated on the northwest corner of Liberty and Whit- 
aker streets. This is a substantial and handsome building. The first 
story is rented for stores. The second story is a fine, capacious hall for 
concerts, balls, dramatic representations, etc. The third story contains 
the chambers of the fraternity. 

At the present time Savannah has five lodges of Master Masons, Com- 
mandery of Knights Templar, Council of R. and S. M-, and a chapter of 
the Royal Arch as follows: 

Palestine Commandery No. 5 was instituted on the 15th of April, 1867, 

Ian Mcintosh of the Revolutionary Army, intending to erect thereon a guard-house or 
police station ; but the people in the neighborhood objected to its being used for that 
purpose, and it was sold to the late John J. Kelley for one thousand dollars. That gen- 
tleman on his death bequeathed the entire property to the Union Society. The work- 
men yesterday pulled down the partitions that divided the old lodge-room into bed- 
rooms, and it once more had the appearance of a meeting-place of the brethren. In the 
arched ceiling, almost obliterated by the numberless coats of whitewash that had been 
put upon it by people who have occupied the premises, could be seen the outlines of the 
"Blazing Star.*' The hooks in the walls and marks on the Moor indicated that Royal 
Arch Masons had there seen for the first time the ' Sanctum Sanctorum,' and that they 
had worked in the quarries and showed evidence of their skill. It was in that old lodge- 
room that Honorable William Stephens, General James Jackson, Governor Josiah Tatt- 
nall, and other illustrious Georgians and Masons met in the early days of the then young 
State. It was there also that the Cuban patriot, General Lopez, who was soon after 
garroted in Havana, was made a Mason in 1850. There are quite a number of mem- 
bers of the fraternity now living who were brought ' to light ' in the old room, which to- 
day will disappear forever. It is with feelings akin to regret that we see these venera- 
ble structures torn down, while yet their inner timbers appear to be strong enough to 
stand for centuries. They, however, must make way for buildings more suitable to the 
uses of the present generation. A noble structure, the Whitefield Building, will succeed 
the old hall, and the site is virtually a Masonic contribution to that noble charity, the 
Union Society ; for the land was the gift of the late John J. Keliey, Past Master of Zer- 
ubbabel Lodge, number fifteen, and the money with which the new structure is to be 
erected is a part of the bequest of the late William F. Holland, Past Master of Ancient 
Landmark Lodge, number two hundred and thirty-one. The building will be a fitting 
memorial to George Whitefield, the founder of the Bethesda Orphan House, and John J. 
Kelley and William F. Holland, two members of the society whose timely beneficence 
has added this valuable property to the assets from which is to be derived an income 
for the support of the orphans of the Union Society, the present guardian of Whitefield's 
sacred trust to the people of Savannah. 

560 History of Savannah. 

Present officers : Thomas Ballantyne, T. C; W. A. Walker, G.; J. A. 
Roberts, P.; J. H. Cavanaugh, C. G.; R. R. Lovell, T. J.; J. F. La Far, R. 

Georgia Council No. 2, R. and S. M., was established several years 
ago. The present officers are Thomas Ballantyne, 111. M.; W. S. Rock- 
well, 111. H. ofT.; R.J. Nunn, 111. H. A; Robert H. Footman, T.; Henry 
T. Botts, R. 

Georgia Chapter No. 3, Royal Arch, was established in 18 18 The 
present officers are Thomas Ballantyne, E. P. H.; T. S. Haines, E. K.; 
J. H. Cavanaugh, E. S.; C. A. Drayton, C. H.; B Brady, P. S.; P. H. Ward, 
R.; R. C. Kennedy, R. A. C; C. G. Anderson, sentinel. 

The lodges of master masons are as follows : Solomon s Lodge No. 1, 
as previously stated, was chartered in 1735. Amongthe treasures of the 
lodge is an old Bible, presented by General Oglethorpe, with writing on 
the fly-leaf. The present officers are W. B. Spann, W. M.; E. E. Buck- 
tier, S. W.; J. A. Thomas, J. W.; H. S. Colding, S.; R. H. Lewis, T.; J. 
H. Fox, tiler. 

Zerubbabel Lodge, No. 15, was chartered on the 5 th of November, 1840. 
The present officers are W. A. Walker, W. M.; J. Kiley, S. 

Clinton Lodge, No. 54, was chartered on the 27th of October, 1847. 
Its present officers are J. E. Mallery, W. M.;'W. Russell, jr., S. 

Ancient Landmark Lodge, No. 241, was chartered on the 15th of No- 
vember, 1859. The present officers are W. S. Rockwell, W. M.; J. S. 
Haines, S. 

Landrv.m Lodge, No. 48, is the youngest of the Masonic lodges of the 
city. Its officers are A. H. McDonell, W. M.; S. P. Goodwin, S. W.; 
J. W. Pead, J. W.; H. E. Wilson, S.; C. H. Carson, T.; D. L. Jackson. 

The colored citizens of Savannah are represented by four Masonic 
lodges, the Eureka Lodge, No. 1, Hilton Lodge, No. 2, Mount Moriah 
Lodge No. 16, Pytliagoras Lodge, No. 14. 

The society of Independent Order of Odd Fellows has five lodges, an 
encampment, and one canton of the uniformed division in Savannah. 

Oglethorpe Lodge, No. 1, the first branch of the order established in 
Savannah, was instituted in 1843. The officers are H. Emmett Wilson. 
N. G.; J. H. Osborne, secretary. 

Live Oak Lodge, No. 3, was instituted in 1843. Isaac Beckett is N. G; 
John Houston, secretary. 

Secret Organizations. 561 

DeKalb Lodge, No. 9, was instituted in 1843. Its officers are J. W. 
Smith, N. G.; J. Riley, secretary. 

Haupt Lodge, No. 57, was instituted in 1869. Its officers are J. A. 
Shephard, N. G.; A. N. Manucy, secretary. 

Golden Rule Lodge, No. 12, was the fourth lodge instituted in Savan- 
nah. Its officers areT. Stockton, N. G.; E. E. Cheatham, secretary. 

Magnolia Encampment, No. 1, was instituted in 1845. W.J. O'Brien 
is C. P., and J. S. Tyson, secretary. 

Chatham Canton No. 1 of the uniformed rank has the following offi- 
cers : J. W. Jackson, commander; A. B. Brook, lieutenant; J. W. Pear- 
son, ensign ; A. N. Manucy, clerk; C. H. Dorsett, accountant. 

The Odd Fellows General Relief Committee has been a most valuable 
auxiliary in affording aid to distressed members of the order. D. Morgan 
is president. 

Odd Fellows Hall was for many years on the northeast corner of 
Broughton and Bull streets. In 1887 a new hall was completed on the 
northwest corner of State and Barnard streets. This fine building was 
totally destroyed by fire on the evening of April 6, 1889. Efforts are 
now being put forward to secure the erection of another building for the 
use of the fraternity. 

The Knights of Pythias have several flourishing branches in Savan- 
nah. Among the lodges are Forest City Lodge, No. 1, Myrtle Lodge, No. 
6, Tentonia Lodge, No. 7, Excelsior Lodge, No. 8, Calanthe Lodge, No. 
28, Dn Guesclin Division, No. 1. One branch of the Endowment rank, 
and of the Uniform Division. Knights of Pythias' Hall is situated on the 
southeast corner of Barnard and York streets. 

Among the other secret societies of Savannah are Alliance Lodge, No. 
586, Knights of Honor; and Savannah Lodge, No. 11 83; Tattnall Coun- 
cil, No. 884, American Legion of Honor; Isondiga Lodge, No. 18, and 
Sheperd Lodge, No. 17, Ancient Order of United Workmen ; Branch No. 
38, Catholic Knights of America; Savannah Lodge, No. 2, Golden Chain ; 
Georgia Lodge, No. 151, O. K. S. B.; Pulaski Council, No. 153, Royal 
Arcanum ; Jasper Council, No. 10, Home Circle ; three branches of the 
Woman's Christian Temperance Union ; two lodges of the Independent 
Order of Good Templars ; one division of the Sons of Temperance; Geor- 
gia Tent No. 15 1, of I. O. of R.; St. John the Baptist Society, and St. 

562 History of Savannah. 

Patrick's Society of T.A. B.; two lodges of the I. O. B. B., and one lodge 
of the U. S. of T. 

The soldiers who fought in the Confederate and Federal armies during 
the late civil war, have each an organization in Savannah, the object of 
which is for social reunion and benevolence. The Confederate Veterans 
Association was formed a few years ago and is in a flourishing condition. 
The officers are L. McLaws, president; H. R. Jackson, W. W. Gordon, 
vice-presidents; J. K. P. Carr, treasurer; E. A. Silva, secretary. The 
organization composed of honorably discharged Federal soldiers is known 
as the Winfield Scott Hancock Post No. 48. Its officers areT. F. Gleason, 
commander ; W. Snow, senior vice-commander ; E. Ybanez, junior vice- 
commander ; S. F. B. Gillespie, adjutant. 



ESTILL, COLONEL J. H. The story of the life of a self-made man 
is almost always interesting, particularly to those who have their way 
to make in the world. The methods by which he won distinction, or ac- 
quired fortune, are eagerly studied by those who are ambitious and en- 
terprising, with the hope of finding something that will assist them in their 
efforts to achieve success. 

Colonel John Holbrook Estill is a conspicuous example of a self-made 
man. He owes his success in life to his own unaided exertions. He be- 
gan at the bottom of the ladder, and has climbed steadily toward the top. 
Indomitable perseverance, great application, a high order of executive 
ability and excellent judgment in business matters are marked features of 
his character. 

Colonel Estill was born in Charleston, S. C, October 28, 1840, in a 
building on Broad street which subsequently was occupied by that cele- 
brated organ of secession, the Charleston Mercury. He was one of a 
family of eleven children. William Estill, his father, who was a book- 

Biographical. 563 

seller, bookbinder and printer, lived to the age of eighty-two, and died in 
Savannah in 1882. From his earliest years Colonel Estill has been con- 
nected in one way and another with the printing business. His father 
moved from Charleston to Savannah in 185 I, and at the early age of 
eleven years Colonel Estill began his career in the office of the Evening 
Journal, his first work being setting type and distributing newspapers. 
• During the next five years he was employed at different times in the 
offices of the Savannah Daily Courier and the Savannah Georgian. In 
1856 he returned to Charleston, and served an apprenticeship in the 
printing house of Walker, Evans & Cogswell. In 1859 he was back in 
Savannah assisting in the publication of the Evening Express. The Ex- 
press was a failure, however, and when the war of secession began he was 
a pressman in a job office which was situated on the site now occupied by 
the Morning News building. 

Colonel Estill was, of course, in sympathy with the prevailing senti- 
ment of his State in political matters, and promptly volunteered when 
troops were called for. He was one of those who garrisoned Fort Pu- 
laski, and he went with his company, the Oglethorpe Light Infantry, 
commanded by the distinguished Colonel F. S. Bartow, to Virginia. He 
has always been proud of the fact that he was one of "Bartow's boys." 
He was wounded in battle, and was discharged from the army in 1863 
because of his wounds, but he afterwards served as a volunteer in defense 
of Savannah. 

At the close of the war Colonel Estill was penniless and without occu- 
pation. He was not, however, discouraged. He had confidence in him- 
self and he was willing to work at anything that promised to yield him a 
living. He accepted employment at a dollar a day, but kept his eyes 
open for chances to improve his material condition. In 1866, while work- 
ing as pressman in the News and Herald office, he purchased a small job 
printing office, and in 1867 he bought an interest in the News and Her- 
ald, and became its business manager. In the following year he secured 
entire control of that newspaper and changed its name to the Morning 

It was not an easy matter to make a newspaper in Savannah pay at 
that time. There were two other morning newspapers, but the Morning 
News quickly became the favorite, and in a short time had the field to 

564 History of Savannah. 

itself. In 1876 the Morning News became financially strong enough to 
own a home of its own, and a four-story building was erected on the pres- 
ent site of the magnificent Morning News publishing house, which was 
built nine years later. 

It may be asserted without fear of successful contradiction that the 
Morning News under Colonel Estill's management, has led the newspaper 
press of the South in every step of its improvement. It used a folder 
when there was not another in use south of Philadelphia, and the same is 
true with respect to the mailing machine. It was the first to print from 
stereotype plates, and it was the first in Georgia to organize a regular sys- 
tem of correspondence and to use the telegraph extensively in its special 
news service. In the Morning News publishing house there is an im- 
mense business carried on outside of the publishing of a newspaper. Job 
printing, lithographing and book-binding are done on an extensive scale. 
The patrons of the publishing house are found in about every city in the 

Colonel Estill also owns the Macon Telegraph, the leading newspaper 
of Middle Georgia, and one of the four great dailies of the State. Outside 
of his newspapers he has taken a leading part in a great many business 
enterprises, and continues to do so. In all undertakings for the benefit of 
Savannah he is pushed to the front, and made to shoulder a large share 
of the burden. Within the last few years he has been endeavoring to 
relieve himself of many of the trusts confided to his care, but he has only 
partially succeeded. He is still, in a very marked degree, a servant of the 
public, and doubtless will continue to be. Among the places of trust and 
responsibility he now fills are the following : President of the Union So- 
ciety, which includes the care of the Bethesda Orphan Home, founded in 
1740 by Rev. George Whitefield; President of the Chatham Real Estate 
and Improvement Company; a member of the Board of Public Educa- 
tion, and a County Commissioner. Besides these he is either president 
or director in a dozen or more corporations. He built one of the street 
railways of Savannah entirely from his own means, and was the projector 
of the Belt Line Railroad. In addition to the various business enterprises 
to which attention has already been called he directs a rice plantation and 
cattle ranch which he owns in South Carolina. 

Colonel Estill has never held an elective political office, except that 


m \ 



Biographical. 565 

of public printer, to which he was twice elected. He has, however, been 
on the staff of the governor for many years, and is at present the Geor- 
gia member of the National Democratic Committee. 

Colonel Estill is almost wholly a self-educated man. He received 
some benefits from the public schools, but he did not attend them regu- 
larly because he was so occupied that he could not. He has been a reader 
all his life, however, and being a thinker, as well as a man of many origi- 
nal ideas, his want of early educational advantages has not seriously in- 
terfered with his success in life. He is not contentious, but he adheres 
to his opinions with great tenacity when once they are formed. He yields 
gracefully when the facts are against him, however, and is quick to set 
himself right when he finds that he is in the wrong. He is an enemy of 
cant, hypocrisy and humbuggery in whatever shape they present them- 
selves, and does not hesitate to show his hostility to them, but he is in- 
clined to treat leniently the* faults and shortcomings of his fellow men. 
The late Colonel Thompson, who was the editor of the Morning News for 
a quarter of a century, said that had Colonel Estill given his undivided at- 
tention to editorial work he would have made a reputation second to that 
of no other editor in the country. Upon questions that interest him he 
writes with force and clearness. As an "All-around man" he probably 
ranks with the best of the newspaper men of the country, as he is equally 
at home in writing local matter, editorials, or directing the business de- 

HARTRIDGE, ALFRED LAMAR, was born in Savannah, Febru- 
ary 17, 1837, the son of Charles Hartridge, a cotton factor, a native 
of Savannah, of Saxon lineage, and was the youngest of four brothers, 
Julian, Algernon Sidney, Charles John, and Alfred Lamar. He was edu- 
cated at the Georgia Military Institute, Marietta, Ga , and was senior 
captain of cadets when he withdrew from the institute to enter commer- 
cial life in Savannah in October, 1854. 

At the time of the secession of Georgia he was a bank officer under 
G. B. Lamar, president of the Bank of Commerce. On the withdrawal of 
his State from the Union he joined the Chatham Artillery as a private, but 
was soon afterwards made first lieutenant of the DeKalb Riflemen, and on 
June 7, 1 86 1, was mustered into the service of the Confederacy with his 

566 History of Savannah. 

company, and ordered to Genesis Point, at the mouth of the Great Ogee- 
chee River. In August, i86i,he was elected captain of the DeKalb Rifle- 
men, and re-enlisted with his company in the Confederate service for the 
war. He built and named Fort McAllister, calling it after his warm friend, 
Colonel Joseph L. McAllister, who was afterward killed in Virginia Dur- 
ing his command of this work Captain Hartridge had several engagements 
with the enemy, first with one and then with four gunboats, repulsing 
all attacks. 

In August, 1862, he was transferred with his company to the First 
Battalion of Georgia Sharpshooters, under command of Major Robert H. 
Anderson, (afterward brigadier-general of cavalry.) In the spring of 1863 
he was promoted to major of artillery C. S. A., and placed in command 
of the heavy batteries at Rosedew, on the Little Ogeechee River. The 
island of Rosedew was considered by General Beauregard as the strategic 
point from which the Federals would attempt to advance on Savannah. 
On November 18, 1864, Major Hartridge was ordered by General Mc- 
Laws, then in command of the military district of Georgia, to take com- 
mand of a force consisting of the Twenty-seventh Georgia Battalion of 
Infantry, the Ashley Dragoons, Captain Heyward, and a section of Max- 
well's artillery under Lieutenant Huger, and to proceed to the Central 
Railroad bridge over the Oconee River, to hold it against what was then 
supposed to be a raiding party sent to destroy railroad communication 
with Southwestern Georgia ; but which in fact was Sherman's army ad- 
vancing from Atlanta. He held this bridge and Ball's Ferry for three 
days against the attacks of Osterhaus's division of Sherman's Army, be- 
ing gallantly assisted by the Cadets of the Georgia Military Institute 
under the command of Major F. W. Capers, and by other State troops 
under the command of General H. C. Wayne, adjutant-general of the 
State of Georgia. On the third day Lieutenant-General W. J. Hardie 
visited this command, and seeing the overwhelming strength of the ene- 
my, ordered the troops to fall back to Millen. 

On November 30, 1864, he was placed in command of that portion of 
the outer line of the defenses around Savannah at Monteith, extending 
from the Charleston and Savannah Railroad bridge over the Savannah 
River to the Central Railroad, just to the southwest of Harrison's place. 
The troops under his command consisting of six companies of the Twen- 

Biographical. 567 

ty-seventh Georgia Battalion, Howard's Battalion, a North Carolina Bat- 
talion, two Cavalry companies and Captain Abell's Light Battery of four 
pieces. On December 6th the advance of the Federals appeared in front 
of this line, and on the day following a general attack was made by skir- 
mishers, and in the afternoon by heavy columns. By order of the general 
commanding, the troops were withdrawn from this, line on the night of 
December 7th, and Major Hartridge was placed in command of that por- 
tion of the inner line resting on the Williamson place on the river. 

On December 13th Fort McAllister was captured, and on the 14th Ma- 
jor Hartridge was ordered to take command of the Little Ogeechee bat- 
teries from Rosedevv to the railroad bridge crossing the river. This line 
he held until the night of December 20th, when all the lines around Sa- 
vannah were abandoned, and the army withdrawn to the north side of 
the river, leaving Savannah defenseless. After the evacuation of Savan- 
nah he was placed in command of the Twenty-seventh Georgia Battalion, 
and served in General McLaw's Division in South and North Carolina, 
taking part in many skirmishes, and in the battles of Averysboro and 
Bentonville. He ended his war record as a colonel of infantry on April 
19, 1865, at Greensboro, N. C, when General J. E. Johnston surrendered 
his army to General Sherman. 

Since that year he has been actively at work in his native city, en- 
deavoring to do his share towards reviving the shattered fortunes of his 
section. In 1876, during the yellow fever epidemic which devastated 
Savannah, he served as a volunteer in the Benevolent Association, and 
worked among the sick and poor without intermission from the begin- 
ning to the end of this fearful scourge. Particularly has he been untiring 
in his endeavors to aid those who are developing the Central Railroad 
Company of Georgia into one of the great railroad systems of the coun- 
try, and in encouraging those who believe in the future greatness of Sa- 

MERCER, GEORGE A., born in Savannah. Ga., February 9, 1835. 
His father, Hugh W. Mercer, was born in Fredericksburg, Va., in 
1808. His mother was Mary S. Mercer, nee Anderson. Hugh VV. Mercer 
was graduated at West Point in 1828, in the class with Jefferson Davis, 
and one class behind Robert E. Lee. He was the intimate, personal 

568 History of Savannah. 

friend of General Lee. Lieutenant Mercer was for several years on the 
personal staff of General Winfieid Scott. He was sent to Savannah on 
duty as an officer of artillery. General Lee came to Savannah at the same 
time as an officer of the U. S. Engineer Corps. In 1833 General Mercer 
resigned from the army, settled in Savannah and married there Miss 
Mary S Anderson, the daughter of Mr. George Anderson, a very promi- 
nent merchant and citizen of Savannah. Hugh W. Mercer became cashier 
of the old Planter's Bank of Savannah, and retained his position until the 
breaking out of the late war. He was one of the first brigadier-generals 
appointed by President Davis, and served throughout the entire war on 
the coast of Georgia and South Carolina, and in the army of Northern 
Georgia under Generals Joseph E. Johnston and Hood. At the close of 
hostilities General Mercer returned to Savannah; then he entered into a 
banking and commission business in Baltimore, finally went to Europe, 
and died at Baden Baden, Germany, in 1877, in his sixty- ninth year. 

General Mercer's mother, the grandmother of Colonel George A. 
Mercer, was the daughter of the distinguished Cyrus Griffin, of Virginia, 
the president of the last Continental Congress. General Mercer was the 
son of Colonel Hugh Mercer, of Fredericksburg, Va., who was president 
of the old Farmers' Bank of Fredericksburg for many years. Colonel 
Hugh Mercer was the son of General Hugh Mercer of the Revolutionary 
army, who was killed at the battle of Princeton, N. J. He was the inti- 
mate personal friend of General Washington. 

Of the three children now living of Hugh and Mary S. Mercer, George 
A. Mercer is the eldest, the other two being Mrs. Mary S. Walker, wife of 
General H. H. Walker, of the Confederate Army, now a resident of Mor- 
ristown, N. J., and Robert Lee Mercer. George A. Mercer received his 
preliminary education in Savannah. At the age of thirteen he was sent 
to the celebrated school of Mr. Russell, in New Haven, Conn. Upon his 
return he became a pupil of the well-known teacher, William T. Feay, 
who prepared him for college. In August, 1853, he entered the sopho- 
more class of Princeton, N. J., and was graduated in 1856. He attended 
the law school at the University of Virginia in 1857. In 1858 he went 
to Europe. Upon his return to Savannah he entered the law office of 
Messrs. Lloyd and Owens, and was admitted to the bar in 1859. After 
admission, he remained in the law office of Ward, Jackson & Jones for 

Biographical. 569 

one year. Soon after he began practice, in i860, he was taken into co- 
partnership by George A. Gordon, esq., then counsel for the Central Rail- 
road and Banking Company of Georgia. When the war broke out in 
1861 both partners entered the Confederate service, and never resumed 
practice together. Colonel Gordon after the war moved to Huntsville, 
Ala., and died there. George A. Mercer during the war married Miss 
Nannie Maury Herndon, daughter of Dr. Brodie S. Herndon, a distin- 
guished physician and surgeon in the Confederate Army, of Fredericks- 
burg, Va. George A. Mercer entered the war as corporal in the Repub- 
lican Blues, organized in 1808. He was soon promoted to a lieutenancy 
in said company, and in 1861 was tendered a position in the adjutant and 
inspector general's department, with the rank of captain and assistant- 
adjutant-general. He at first served upon the staff of General Mercer, at 
Brunswick, Savannah, and Charleston, and along the coast of Georgia 
and South Carolina. He was afterwards transferred to the Western Ar- 
my, then under command of General Joseph E. Johnston. He participated 
in all the battles towards the close of General Johnston's command, and 
in those delivered by General Hood. Under Hood he was the adjutant- 
general of Smith's Brigade of Cleburne's Division. He saw much of 
General Cleburne prior to his death at the battle of Franklin, and appre- 
ciated and admired his fine soldierly qualities. He was ordered by the 
war department, just at the close of the war, to report to General Howell 
Cobb, at Macon, Ga., and was there captured with the Confederate troops 
by the forces under General Wilson, and paroled. He resumed his law 
practice in Savannah in the fall of 1865, as soon as the courts were open, 
and has since continued to practice his profession. In 1872 and 1873, 
and in 1873 and 1874, he represented Chatham county in the Georgia 
Legislature, but has filled no other political office. Upon the reorgani- 
zation of the Savannah military, he was chosen captain of his old com- 
pany, the Republican Blues, and remained in active command for fifteen 
years, until December 27, 1886, when he was promoted to the colonelcy 
of the First Volunteer Regiment of Georgia, which position he still holds. 
He was president of the board of trustees of the Savannah Medical Col- 
lege. He is a director of the Georgia Historical Society, and of the Tel- 
fair Academy of Arts and Sciences He is a member of the board of 
trustees of the Chatham Academy, and president of the Board of Public 

570 History of Savannah. 

Education for the city of Savannah and county of Chatham. He is pres- 
ident for the present year of the Bar Association of Georgia, and is one 
of the executive committee of the American Bar Association of which he 
was one of the organizers. 

Colonel Mercer sustained a severe loss in the death of his wife on June 
16,1885. Of the seven children born of this union five survive: George, 
Lewis, Robert Lee, Edward, and Nannie Herndon, the only daughter, now 
Mrs. J. M.. Lang. 

McMAHON, CAPT., JOHN, was born near Kilrush, county Clare, 
Ireland, in March, 18 15, and emigrated with his parents to America 
in early boyhood. They settled in Meramichi, N. B., where he and his 
sister, Mrs. Edward Grant, now a resident of Iowa, were soon after left as 
orphans, they being the only children of their deceased parents. From 
Meramichi he moved to Utica, N. Y., with his sister and family, and con- 
tinued to reside there until about 1836, when he came to Savannah, with 
several others under an engagement to work in a shoe factory. Young 
McMahon's comrades returned North the following summer, but he de- 
cided to remain here, and soon after obtained a situation from Captain 
Wiltberger, who was the first to discover his sterling qualities, which in 
after years made him conspicuous. Captain Wiltberger was then propri- 
etor of the city hotel, which was the principal hostelry of the city. Mr. 
McMahon remained in this position about two years when he with the 
aid of some friends, went into business on his own account, on Whitaker 

In April, 1840, he was married to Miss Kate Harty, of Locust Grove, 
Taliaferro county, Ga. Her gentle manners and amiable disposition had 
their influence in shaping his after career. In November, 1841, Captain 
Wiltberger opened the Pulaski House and Mr. McMahon succeeded him 
as proprietor of the City Hotel, in which position he was both popular 
and successful. He was doing a good business at the hotel in 1846 when 
Georgia was called on to furnish troops to serve in the war with Mexico. 
Being an officer in the "Irish Jasper Greens," a company which had vol- 
unteered and been accepted under the call as Savannah's quota to the 
Georgia Regiment, he turned his business over to a manager, under direc- 
tion of his estimable wife, and proceeded with his company to Columbus, 

Biographical. 57 [ 

Ga., where they were mustered into the service of the United States, June 
I ith, for a term of twelve months. Captain (now General) Henry R. Jack- 
son, of the Greens, was elected colonel of the Georgia Regiment on its 
organization, and Lieutenant McMahon was elected to succeed him as 
captain on the 20th of June. The regiment left Columbus for the seat of 
war in Mexico on June 28th. 

An incident in Captain McMahon's history at this period may be men- 
tioned to show the character and determination of the man. When the 
Georgia troops reached the Brazos they received instructions to proceed 
up the Rio Grande to Camp Belknap opposite Burita, where they remained 
about two weeks. Among the troops there assembled was the Fourth Illi- 
nois Regiment under command of Colonel Baker. This regiment was re- 
garded as one of the finest from the Northwest. In consequence of the lim- 
ited facilities for transportation to Comargo, where the troops were subse- 
quently ordered, it was necessary to move only a few companies at a time. 
Four companies of the Georgia Regiment including the Jasper Greens 
and the Kenesaw Rangers were left behind for a few days, under the com- 
mand of Lieutenant-Colonel Redd. On the evening of August 31st the 
troops received orders to proceed to Comargo, and the Georgia troops 
were marched to the river bank for the purpose of taking the steamer Cor- 
vette which had just arrived. While waiting at the landing two or three 
sparring contests occurred between members of the Jasper Greens and of 
the Kenesaw Rangers, which occasioned considerable excitement, as the 
friends of the contestants cheered them on lustily. Colonel Baker, who was 
aware that Colonel Jackson had gone to Comargo, was returning to camp 
with a detachment of his men from the funeral of a brother officer when 
he heard the noise, and imagining that there was trouble among the sol- 
diers, marched down to the point from whence the disorder proceeded. 
Before his arrival, however, Captain McMahon had already interfered, 
stopped the sparring, which was becoming rather earnest, and marched 
his men on board the steamer, and proceeded with them to the hurri- 
cane deck where he was reprimanding them for their boisterous conduct, 
when Colonel Baker hurried his men on board the steamer, and rushed up 
the stairway to this deck. Captain McMahon, who was addressing his 
men at the time, had his back turned to the stairway, and the first inti- 
mation he had of Colonel Baker's presence was a peremptory command 

572 History of Savannah. 

"Surrender your sword." Captain McMahon not recognizing the officer, 
turned upon him and replied: "I'll cross swords with you but will not 
surrender." A fierce combat ensued and Colonel Baker was being 
worsted, when one of his men seized him around the waist and drawing 
him back, said, " Colonel, he's too much for you," and others yelled, 
"charge bayonets," "run him through, etc." The Illinois men at once 
rushed forward, Captain McMahon was knocked down, bayoneted through 
the mouth, and pinioned to the deck. Some of the Jaspers perceiving 
this cried out, "Boys they have killed our captain," and then rushed upon 
the Illinoisans killing some, seriously wounding others, and forcing a 
number overboard The disturbance was soon over. Captain McMa- 
hon was reported dangerously hurt and Colonel Baker fatally wounded. 
Both, however, recovered. Colonel Jackson, on hearing of the affair, or- 
dered Captain McMahon and his company under arrest, and had charges 
preferred in order that the matter might be fully investigated and that 
there should be no misunderstanding in the future about the unfortunate 
affair. A court-martial was ordered by General Taylor, and resulted in 
the thorough exoneration of Captain McMahon from all blame in the 
matter. Early in December Captain McMahon obtained leave of absence 
to attend to some important business requiring his presence in Savannah. 
Soon after his return to the city his health began to fail, as a result of 
exposure, etc., while in the field with his command. Later on finding that 
he would not be able to resume accive duty before the "Greens" term of 
enlistment expired, he forwarded his resignation as captain of the corps. 
He resumed management of the city hotel as soon as his health per- 
mitted, but afterwards — in the winter of 1848-49 — sold out his interest 
and moved to Locust Grove where he engaged in farming for two years, 
after which he returned to Savannah. On the 1st of September, 1851, he 
formed a partnership with Mr. James Doyle, under the firm name of Mc- 
Mahon & Doyle, for the carrying on of a wholesale grocery business on 
Bay street, which business was successful up to the dissolution of the firm 
on the 1st of March, [858. After this dissolution he went into the pro- 
duce commission business on his own account. On the 30th of April, 
1859. he formed a copartnership with Mr. W. J. Harty, under the firm 
name of John McMahon & Co., which firm continued until November 30, 
1862. This firm did a large business in grain and feed up to the middle 

Biographical. 573 

or latter part of 1861, when the war practically brought the business of 
the firm to a close. 

Captain McMahon always took an active interest in military matters. 
He was a member of the "Phoenix Riflemen" before thf. organization of 
the "Irish Jasper Greens" in 1842, and a member of the latter corps from 
the date of its organization, and held various office-; in it from time to 

time, including the position of captain from 20th of June, 1846, to 

1847; June- — , 1847, to December 30, 1848, and December 21, 1855, to 
January 4, 1859. He was presented with a handsome dress sword by 
the members of the corps as a testimonial of their appreciation of his 
services during this latter term, on the 1st of May, 1S58. It was to be 
expected that he would not be idle when the war between the States 
commenced. With the same spirit that actuated so many others of his 
fellow-citizens he promptly aided in organizing the Pulaski Guards early 
in 1 86 1, and entered the service with that corps as a lieutenant. On the 
expiration of the first term of enlistment of that corps he was elected cap- 
tain of the Washington Volunteers, and re-entered the Confederate service 
with that company as a part of the first volunteer regiment of Georgia. 
He was with this command in Fort Pulaski while it was beleaguered by 
the Federal forces, and during the bombardment which led to its surren- 
der in April, 1862. As a prisoner of war he with the other members of 
the garrison was sent to Governor's Island, N. Y., from which point he 
was about two months later transferred to Johnson's Island, O., where he 
remained until late in September when he with a number of others was 
sent to Vicksburg, Miss , to be exchanged. From this point he returned 
to Georgia and located in Milledgeville (after severing his connection 
with the army on account of impaired health) where he remained until the 
latter part of 1864, when he again returned to Savannah. 

Soon after the close of the war in 1865 he again went into business, this 
time with Mr. E. Waitzfelder, of New York, as a partner, under the firm 
name of John McMahon & Co., in the wholesale grocery, grain and feed 
line. The business of this firm was very successful, but owing to Captain 
McMahon's health failing again it was sold out to Dillon & Stetson on the 
1st of January 1869, a short time after he returned from a trip to Europe, 
taken mainly for the benefit of his health. He was out of business from 
this time until November, 1870, when in conjunction with Eugene Kelly, 

574 History of Savannah. 

esq., of New York, and John Flannery and others of Savannah, he organ- 
ized the Southern Bank of the State of Georgia, and became its vice-pres- 
ident and manager. The strong financial backing given the institution by 
Mr. Kelly, coupled with the ability and good judgment of Captain Mc- 
Mahon and the confidence of the business community in his integrity, 
gave the bank a reputation at once for soundness and conservatism which 
constantly increased up to the day of his death, and which continued to 
grow after that sad event. 

Captain McMahon while intensely American in his feelings, and while 
ever ready to do his duty to his adopted country, never ceased to re- 
member the land of his birth, and was always in the front rank when any 
movement for the benefit of Ireland or any of her children was on foot. 
He was elected a member of the Hibernian Society in December, 1839, 
was chosen treasurer in March, 1855, served as vice-president from 1859 
to 1869, and was elected president in March, 1873, and continued in that 
position up to his death. He was one of the original thirteen composing 
the Jasper Monument Association organized in 1878, and served as its 
president from that time until his death. The time and labor which he 
devoted to the patriotic work of perpetuating the memory of this "Irish 
American hero," was the stepping-stone to the final success of this work 
some years after he had passed away. As chairman of the committee 
under whose auspices the new cathedral on Abercorn street was built, he 
rendered efficient aid in that project. As a member of the board of edu- 
cation he was noted for the deep interest he took in the public schools and 
in the cause of education generally. He never sought political honor, but 
at the urgent request of a large number of his fellow-citizens, he served 
several terms as alderman of the city, and was on various occasions its 
acting mayor. 

He died suddenly on the night of the 20th of January, 1881. This 
sketch may be fittingly closed with a paragraph taken from a sketch of his 
life in the Morning News of the day after the announcement of his death, 
which says, "In truth there are few men who will be more missed in the 
community than Captain John McMahon, and his death is an affliction to 
the city. He was kind hearted, genial, charitable and generous, and 
hundreds w r ho have enjoyed his benevolence will most bitterly mourn 
his loss." Captain McMahon left no children. His widow survived until 

Biographical. 575 

August 25, 1887, when she died after a short illness, while on a visit to 
Atlanta, Ga. Both are interred in the Cathedral Cemetery, near Sa- 

LAVVTON, Hon. Gen. A. R. Alexander Robert Lawton was born, 
and reared, in St. Peter's Parish, Beaufort District, South Carolina, 
on the 4th of November, 18 18. His grandfather was an officer of the 
Continental army, and his father pursued the avocation of a planter. His 
youth was spent among the comforts and the sports of a generous South- 
ern plantation, while his early education was acquired at the private 
schools in the neighborhood, established and supported by contiguous 
planters intent upon the liberal instruction and intellectual advancement 
of their children. At the early age of sixteen he received an appoint- 
ment to the United States Military Academy at West Point. Graduating 
from that institution in June 1839 with the rank of second lieutenant, he 
was assigned to the First Artillery and, for the ensuing eighteen months 
was stationed successively at Plattsburg and Rouse's Point, New York, 
and at Eastport, Maine. His class at West Point, numbering eighty- 
three at the beginning, graduated only thirty-one members, among whom 
may be mentioned Generals Halleck, Canby, Burton, Hunt, Stevens and 
Gilmer. Resigning his commission in the army in January, 1841, Lieu- 
tenant Lawton repaired to Cambridge, Mass., where he matriculated as 
a student of Dane Law School. Receiving his degree of L L.B. from that 
institution in June, 1842, he returned home, and for some six months, 
continued his law studies in the office of the Hon. William F. Colcock. 
In December of the same year, after a thorough examination before the 
Court of Appeals in Columbia, South Carolina, he was admitted to the 

In January, 1843, ne established his home in Savannah, Georgia, and 
entered regularly and very earnestly upon the practice of the profession 
of his choice. His marriage, in November, 1845, to Mi ss Sarah H. Alex- 
ander, a daughter of that prominent Georgian and cultivated gentleman, 
Adam L. Alexander, esq., proved a source of unalloyed domestic hap- 

Without in any wise laying aside his professional employments, he ac- 
cepted, in November, 1849, the presidency of the Augusta and Savannah 

576 History of Savannah. 

Railroad Company. This office he retained until the entire completion 
and successful operation of that road in 1854. In its location, construc- 
tion, equipment and conduct he displayed an energy, intelligence, fidelity, 
and ability worthy of every commendation. 

General Lawton's entry into political life was as a representative from 
Chatham County in the Legislature of Georgia during the session of 1855- 
56. Among other important services then rendered by him will be remem- 
bered his framing, introduction, and successful support of the bill which 
culminated in the incorporation of the Atlantic and Gulf Railroad Com- 
pany, a project which enured to the ever-expanding benefit of Southern 
Georgia and Florida. During those days of excitement which rendered 
the winter of 1860-61 ever memorable in the political history of Georgia, 
he was a member of the State Senate, and time and again in the chamber 
of that body measured swords with the famous Benjamin H. Hill, who 
was then the acknowledged leader of all opposed to the Secession Senti- 
ment which was agitating the public mind. 

While absent from the State, and entirely without solicitation on his 
part, General Lawton was again called upon to represent the county of 
Chatham in the Lower House during the legislative session of 1874-75. 

Of the convention which in 1877 formed the present Constitution of 
Georgia, and over which the venerable and beloved Ex-Governor Charles 
J. Jenkins presided, General Lawton was unanimously chosen the vice- 
president. As chairman of the Judiciary Committee the services rend- 
ered by him were continuous and most valuable. Of the Electoral Col- 
lege, which in 1876 cast the vote of Georgia for the Hon. Samuel J. 
Tilden as president of the United States, General Lawton was the presi- 
dent. He was chairman of the Georgia delegation, which at Cincinnati 
nominated General Hancock for president, and also of the delegation 
which at Chicago nominated Grover Cleveland for the same exalted 

Early in 1885 he was nominated by President Cleveland as Minister 
Plenipotentiary to Russia. Upon a reference of this nomination to the 
proper committee in the Senate, it was claimed that General Lawton was 
ineligible to the position by reason of the fact that having early in life 
held commission in the regular army of the United States, he had during 
the war between the States accepted service as a general officer in the 

Biographical. 577 

Confederate Army. The nomination was withdrawn by President Cleve- 
land, and the special session of the Senate was concluded. It was con- 
ceded on all sides that the nominee was in every respect well qualified to 
represent the government in the diplomatic position indicated, and that no 
objection to his confirmation could be urged save the technical one which 
raised a doubt as to his legal status under the constitutional amendment. 
The question of General Lawton's eligibility was referred by the pres- 
ident to the attorney-general, who, after a careful examination, submit- 
ted an opinion that "Mr. Lawton is qualified to hold civil office under the 
government of the United States." Before the opinion of the attorney- 
general had been communicated to General Lawton, wishing to relieve 
the president of all embarrassment, he addressed the following communi- 
cation to the chief magistrate of the nation : 

"Savannah, Georgia, April 17, 1885. 

To his Excellency Grover Cleveland, 

President of the United States. 

DEAR' SlR: — Since the interviews which you were kind enough to 
grant me during the early days of the present month, I have thought 
often and earnestly about the relations which I sustain to your adminis- 
tration by reason of my nomination to be Minister to Russia, and the 
objections which have been interposed to the same. 

After full consideration of the probable effects to flow from your ad- 
herence to this nomination, — or rather from my appointment during 
recess, — I am constrained to believe that I would become the innocent 
cause of attacks annoying, if not virulent, upon the action of the Presi- 
dent. I have felt too sensibly the great honor which has been conferred 
upon me, and the unexpected manner in which your kind intentions have 
been hindered, to be willing that any unpleasant results should be 
reached, if I can prevent them. 

Permit me therefore, Mr. President, to request that my name be no 
longer considered by you in connection with the mission to Russia, and 
that this high commission may be bestowed upon some citizen whose ap- 
pointment will produce harmony rather than discord. I cannot be blind 
to the fact that recent events in Europe must put an additional pressure 
upon you to have this important position promptly and satisfactorily tilled. 

57$ History of Savannah. 

I present this request in sincerity and in all good faith, with a grate- 
ful sense of the high honor conferred upon me, and of the over-partial 
estimate of my fitness for so responsible a post, evidenced by the nomi- 
nation already made. No results that may be reached in the future can 
deprive me of the satisfaction thus derived. 

While my relations as a citizen to the Government were under dis- 
cussion, with the probability of an appointment to follow, I refrained, 
through motives of delicacy, from expressing any opinion in my own 
case. But now that I relieve the President from all further consideration 
of my fitness or eligibility, I beg leave to append to this letter a mem- 
orandum giving reasons in brief for my conviction that I labor under no 
political disabilities. Had I entertained any doubts on the subject, I 
would not have been dealing fairly with an administration which has so 
honored me. 

With sentiments of the highest respect and esteem, I am 

Your most obedient servant, A. R. LAWTON." 

To this letter the President made the following reply: 

" Executive Mansion, Washington, April 22, 1885. 
The Hon. A. R. Lawton, Savannah, Ga., 

My Dear Sir : — I regret exceedingly that for any reason the ad- 
ministration is to be deprived of your honorable and valuable services in 
the mission to Russia. The opinion of the Attorney- General upon the 
question of your alleged disability under the fourteenth amendment to 
the Constitution was so completely satisfactory, and removed so entirely 
from my mind all doubts as to your eligibility, that upon reading it I at 
once decided to ask you to accept the position, and I learn from the 
Secretary of State that he telegraphed you to that effect : but it seems 
that your letter of April 17th was then on its way, which was followed 
by that of April 18th affirming your decision. 

I sincerely regret this determination on your part, so unselfishly 
formed and patriotically expressed ; and whilst I must reluctantly accept 
it as an announcement of your deliberate desire and personal wish, I can 
but feel that the Country is greatly the loser by it. 

With sincere regard and high respect, I am 

Your obedient servant, Grover CLEVELAND." 


The patriotism which thus laid upon the altar of Democratic harmony 
one of the highest honors within the gift of the administration, won for 
him a reputation transcending any fame he could have acquired by an 
acceptance of the tendered mission. 

When Congress reassembled in December, 1885, the first private act 
passed was one removing the political disabilities of General Lawton. 
It received the unanimous vote of both houses. 

In April, 1887, President Cleveland conferred upon him the mission 
to Austria-Hungary. As minister plenipotentiary to that power, Gen- 
eral Lawton conducted himself, and maintained diplomatic relations, 
with marked acceptability both to his Home Government and to the 
Austrian Court. His residence in Vienna, which extended over a period 
of two years, was entirely pleasant. His resignation of this official position 
was in the hands of the Secretary of State prior to the inauguration of 
President Harrison ; although, by request, he delayed his return home 
until the arrival of his successor. 

On the evening of his departure the Vienna Weekly News thus spoke 
of the American Minister : " All who have enjoyed the favor of General 
Lawton's acquaintance can bear witness to the amiability and dignity 
with which he has discharged his important duties, while those whose 
relations with him have been purely official, can testify to his unfailing 
attention and zeal in whatever he had to do. The American Community 
in Vienna have at all times had in him a valuable adviser, as well as a 
keen and able protector of their interests." 

Since his return to Savannah General Lawton has not resumed the 
practice of his profession which he relinquished when he went abroad 
upon the diplomatic mission to which we have just alluded. 

He was the first colonel of the First Volunteer Regiment of Georgia, 
organized in Savannah in 1852; and, in that capacity, in obedience to an or- 
der promulgated by the governor of Georgia, with a portion of his com- 
mand took formal possession of Fort Pulaski on the morning of the 3d of 
January, 1861. He remained in command of that post and at Savannah 
until April of that year when he was commissioned as a brigadier-gen- 
eral in Confederate service and assigned to the command of the Military 
District of Georgia. With characteristic energy and acknowledged abil- 
ity he expended every effort in fortifying the Georgia coast, and in con- 

580 History of Savannah. 

centrating troops for the support of the Confederate cause. His head, 
heart, sword, and purse were solemnly pledged for the maintenance of 
Southern independence. From the inception of the contest he wavered 
not in his devotion to the reserved rights of the States, and the susten- 
tation of the Confederacy. In June, 1862, with a brigade of five thou- 
sand men — selected from a force of thirteen thousand then garrisoning 
the Georgia coast, — he repaired to Virginia under orders from General 
Robert E. Lee, and reported to General Thomas J. Jackson in the valley. 
With this brigade, then unattached, and the largest in the army of North- 
ern Virginia, he quickly participated in the celebrated "flank movement," 
and in all the battles constituting the " Seven Days Fight " around Rich- 
mond. In these bloody engagements his command performed brilliant 
service and sustained severe losses. Subsequently he led his brigade, — 
which afterwards constituted a part of Stonewall Jackson's Corps, — in all 
the battles which culminated in the memorable engagement at Sharps- 
burg. He was then, and he had been for some time, in command of 
Ewell's Division. At Sharpsburg his horse was killed under him, and 
he was disabled by a painful and dangerous wound which for a long time 
seriously threatened the loss of his right leg. By it he was incapacitated 
from active service until May, 1863, when, although still lame, he deemed 
himself fit for the field and reported in person to the adjutant-general in 
Richmond for assignment. 

, The Confederate Congress had recently provided additional rank for 
the quartermaster-general, and it remained with the president either to 
compliment the officer then in charge of that bureau, or to designate 
some general officer for the discharge of the duties incident to that posi- 
tion. President Davis and the Secretary of War were of the opinion 
that General Lawton should be assigned to the station of quartermaster- 
general. When advised of this determination, General Lawton was 
much surprised, and manifested a decided disinclination to enter upon a 
discharge of the duties suggested. At the earnest request of the presi- 
dent he finally yielded, and in August, 1863, became the quartermaster- 
general of the Confederate States. This weighty position he continued 
to occupy until the termination of the war and the disintegration of the 
Confederate Government. It lies not within the compass of this sketch 
to allude to the vast responsibilities then assumed, or to enumerate the 

Biographical. 581 

multiplying difficulties by which General Lawton was environed in his 
efforts to equip and transport the armies of the Confederacy. It has 
been truthfully stated that these difficulties were met by General Law- 
ton with wonderful tact and energy, and that while the other supply de- 
partments of the government, in their conduct and administration, were 
frequently and severely criticized, no censure was passed upon the quar- 
termaster department while he had charge of it. 

It is not an exaggeration to affirm that such administration of the 
affairs of this bureau, under the perplexing circumstances then existent, 
could have been accomplished only by an officer of broad vision, wise 
forecast, tireless energy, and superior capacity. The subject of this 
sketch, now in the evening of his busy, eventful, and useful life, may, in 
the judgment of a friend, contemplate with peculiar pride and satisfaction 
the conspicuous labors performed by him during this epoch of danger, 
of embarrassment, and of supreme trial. 

Soon after the cessation of hostilities General Lawton returned to Sa- 
vannah and resumed the practice of his profession. The times were out 
of joint, and many questions, suggested by the abnormal condition of 
affairs, demanded solution at the hands of wise counselors and sagacious 
lawyers. The harvest was abundant, and claimed the attention of the 
honest, intelligent reaper. His professional employments at once became 
numerous and remunerative. 

In January, 1866, he was elected chief counsel of the Central Rail 
Road and Banking Company of Georgia. This office he continued to fill 
without interruption until his departure for Vienna in 1887. Various 
and exacting as were the duties appertaining to this position, they were 
supplemented by engagements incident to a large and constantly in- 
creasing general practice. It may be safely stated that during the ensu- 
ing twenty years there was no lawyer within the limits of Georgia whose 
time was more fully occupied, or whose legitimate professional income was 
more remunerative. Such was his reputation for sound judgment, so strong 
his sense of right and equity, so able his presentation of fact and argu- 
ment, so clear his conception of the question at issue, so broad and ac- 
curate his business views, so careful his analysis of the situation, so relia- 
ble his legal examinations, so unswerving his fidelity to the true interests 
of his clients, and so exalted his appreciation of right and justice, that 

582 History of Savannah. 

his services were eagerly sought in cases of moment, and in controver- 
sies involving matters of conscience and fair dealing. 

When he became chief counsel of the Central Rail Road and Bank- 
ing Company, the property of that corporation consisted chiefly of a line 
of railway connecting the cities of Savannah and Macon, and its integ- 
rity had been sadly impaired by the desolating march of General Sher- 
man and his forces. When he left Georgia to enter upon the Austrian 
mission, the Central Railroad system had developed into the practical 
control of some twenty-five hundred miles of railway, and the ownership 
of an Ocean Steamship Company operating three first class lines of coast- 
wise steamers plying between Savannah and the ports of Philadelphia, 
New York, and Boston. During this period of expansion the most im- 
portant charter rights, immunities, and exemptions of this great corpora- 
tion were challenged, discussed, and adjudicated in the courts of Georgia, 
Alabama, and South Carolina, and in the Supreme Court of the United 
States. The aid of Legislatures was invoked in granting necessary cor- 
porate powers, and for the protection of corporate rights. Large con- 
tracts for construction and consolidation were moulded and consummated. 
Intricate questions of finance and damage were constantly demanding 
speedy solution. In all the negotiations connected with the develop- 
ment and protection of this corporation General Lawton participated. 
All contracts affecting its existence and enlargement were submitted for 
his judgment and reduction into legal shape. Cases arising in the courts 
affecting the rights of this vast transportation system w^re either argued 
by him and his associate counsel, or were compromised and settled at his 
instance. The labor was immense, and we utter the language of simple 
justice when we declare that it was performed with a fidelity and an abil- 
ity worthy of all admiration. Be it spoken in praise of General Lawton 
and in token of his exalted character, that he never once utilized the 
knowledge, — acquired by virtue of the confidential relation he sustained 
toward this corporation, — of its plans, inner workings, and purposes, in 
tli-e promotion of private benefit or for the acquisition of personal advan- 
tage. The commercial methods of the present, and the prostitution of 
confidential information obtained in the execution of a trust, found neither 
countenance nor lodgment in his upright breast. His hands were always 
clean, and his reputation is without a stain. In all his relations he has 
ever been the embodiment of fidelity, courage, probity, and honor. 

Biographical. 583 

As a corporation lawyer he stands without a superior in the State of 
Georgia, and the reports both of the Supreme Court of this Common- 
wealth and of the United States bear witness to his industry and profi- 
ciency in this branch of the profession. In illustration of his employ- 
ment in and conduct of civil causes of magnitude, we would cite the Tel- 
fair will case, which, having passed through the various legal tribunals of 
Georgia, received final adjudication at the hands of the Supreme Court of 
the United States. 

General Lawton's professional reputation has been recognized by his 
brethren at large. He was one of the ten founders of the American 
Bar Association, and he has always exhibited the liveliest interest in the 
labors and welfare of that organization. In August, 1882, he delivered 
the annual address before that association, eulogizing the lives and ser- 
vices of James L. Pettigru, and Hugh S. Legare. At the same meeting 
he was elected president of the association, and the next year delivered 
the president's address. Both these addresses have been rendered into 
type, and were published with the proceedings of the association. He 
was also largely instrumental in organizing the Georgia Bar Association. 
Before that body he delivered the first annual address in August, 1884. 

Among other noteworthy addresses of General Lawton may be men- 
tioned his eulogy upon the life, character, and services of General Robert 
E Lee, delivered in Savannah. Georgia, in January, 1871, at the request 
of the Common Council and citizens of that municipality: and his oration 
upon the occasion of laying the corner-stone of the new capitol of Geor- 
gia, in Atlanta, on the 2nd of September, 1885, pronounced by invitation 
of the General Assembly of Georgia then in session. 

In the first he pays signal tribute to the virtues and the valor of the 
great Confederate Chieftain, proclaiming his "character so grand in its 
proportions, so complete in all its details, so exquisite in its finish, that 
when we contemplate it, like the visitor who first looks on the Cathedral 
of St. Peter, its very perfections, symmetry, and completeness obscure 
our capacity to appreciate its vastness." 

In the last, after a historical sketch of the former capitols of Georgia, 
after presenting a vivid portraiture of the progress of the Commonwealth, 
the results of the war, and the dire calamities encountered during the 
period of reconstruction, with manly voice he "ventured to assert that 

584 History of Savannah. 

the struggle was worth all it cost. Better that a people, groaning under 
conspicuous wrongs, should fight and be vanquished, than not to fight 
at all. In the one case the rebound will surely come, and the victor and 
the vanquished may meet face to face and reestablish their relations to 
each other with mutual respect ; while in the other case the feeling of 
degradation on the one side and of contempt on the other banishes all 
hope for the future. 

" As Georgians we are also citizens of the United States and claim 
to be now as loyal to that great government as any portion of the Union, 
since we are no longer called upon to surrender our self respect, or to do 
violence to our most sacred sensibilities in making that claim. We are 
ready and willing to render service to defend her honor, to fight her bat- 
tles, to give every man of every section his just due. In that sense we 
know 'no North, no South, no East, no West.' But, thank Heaven! 
the time is past when any right thinking man of the North expects that 
we shall not love our own families and neighbors better than the stran- 
ger, our own City better than another, our own State best of all the 
thirty-eight ; that in a government covering such an area, with so many 
States and Territories differing in climate, production, origin, and other 
belongings, there must not also be material differences in habits, temper- 
aments, opinions, and utterances, not only to be tolerated but to be ap- 
preciated. Yes, my friends, they know and respect us for it; and while 
we join in good faith in the tribute paid to the great soldier of the United 
States recently borne to his tomb in Riverside Park with such displays 
and demonstrations as Roman Emperor never received, yet at our own 
homes, in the tenderer moments of our lives, we mourn the illustrious 
Sons of the South, who sleep in modest graves at Lexington, with a sor- 
row and a pride which are all our own." 

This utterance is characteristic, and conveys an impression of the 
manliness of General Lawton, who never speaks with an uncertain voice, 
stultifies his record, or hesitates, on suitable occasion, to manifest his 
loyalty to the brave impulses and ennobling traditions of a Confederate 

As a trustee of the University of Georgia, and as an officer of the 
Georgia Historical Society, he has long exhibited and still cherishes an 

Biographical. 585 

intelligent and a practical interest in the conduct and prosperity of these 

Of medium height, with compact frame, active step, erect carriage, 
and military bearing — with a massive head firmly set upon his broad 
shoulders, with a mouth indicative of determination, and an eye full of light 
and vivacity — courtly in address, frank and generous in intercourse, — with 
a strong, manly voice, — bold, nervous, and emphatic in public speech, — 
steadfast in his friendships, — possessing strong judgment and a nice sense 
of equity, — hospitable at home, — independent, high-toned, public-spirit- 
ed, and never a careless observer of passing events, — tender and true in his 
domestic relations, — and with a genuine religious sentiment vitalizing 
his daily walk and conversation, General Lawton has long been recog- 
nized as a type of the Southern gentleman, as a citizen of the highest re- 
pute, as a leading member of the Georgia Bar, and as a prominent par- 
ticipant in the political councils of this Commonwealth. Of late his 
character and reputation have been known and honored by the Country 
at large. He is now crowning a life of labor with an age of ease. 

He has a wife, and three children — Louisa F. the wife of Mr. Leon- 
ard C. Mackall of Philadelphia, — Nora, the wife of Henry C. Cunning- 
ham, esq., of Savannah, and Alexander R. Lawton, jr., who, at the Sa- 
vannah Bar, is following in the footsteps of his distinguished father. 

JONES, COLONEL CHARLES C, Jr., LL.D. 1 — Charles Colcock 
Jones, jr., was born in Savannah, Ga., on the 28th of October, 183 1. 
He comes of an old family, his ancestor in the male line having removed 
from England to Charleston, S. C, nearly two centuries ago. His great 
grandfather, John Jones, who was. the first of the family coming from 
South Carolina to Georgia, was a rice planter in St. John's Parish. Dur- 
ing the Revolutionary War he espoused the cause of the patriots, and, as 
a major in the Continental Army, fell before the British lines around Sa- 
vannah during the assault by the allied army under D'Estaing and Lin- 
coln on the 9th of October, 1779. On that memorable occasion he acted 
in the capacity of aide-de-camp to Brigadier-General Lachlan Mcintosh. 
Rev. Charles C. Jones, D.D., father of the historian, a distinguished 

"' From Alden s Literary Portraits. New York. 1889. Written by Charles E<!j;e- 
worth Jones. 

586 History of Savannah. 

Presbyterian divine, was, at the time of his son's birth, pastor of the First 
Presbyterian Church, in the city of Savannah. Resigning his charge in 
November, 1832, he removed with his family to his plantation in Liberty 
county, Ga., where he devoted his energies to the religious instruction of 
the negroes. He was the apostle to that benighted people, and freely gave 
his time, talents, and money to their evangelization, and the improvement 
of their moral and religious condition. 

Dr. Jones was a gentleman of liberal education, a wealthy planter, an 
eloquent pulpit orator, at one time Professor of Ecclesiastical History in 
the Theological Seminary at Columbia, S. C, and for some years occu- 
pied the position, at Philadelphia, of Secretary of the Presbyterian Board 
of Domestic Missions. He was the author of several works on the relig- 
ligious instruction of the negroes, of a catechism specially prepared for 
their spiritual enlightenment, and of a history of the Church of God. 

Colonel Jones' boyhood was spent at the paternal homes, Monte-Vi- 
deo and Maybank plantations in Liberty county, Ga. At the former — 
which was a rice and sea-island cotton plantation on North Newport 
River — the winter residence was fixed, while the latter — a sea-island cot- 
ton plantation — located on Colonel's Island, lying between the island of 
St. Catharine and the main land, was the summer retreat. The region 
abounded in game and fish. An indulgent father generously supplied his 
sons with guns, dogs, horses, row-boats and sail-boats, and fishing tackle. 
As a natural consequence Colonel Jones, at an early age, became an adept 
with the fowling-piece, the rifle, the rod and the line. This out-door ex- 
ercise and these field sports laid the foundations for a fine constitution, 
and encouraged an ambition to excel in shooting, riding, swimming, fish- 
ing, and sailing. The Opportunity thus afforded for enjoyment and manly 
diversions was exceptional, and the training then experienced produced 
a lasting impression. The civilization of the Georgia coast under the 
patriarchal system then existent was refined, liberal, and generous. The 
school was excellent for the development of manly traits. 

The early studies of Colonel Jones were pursued at home, generally 
under private tutors; occasionally under the immediate supervision of 
his father. In 1848 he repaired to South Carolina College at Columbia, 
where his Freshman and Sophomore years were passed. That institu- 
tion was then in the zenith of its prosperity, being presided over by the 

Biographical. 587 

Hon. William C. Preston, who was assisted by such professors as Dr. 
Francis Lieber and Dr. Thorn well. Subsequently matriculated at Nas- 
sau Hall, Princeton, N. J., in the junior class in 1850, Colonel Jones at 
once took high rank among his fellows and, graduating with distinction, 
received his A. B. diploma from this college in June, 1852. 

Selecting the law as his profession, he went to Philadelphia, and, as a 
student, entered the office of Samuel H. Perkins, esq. After reading law 
here for about a year, he matriculated at Dane Law School, Harvard 
University, Cambridge, Mass., from which institution he received in 1855 
his degree of LL.B. While he was a member of that law school, Joel 
Parker, Theophilus Parsons, and Edward G. Loring were the professors. 
Besides taking his regular law course, he attended the lectures of Pro- 
fessor Agassiz, Mr. Longfellow, Dr. Wyman, Professor Lowell and Dr. 

Returning home in the winter of 1854, he entered the law office of 
Ward & Owens in Savannah, and was called to the bar in that, his na- 
tive city, on the 24th of May, 1855. In due course he was admitted to 
plead and practice in the Supreme Court of Georgia; in the Sixth Cir- 
cuit Court of the United States; in the District Court of the Confederate 
States; and in the Supreme Court of the United States. 

During the second year of his professional life he became the junior 
partner of the law firm of Ward, Owens & Jones. When Mr. Ward went 
abroad as United States Minister to China, Mr. Owens retired from the 
firm, and the Hon. Henry R. Jackson, late L T nited States Minister to Aus- 
tria, was admitted as a member. The firm continued to be Ward, Jack- 
son & Jones until Judge Jackson took his seat upon the bench as judge 
of the District Court of the Confederate States of America for the Dis- 
trict of Georgia. The business of this law firm was large and lucrative. 

On the 9th of November, 1858, Colonel Jones married Miss Ruth Ber- 
rien Whitehead, of Burke county, Ga. He was married a second time 
on the 28th of October, 1863, to Miss Eva Berrien Eve, of Augusta, Ga., 
a niece of the late Dr. Paul F. Eve, of Nashville, Tenn. These ladies were 
grand-nieces of the Hon. John McPherson Berrien, attorney-general of 
the United States during General Jackson's administration, and afterwards 
United States Senator from Georgia. 

In 1859 Colonel Jones was chosen an alderman of Savannah, and in the 

588 History of Savannah. 

following year he was, without solicitation, nominated and elected mayor 
of that city — a position, writes Governor Stephens, seldom if ever before 
conferred on one so young by a corporation possessing so much wealth, 
population, and commercial importance. With the exception of this po- 
sition of mayor, he has never held public office in his life, or drawn a dol- 
lar of-the people's money. 

During the term of his mayoralty the Confederate Revolution was pre- 
cipitated, and many abnormal questions arose demanding for their solu- 
tion serious consideration and prompt decision. Colonel Jones was a 
secessionist, and it is believed that one of the earliest public addresses on 
the situation, delivered in Savannah, fell from his lips. 

Declining a re-election to the mayoralty, he joined the Chatham Ar- 
tillery — Captain Claghorn— of which Light Battery he was the senior first 
lieutenant. He had been mustered into Confederate service with that 
battery as its senior first lieutenant, on the 31st of July, 1861, and re- 
mained on leave until his labors in the capacity of mayor were concluded. 
The Chatham Artillery was then stationed on the Georgia coast. 

In the fall of 1862 the subject of this sketch was promoted to the 
grade of lieutenant-colonel of Artillery, P. A. C. S., and was assigned to 
duty as chief of artillery for the military district of Georgia. The assign- 
ment was important, and the command extensive, including some eight 
light batteries and nearly two hundred guns in fixed position. This 
command was subsequently enlarged so as to embrace the artillery in the 
third military district of South Carolina. His headquarters were estab- 
lished at Savannah. 

Colonel Jones was brought into intimate personal and military rela- 
tions with General Beauregard, Lieutenant-General Hardee, Major-Gen- 
erais McLaws, Gilmer, Taliaferro, and Patton Anderson, and Brigadier- 
Generals Mercer, Lawton, and others. He loved and took a special 
pride in the artillery arm of the service, and preferred it to any other 
branch. In illustration of his partiality for this arm of the service it may 
be stated that at one time a commission of brigadier-general of infantry 
was tendered him, which he declined. The artillery, both light and heavy, 
in the military district of Georgia, was remarkable for its proficiency. 

Colonel Jones was chief of artillery during the siege of Savannah in 
December, 1864, which he has so graphically described in his work on 

Biographical. 589 

that subject, and figured prominently in the defence of the city. He was 
at one time in command of the field artillery on James Island during the 
siege of Charleston, and at another was chief of artillery on the staff of 
Major-General Patton Anderson, in Florida. Upon the fall of Savannah 
he was summoned by General Hardee to the position of chief of artillery 
upon his staff, and was included in the surrender of General Joseph E. 
Johnston's army, which occurred near Greensboro, N. C., in April, 1865. 

Late in December, 1865, Colonel Jones removed with his family to 
New York city and there resumed the practice of his profession, which 
had been interrupted by the war. His success in that new abode was 
gratifying, and he continued to reside there until his return to Georgia 
in 1877. 

Of the pleasure and profit which he derived from his sojourn in that 
great city, and of the broad and lasting influence exerted upon his intel- 
lectual life, there can be no question. His association with the literary 
characters and societies of the metropolis was most agreeable. The scope 
of his intellectual vision was enlarged, and his aspirations were -elevated. 
He there enjoyed opportunities for study and literary research which he 
could not elsewhere have so conveniently commanded. Among the proofs 
of the literary labor there performed we may refer to his historical sketch 
of the Chatham Artillery during the Confederate Struggle for Independ- 
ence (1867); Historical Sketch of Tomo-Chi-Chi, Mico of the Vama- 
craws(i868); Reminiscences of the Last Days, Death, and Burial ot Gen- 
eral Henry Lee (1870); Casimir Pulaski (1873); Antiquities of the South- 
ern Indians, particularly of the Georgia Tribes (1873); The Siege of Sa- 
vannah in 1779, etc. (1874); The Siege of Savannah in December, 1S64, 
etc. (1874) ; Sergeant William Jasper (1876); and a roster of general offi- 
cers, heads of departments, senators, representatives, military organiza- 
tions, etc, etc., in the Confederate service during the war between the 
States (1876.) 

Returning with his family to Georgia in the spring of I S 7 7 , Colonel 
Jones fixed his home at Montrose, in Summerville, near Augusta, Ga„ 
where he still resides; his law office being in the city of Augusta. 

Since his return to his native State, aside from his professional labors, 
he has not been unmindful of his historical researches and literary pur 
suits. Among his later publications may be mentioned his Life and 

59° History of Savannah. 

Services of Commodore Josiah Tattnall (1878); Dead Towns of Georgia 
(1878); De Soto's March through Georgia (1880); Memorial of Jean 
Pierre Purry(iSSo); The Georgia Historical Society: its Founders, Pa- 
trons, and Friends (188 1); The Life and Services of ex-Governor Charles 
Jones Jenkins ( 1 S84); Geographical and Historical Sketch of Georgia 
(1884); Sepulture of Major-General Nathanael Greene, and of Brigadier- 
General Count Casimir Pulaski (1885) ; The Life, Literary Labors, and 
Neglected Grave of Richard Henry Wilde (1885); Biographical Sketch 
of the Honorable Major John Habersham of Georgia (1886) ; Brigadier- 
General Robert Toombs (1886); The Life and Services of the Honorable 
Samuel Elbert, of Georgia (1887); The English Colonization of Georgia 
(1887); Negro Myths from the Georgia Coast (1888) ; Address delivered 
at Midway Meeting-house, in Liberty county, Ga., (1889); and lastly, 
and more particularly, his History of Georgia (1883) : a work of which 
the historian Bancroft remarked that it was the finest State history he 
had ever read, and that its high qualities fairly entitled its author to be 
called the Macaulay of the South. This history consists of two volumes, 
the first dealing with the aboriginal and colonial periods of Georgia, and 
the second being especially concerned with the Revolutionary epoch, and 
a narrative of the events which culminated in the independence of the 
colony and its erection into the dignity of a State. The volumes to which 
we refer represent the best work of Colonel Jones in the historical vein, 
and embody results which required years of painstaking study and deep 
reflection to compass. In like manner his Antiquities of the Southern 
Indians, particularly of the Georgia tribes, illustrates the chief fruits of his 
labors in the field of archaeology. 

In addition to the publications to which we have alluded, Colonel 
Jones has printed addresses and discourses upon a variety of topics, 
prominent among which are his oration upon the unveiling and dedica- 
tion of the Confederate Monument in Augusta, Ga. (1878), his funeral 
oration pronounced at the capital of Georgia over the honorable Alex- 
ander H. Stephens, late governor of the State ( 1883) ; and his address en - 
titled the Old South (1887). In this connection also we may mention the 
addresses which he has delivered before the Confederate Survivors' As- 
sociation of Augusta, Ga. — an organization of which he is president, 
which was founded and has been perpetuated largely through his instru- 

Biographical. 591 

mentality, and which is among the oldest associations of this character in 
the South. These annual addresses commenced on the 26th of April, 
1879 — the first anniversary of the association — have been regularly con- 
tinued to the present time. Including a special address upon Post Bel- 
lum Mortality among Confederates, they number eleven in all. They are 
for the most part historical in their character, and constitute calm and 
impartial studies of military events connected with Georgia annals dur- 
ing the war between the States. Among the topics discussed are Mili- 
tary Lessons inculcated on the Coast of Georgia during the Confederate 
War (1883); General Sherman's March from Atlanta to the Coast (1S84); 
The Battle of Honey Hill (1885) ; and the Evacuation of Battery Wag- 
ner and the Battle of Ocean Pond (1888). The last is perhaps the most 
noteworthy of the series, and contains a description of a bombardment 
which for vividness and picturesqueness of detail should take rank among 
the best specimens of word-painting in our language. l 

Colonel Jones' literary labors during the year 1888, in addition to the 
two publications already considered, embrace two historical addresses, 
and Memorial Histories of the cities of Savannah and Augusta, Ga., dur- 
ing the eighteenth century. 

He has thrice appeared in the capacity of editor : first in connection 
with his father, Rev. Dr. C. C. Jones' History of the Church of God (New 
York, 1867); again in the publication of the Acts passed by the General 
Assembly of the Colony of Georgia from 1755 to 1774, (Wormsloe, 1S81); 
and lastly in rendering into type and annotating the Transactions of the 
Trustees of the Colony of Georgia by Rt. Hon. John Percival, first Karl of 
Egmont (Wormsloe, 1886). 

The truth is, while he has in no wise neglected his profession, or failed 
in the discharge of duties appurtenant to it, law has never been to him a 
very jealous mistress. For him history, biography, and archaeology have 
presented enticing attractions ; and in that direction has he made most 
of his " foot-prints on the sands of time." Governor Stephens bore testi- 
mony to this fact when he said: "He has not permitted the calls of his 
profession, however, to absorb all his time and energy. By a method - 

1 Since the publication of this sketch two additional Confederate address* by Colo- 
nel Jones have been published : viz., Georgians During the War Between tht Shifts. 
[1889] and his Funeral Oration in Honor of President Jefferson Davis, 1SS9. | 

592 History of Savannah. 

ical economy in the arrangement of business peculiar to himself, he has, 
even under the greatest pressure of office duties, found leisure to contrib- 
ute largely to the literature as well as science of the country by his pen." 

In 1879 Colonel Jones visited Europe, and spent four months pleas- 
antly and profitably in England and Scotland and upon the Continent. 
While in England, where so much that is valuable and pertinent to the 
history of the American Colonies is preserved in the British Museum 
and the Public Record Office, he was enabled to make special researches 
and gather additional material for his History of Georgia. 

Erect in carriage, six feet high, powerfully built, with broad shoul- 
ders surmounted by a massive head covered with a wealth of ringlets 
sprinkled with grey, with genial countenance, handsome features, and a 
lofty brow overhanging a pair of penetrating blue eyes, Colonel Jones is 
at once a man of commanding presence, and the soul of courtliness and 
grace. Eloquent in utterance, wise in counsel, decisive in action, public- 
spirited, liberal to the extent of his means, with a charity and sym- 
pathy as broad as the race, high-toned in sentiment and act, and noble 
and generous in his impulses, he presents an attractive portrait of unself- 
ishness and earnest devotion to duty, challenging the respect and confi- 
dence of all. To charming conversational powers, social qualities of a 
high order, and an affable address, he unites varied and comprehensive 
knowledge, a retentive memory, a mind open to all impressions, and an 
interest in everything savoring of intellectual development. His energy 
and activity are never more apparent than when engaged upon any liter- 
ary composition. He then works with great rapidity, seldom revising 
or reading his MS. until it is finished. In proof of this assertion we may 
instance his Siege of Savannah in December, 1864, which was written in 
seven evenings; the two volumes of his History of Georgia, which, ex- 
clusive of the preliminary study involved, were prepared at odd intervals 
during seven months; and his Memorial Histories of Savannah, and Au- 
gusta, Ga., which were begun and completed within less than two months. 
While possessing the ability of rapid composition, he also has that other 
desirable attribute of excellent chirography. His penmanship is fault- 
less, and his bold, flowing hand is not only legible but very attractive. 

Colonel Jones has twice been complimented with the degree of LL.D., 
and is a member of various literary societies both in this country and in 

Biographical. 593 

Europe. His Antiquities of the Southern Indians was the work which 
first brought him prominently before the attention of European scholars, 
and introduced him to scientific circles abroad. Since its publication he 
has been generally regarded as the leading authority upon the subject of 
which he therein treats. Alluding to his archaeological work, it mav be 
mentioned that his first important contribution to the literature of his 
State — Monumental Remains of Georgia (Savannah, 1861) — belongs to 
this department of his writings. Other works of his in the same field are 
his Indian Remains in Southern Georgia (Savannah, 1859); Ancient Tu- 
muli on the Savannah River (New York, 1868); Ancient Tumuli in 
Georgia, (Worcester, Mass., 1869), and Aboriginal Structures in Georgia, 
(Washington, 1878.) 

Supplemental to the reputation which Colonel Jones has achieved as 
a writer upon archaeological subjects, we record the fact that he possesses 
an extensive collection illustrative of the primitive manufactures, per- 
sonal ornaments, and customs of the Southern Indians. This collection 
embraces some twenty thousand objects, which are carefully numbered 
and catalogued. For the purposes of comparative study there arc, in 
addition, several hundred typical objects of primitive manufacture from 
Europe, Asia, Central America, and other localities. 

It remains for us to speak of Colonel Jones as a collector of auto- 
graphs and historical documents. The collection and arrangement of au- 
tograph letters and portraits of personages distinguished in Revolution- 
ary annals, or prominently associated with Georgia as a Colony and as a 
State, have afforded him pleasant recreation. In the gratification of tins 
taste, he has performed valuable service. Among these collections we 
would refer to his autographs and portraits of the members from Geor- 
gia of the Continental Congress, and of the United States Senators from 
Georgia, Autographs and Portraits of the Delegates to the Constitutional 
Convention of 1787, Rulers and Governors of Georgia, the Georgia Port- 
folio in two volumes, Autograph Letters and Portraits of the Chief Jus- 
tices and Associate Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States, 
and of the Attorneys- General of the United States, Autographs and Por- 
traits of the Presidents of the Continental Congress, of the Presidents ol 
the United States, and of the Vice-Presidents of the United States, Au- 
tograph Letters and Portraits of the Signers of the Constitution oi the 

594 History of Savannah. 

Confederate States, Autograph Letters and Portraits of the Signers of the 
Declaration of Independence, in two volumes, and Members of the Conti 
nental Congress — 1 775-1789 Vol. I. of this series contains a second and 
complete set of the Signers of the Declaration of Independence. Of the 
Members of the Continental Congress there is full representation, either 
by autograph letter or document signed, with the exception of some 
twenty names. This series, like the others alluded to, is inlaid on What- 
man paper, is accompanied by engraved portraits, views, etc , wherever 
practicable, and will be bound in five volumes, crushed levant. Colonel 
Jones's Confederate Collection is also very extensive, interesting and val- 

His library is well selected, and consists of some forty five hundred 
bound volumes — over two hundred of which have been privately illus- 
trated at great expense, and in the highest style of the illustrator's art- 
Fine specimens of binding are not infrequent. In works pertaining to 
Georgia and adjacent States his library is especially rich. 

Colonel Jones is the eldest of the family, having one brother and a sis- 
ter. The latter — Mary Sharpe 1 — is the wife of the Rev. Robert Q. Mal- 
lard, D.D., of the Presbyterian Church, and a resident of New Orleans. 
His brother is Professor Joseph Jones, M.D., also of that city, the well- 
known scientist, chemist, physician, and writer upon medical subjects. 
He is at present Professor of Medical Chemistry in Tulane University, 
New Orleans, and was for several years president of the Board of Health 
of the State of Louisiana. 

It is not an exaggeration to affirm that Colonel Jones is the most pro- 
lific author Georgia has ever produced, and stands at the head of the his- 
torical writers of the South ot the present generation. 

THOMAS, DANIEL R., was born at Savannah August 2j, 1S43. 
His father was the late John T. Thomas, whose grandparents were 
among the French Huguenots, who arrived in Charleston about the .mid- 
dle of the last century ; his maternal ancestors were Salzburgers, and 
among the early settlers of the colony of Georgia. As a child, a delicate 
constitution and imperfect sight interfered with his education. 

1 Departed this life since this sketch was prepared. 








Biographical. 595 

In 1862 he enlisted in the Confederate army with the Tattnall Guards, 
First Volunteer Regiment of Georgia. After prolonged sickness, with- 
out solicitation on his part, he was, on the recommendation of the post 
surgeon and his commanding officer detailed for duty at district head- 
quarters and afterwards in the war tax office. 

Soon after the close of the war Mr. Thomas began business as an in- 
surance agent at Macon, where he remained until March, 1866. From 
Macon he returned to Savannah, and in July of the same year associated 
himself with Captain D. G. Purse in the commission, fertilizer and coal 
business which, by close and undivided attention soon became large and 
profitable. In December, 1 878, the firm of Purse & Thomas was dissolved, 
Mr. Thomas continuing the coal trade. 

His sight had become so impaired and his suffering so great in 1874, 
that he sought the aid of an oculist and an optician, from whom he ob- 
tained such relief and benefit as to greatly change his life and interest 
him in what was transpiring around. 

In the compromisemade by the city with the bond-holders he took 
an active interest. He was elected a member of the Sinking Fund Com- 
mission for ten years ; but after four years efficient service he resigned, 
having been elected an alderman in January, 1883. 

During the succeeding six years he rendered most valuable service 
to the city. He served as a member of the sanitary commission, and 
was an active member of many committees of council, including those 
on accounts, finance and streets and lanes. 

As treasurer of the committee for the relief of the sufferers by the 
Yamacraw fire he devoted a great deal of time to that charitable work. 
In recognition of his services in securing an extension of the city limits 
Thomas square was named for him. During his three terms in council 
no alderman was better acquainted with the details of the city's affairs 
than Mr. Thomas. 

Fully a year before the expiration of Mayor Lester's last term public 
sentiment apparently crystalized about Mr. Thomas as the best and most 
available successor. As the time for the election came'on Mr. Thomas 
developed unmistakable strength, his record in the management of the 
department of streets and lanes had won him the approbation of the pub- 
lic. Several candidates were brought out but finally the contest nar- 

596 History of Savannah. 

rowed down to three, then it was a question which one of two of these 
gentlemen should retire. 

At a convention of the Democratic clubs held in the Masonic Hall 
January 4, 1889, Mr. Thomas was nominated for mayor. Another can- 
didate had been in the field for more than a month. The election came 
on in a few days, and was a close one, Mr. Thomas being defeated by 
371 votes. This strong endorsement of Mr. Thomas is from an editorial 
in the Morning- News: "Mr. Thomas is a man of fine business qualifica- 
tions, he has proven himself to be one of the most competent and pro- 
gressive councilmen the city has ever had. The greater part of the im- 
provements that have been made within the last few years is the result of 
his earnest consistent and conscientious work. He may not have pleased 
everybody, but he has done so much better than the most of those who 
preceded him in his present position, that those who have been disposed to 
find fault have not found willing listeners. He is economical and careful." 

Mr. Thomas is a director in the Savannah and Western Railroad Com- 
pany, in the Citizens' Bank, the Savannah Investment Company, and is 
a member of the board of managers of Savannah's ancient charity, the 
Union Society, and takes an active interest in the management of the 
Bethesda Orphan House. He is just in the prime of life and, with his 
clear head and business habits, bids fair to attain to higher positions than 
he has yet been honored with by his fellow- citizens. 

FLANNP2RY JOHN was born in Nenagh, County Tipperary, Ireland, 
on the 24th of November, 1835, ms parents being John and Hannah 
Flannery, the latter a daughter of Malachi Hogan of the Silvermines, same 
county. Financial embarrasments, resulting mainly from the effects of 
the famine and pestilent visitations covering parts of 1845, '46 and '47, 
and the disturbed state of affairs in Ireland before and after the attempted 
rebellion in 1 848, compelled the father of our subject to close out his busi- 
ness in Nenagh, after disposing of the property he owned there, and as a 
matter of enforced economy to move to the village of the Silvermines 
early in 1850. The prospects for the future at this place being very un- 
promising the father and son decided to try their fortune in the United 
States the following year. They left home on September 13th for Liver- 
pool, England, at which point they engaged passage for Charleston, S. C, 

Biographical. 597 

on the American ship Austria, Captain Borland, which sailed on Septem- 
ber 1 8th, and arrived at its destination, after a pleasant passage, on October 
26th. Upon arrival at Charleston they were received and welcomed by 
Mrs. Mary A. Reedy the only sister of the elder Flannery and who had 
been a resident of that city for over a quarter of a century. 

'Young Flannery, not being brought up to any profession, trade or 
business, was unable to find employment until the following spring when 
on April 12th he went to Atlanta, then a small town, under an engage- 
ment to clerk for a Mr. Frankfort, who carried on a large business for 
those days, in dry goods and clothing on Whitehall street. He did not 
take favorably to Atlanta, which had few attractions for young men at 
that time, and in consequence resigned his place and returned to Charles- 
ton in August. Soon after his return he obtained a situation at LaPaine's 
dry goods store on King street where he remained only a few months 
when he left to take a better place in the larger establishment of Will- 
iam Howland on the same street. He was with Mr. Howland less than 
two years when that gentleman failed in business. This decided him 
upon removing to Savannah, where he had some relatives living at the 
time. He arrived in Savannah on December 16, 1854, having previously 
engaged, through his cousin P. J. Flannery, his service as a clerk to T. 
& L. McKenna & Co. then carrying on a dry goods business on Brough- 
ton street. He remained with this firm until the following October, 
when having taken a dislike to the retail dry goods as a business, lie left 
to take a position as book-keeper and general clerk with A. Backer, who 
carried on a wholesale liquor business on Whitaker street near Bay. He 
remained only a few months in this place when he resigned to take the 
position of book-keeper with John G. Falligant, who carried on a I.irge 
business in paints, oil, sash, blinds etc., on the west side of Johnson 
square. After being in this place for about a year and a halt he decided 
upon making another change and we next find him, in the fall of 1S57, 
occupying the position of book-keeper for M. J. Reiliy, a wholesale 
grocer on Bay street. Mr. Reiliy having failed the following year, Mr. 
Flannery was offered a position as account sales' clerk by Evans Harris 
& Co., cotton factors on Bay street, which he accepted. He was pro- 
moted to be book-keeper about a year later when a vacancy occurred in 
that position. He was in this place in January, J 861, when Governor 

598 History of Savannah. 

Brown called on the Savannah military to occupy and hold Fort Pulaski. 
Being - a member of the Irish Jasper Greens, which corps he joined 
in October, 1857, ne was among the number of those who responded to 
the call and performed garrison duty at the Fort, as a non-commissioned 
officer, during parts of January, February and March, 1861. He was 
elected a brevet lieutenant in the " Greens " in March, 1861. On May 
30, 1 861, he entered the Confederate service with the Greens for sixty 
days and on August 10th, was again mustered in for six months. The 
greater part of these two terms was served in garrison duty at Fort Pul- 
aski. On January 30, 1862, he was promoted to first lieutenant. On 
February 12, 1862, the Greens were mustered out of service and on the 
14th they re-enlisted for another term of six months, which was soon 
after changed to "three years or the war." On the 22d, they were or- 
dered to Lee Battery, a work of importance then being built on the 
Savannah River below Fort Jackson. While at this place Lieutenant 
Flannery, in addition to his duties in his company, was acting as quarter- 
master for the Savannah River batteries and advanced posts from April 
to July 1862, when he was relieved of the latter duty by Lieutenant, 
afterwards Captain, T. W. Neely of the quartermaster's department. 

On the reorganization of the First Volunteer Regiment of Georgia on 
October 20, 1862, Captain Ford of the "Greens," was elected major of 
of the regiment and Lieutenant Flannery succeeded him as captain and 
his company was designated as " Company A " of the regiment. In the 
early part of 1863 Captain Flannery was appointed " Instructor in In- 
fantry Tactics" for the officers, about thirty in number, serving at the river 
batteries, which position he held until May, 1864. About the middle of 
the same year Lee Battery, with a garrison of two companies numbering 
about two hundred men, was placed in his immediate charge under 
Major T. D. Bertody of the Twenty second Battalion of Georgia Artillery 
as commander of the post comprising Fort Jackson and Lee Battery and 
Colonel E. C. Anderson C. S. A., as commander of all the "Savannah 
River Batteries and Advanced Posts." 

Captain Flannery remained at Lee Battery until May, 1864, when the 
" Greens " were relieved from duty there and directed to rejoin the First 
Volunteer Regiment then under orders to report to General Mercer com- 
manding a brigade, in the army of the Tennessee under General John- 

Biographical. 599 

ston, near Dallas, Ga. He served with this army under Johnston and 
Hood from May, 1864, to January, 1865, except for a few weeks in mid- 
summer while incapacitated for active duty by severe illness. Early in 
January, 1865, he was taken seriously sick near Corinth, Miss., where the 
army rested a few days while en route for Tupelo from the disastrous 
campaign in Tennessee. This practically ended his active connection 
with the army, although when, about April 1st, he believed himself able 
to resume active duty he asked for and obtained a discharge from hos- 
pital at Columbus, Ga., where he then was, and started to rejoin his 
command which was in North Carolina. Being delayed at camps at 
Macon and Augusta while en route he did not get beyond Chester, S. C, 
which point he only reached in time to be ordered back on account of 
"Stoneman's raid," which cut off communication in that direction with 
Johnston's army. From Chester, he with the other Confederates at that 
point, fell back successively to Newberry and Abbeville, S. C, and Wash- 
ington, Ga , where the news of Johnston's surrender was received, and 
where the various detachments were disbanded as they arrived. Captain 
Flannery went from Washington to Sharon, Ga., where he remained for 
several days as the guest of Mr. W. J. Harty, then living at that point. 
He next went to Augusta, where he became the guest for a few days of 
Mr. John M. Gannon of the Globe Hotel, who, as a boy, was his fellow 
passenger from Liverpool to Charleston in 185 1. He was paroled on 
May 15th at Augusta, and having secured transportation by the steamer 
Amazon, he soon after left for Savannah. The trip down the river occu- 
pied three days and was not by any means a pleasure excursion, as the 
boat was crowded, and all the accommodations being on deck, horses, 
darkies, Federal soldiers, and Confederates were mixed up indiscrimin- 
ately. Savannah presented a desolate appearance when he arrived 
there and it was several days before he was able to obtain employ- 
ment of any description. The first position that offered was at Hilton 
Head, S. C, where the firm of McKune & Roo-ebrook wanted a com- 
petent accountant to adjust and balance their books, as they were 
preparing to close up business. This position he obtained through the 
influence of some friends, and his services being needed at once, he 
left a sick-bed to go to work, so as not to loose the chance for em- 
ployment. After being about six weeks at Hilton Head he succeeded 

600 History of Savannah. 

in securing a position as book-keeper with John N. Keene & Co., 
shipping and commission merchants of Savannah. On his return to 
Savannah to accept this position, Mr. L J. Guilmartin proposed to him 
to form a co-partnership to do a cotton factorage and general commission 
business, which proposition Captain Flannery accepted, after obtaining a 
release from his engagement with Messrs. Keene & Co. Mr. E. W. 
Drummond also became a member of the co-partnership which com 
menced business on July 12. 1865, under the firm name of L. J. Guil- 
martin & Co. The firm started with practically no capital but with 
many friends whose patronage and assistance aided in making its business 
a success. The firm soon after commencing business secured the agency 
of the steamers Dictator and City Point, running between Charleston, 
S. C, and Palatka, Fla., via Savannah, etc. This was an important 
freight and passenger line at that time and for several years after. The 
firm also done a general shipping business up to 1868, when Mr. Drum- 
mond retired and this branch was discontinued. 

On May 31, 1877, the firm was dissolved and Captain Flannery pur- 
chased all its assets. He at once formed anew co-partnership with Mr. 
John L. Johnson, who had been the traveling agent of the old firm, under 
the firm name of }ohn Flannery & Co. This firm has been successful in 
business, is still in existence and occupies a prominent position among 
the cotton houses of Savannah. 

In 1866 Captain Flannery went to Europe for the purpose of visiting 
his mother, whom he had not seen since he left for America in 185 I, and 
with the hope that the trip would benefit his health, which was very 
much impaired as a result of severe malarial poisoning while at Lee Bat- 
tery 1 in the summer and fall of 1862 and of 1863, and of exposure, etc., 
during the campaign in Tennessee in the winter of 1864. 

In April, 1867 Captain Flannery was married to Miss Mary E. Nor- 
ton, a niece of Mrs. John McMahon, by whom she was raised from early 
girlhood. This marriage proved to be a happy one and the fruits of it 
were six children, only two of whom are living — Katie, the oldest daugh- 
ter and John McMahon, the third son. 

1 To illustrate how unhealthy this post was at certain seasons of the year, it is only 
necessary so say that the garrison, consisting nominally of about two hundred men and 
nine officers, was at one time, August 29, 1862, reduced by sickness to actually nineteen 
men and one officer (Lieutenant Flannery j for duty. 

Biographical. 6oi 

On the re-organization of the Georgia Volunteers in May, 1872, he 
was, against his expressed wish, re-elected captain of the " Irish Jasper 
Greens" and, notwithstanding the unsatisfactory condition of his health 
then and most of the time since we still find him at the head of the 
corps and taking an active part in volunteer military affairs. When 
his dwelling was burned to the ground in the big fire of April 6, 1889, 
it was found that among the many souvenirs destroyed was a dress 
sword presented to him by the "Greens" in 1874. The members of the 
corps, as soon as they became aware of this, immediately ordered another 
sword with special designs and of finer quality which was formally pre- 
sented on May 28, 18S9, as a mark of their continued esteem and to show 
that time had not weakened their respect for and confidence in him. 

He has been a member of the Hibernian Society since March 1 7, 1 866, 
and served one term as vice-president. He has always taken an active 
interest in Irish affairs and lent aid to every movement of a national 
character, which he thought might benefit his native land. 

Captain Flannery was one of the corporators of the Southern Bank of 
the State of Georgia organized in 1870, and was a member of its first 
board of directors and has been re-elected every year since. Upon the 
death of Captain John McMahon, vice-president of the bank, in January, 
1 88 1, he became acting vice-president and on February 9, following, was 
elected president, in place of Mr. Eugene Kelly of New York, who re- 
signed for that purpose, and he is still in that position. The new bank 
building on Drayton street, completed in 1886, was put up on his urgent 
recommendation and the work carried on under his direction. 

He has been a member of the Savannah Cotton Exchange since 1877 
and served as a director for several years. He was vice-president for 
two terms and president for one and served as a member of the commit- 
tee under whose direction the Exchange building at the foot of Drayton 
street, completed in 1887 while he was president, was put up. 

He has been a director for several years in the " U. H. Cotton Press 
Co." and in the "Tyler Cotton Press Co." in each of which he has a large 
interest, and has served in similar positions, from time to time, in several 
other organizations of more or less importance. 

He was among the number of those who recognized the importance 
of having a first class hotel in Savannah and took an active interest in 

6o2 History of Savannah. 

securing and holding the " Oglethorpe Barracks " block as a site for such 
a building, and was one of the first to subscribe for stock and to take an 
active part in organizing the " Savannah Hotel Co." — of which he was 
elected a director on its organization in April, 1888, — which built the 
" DeSoto," completed in 1889, on that site. 

On the organization of the " Savannah Sinking Fund Commission," 
in December, 1878, he was unanimously elected a member by the City 
Council and served as its chairman until 1888, when he retired from the 
commission, after declining a re election for another term. 

He was one of the original thirteen who organized the " Jasper Mon- 
ument Association," in 1878, and on die death of Captain McMahon, its 
president, in 1881, he was elected to succeed him. While the work of 
accumulating funds went on rather slowly for some time after Captain 
McMahon's death, the object for which the association was formed was 
finally accomplished. The monument in Madison square, which was 
unveiled on February 22, 1S88, speaks for how well this was done. 

Captain Flannery being a Roman Catholic, always took an active in- 
terest in whatever concerned the welfare of that great religious organiza- 
tion. He served as a member of the committee under whose directions 
the Cathedral on Abercorn street was put up until the building was 
roofed in and made weather tight in 1875 when he resigned. He was 
president of the " Catholic Library Hall Association " when that organ- 
ization purchased the old Cathedral property from the Bishop of Savan- 
nah in 1888, and as chairman of the building committee took an active 
part in superintending the work of remodeling the building to suit the 
wants of the association and to add to the city's accommodations a hall 
which for public or private entertainments is second to none within its 

As chairman of the trustees selected by the bondholders who bought 
in the " Georgia Military Academy " building and lots on Abercorn street, 
at the foreclosure sale in 1 886, he rendered valuable aid to the " First Vol- 
unteer Regiment of Georgia" in enabling it to acquire the property for 
an armory, by inducing the owners to agree to accept a moderate price 
and to give the regiment easy terms for payment, in consideration of the 
purpose for which the property was to be used. 

While, as a rule, Captain Flannery has taken but little interest in pol- 

Biographical. 603 

itics, and has invariably declined to be a candidate for office, he has 
always held his vote ready for use at every election and, when occasion 
demanded, he has not hesitated to take an active part in municipal 
and other elections and to use any influence that he possessed to help 
to elect good and competent men to office over unsuitable or incom- 
petent candidates. He never failed to do any duty devolving on him 
as a citizen and always realized that, " property has its duties as well as 
its rights," and therefore that his debt of obligations to the community 
of which he was a member increased with the increase of his worldly 
possessions, and that his mere living in that community did not dis- 
charge this debt, as so many men of means appear to think. He has 
ever been ready to do his full share towards making each enterprise or 
movement inaugurated by the citizens of Savannah for her benefit a 
success, without waiting to figure out, in advance, what direct benefit he 
was likely to receive for the money contributed or for the time and labor 
expended in trying to accomplish the object proposed. 

FLEMING GRANTLAND du BIGNON. Ask any Savannahian 
who is the most prominent young man in this city and without a 
moment's hesitation he will answer, Senator Fleming G. du Bignon 

Here is a strong and interesting individuality, an exceptionally fine 
mind, an eloquent orator whose thoughts are ever dressed in classic lan- 
guage which flows with all the natural ease and spontaneity of waters 
from a fountain. A lawyer who crowds the court rooms, a speaker 
who on the platform arouses the enthusiasm of his audience to the 
highest pitch, effective in debate, quick and crushing in repartee and 
full of all the expedients and manoeuvres of a skilled parliamentarian. 
He has the dash of the cavalier — that beau esprit which dazzles and fas- 
cinates. Gifted far beyond most men, and ambitious, he has risen rapidly 
to a height where the greatest public honors are within his reach. 

In the early history of Georgia there was a patriot who declined the 
governorship of his State saying that he considered himself too young a 
man for the position. There has been just one other young man since those 
early days who has put the honor away from him. Senator du Bignon, 
with the most flattering prospects of succeeding to the coveted chair, 
when his name was on the tongue of every intelligent man in the State, 

604 History of Savannah. 

having more than the good will of the leading men in every section of 
Georgia — yes having their promised support unsought, to help him to 
what would be, as it were, but the stepping-stone to the very highest 
goal, in short, with a future tempting him to a career probably unequaled 
in brilliancy by any other man's in all the South, he deliberately turned 
away from it to devote himself to the practice of his profession. Of 
course, there was a strong motive for this decision, and it was a choice 
between the competence which a prosperous profession brings and public 
honors with meager emoluments. 

Fleming Grantland du Bignon was born July 25, 1853, at Woodville 
near Milledgeville, the old country seat of his maternal grandfather. His 
father, Capt. Charles du Bignon, was born and reared on Jekyl Island, 
one of the prettiest of the chain of islands which stretches along the 
Georgia coast. Capt. du Bignon was a private gentleman descended 
from Admiral du Bignon of the stock of French political refugees who 
had to abandon their country in one of the political revolutions which 
convulsed it within the last century. Senator du Bignon's mother, whom 
he resembles in many traits of character, is Mrs. Ann Virginia du Bignon, 
the daughter of the Hon. Seaton Grantland. Mr. du Bignon's early 
education was begun under the private tutorship of the celebrated Wash- 
ington Baird, D. D. After receiving a military education at the Virginia 
Military Institute at Lexington, Mr. du Bignon went thence to the Uni- 
versity of Virginia. Upon leaving that institution he spent more than 
a year in Europe to complete his education. Returning to Georgia he 
settled in Savannah, was admitted to the bar and began the practice of 
law here. In 1S75 he married Miss Carro Nicol Lamar, daughter of the 
late Col. Charles A. L. Lamar, (and granddaughter of Judge Nicol of the 
U. S. District Court ), and soon thereafter he removed to Milledgeville, 
where he began the practice of law under the favorable auspices of family 

It was soon acknowledged that the young attorney was strong in de- 
bate and possessed to a high degree the graces of an accomplished orator. 
He had the capacity to win success in the face of opponents of wider 
experience and established reputations. From 1875 to 1877 he was 
county judge of Baldwin County and for one year of that time was asso- 
ciated as partner with R. Whitfield, esq., and afterwards when that law 

Biographical. 605 

firm was dissolved he formed a partnership with A. McKinley, esq. In 
1880 he became a candidate for Representative of Baldwin County in the 
General Assembly of the State and he defeated his opponent the mayor 
of Milledgeville by a large majority. 

In the lower House of the General Assembly Mr. du Bignon took an 
active and prominent part. He was the author of the measure which 
appropriated one hundred and sixty-five thousand dollars ($165,000), 
for the purpose of erecting new and additional buildings at the State 
Lunatic Asylum and for improving the treatment of the unfortunates 
there confined. The measure, though bitterly opposed at first, was carried 
finally by an overwhelming vote upon the conclusion of an earnest ap- 
peal by Mr. du Bignon for its passage. Mr. du Bignon's speech upon 
the occasion, delivered before an immense crowd which had been at- 
tracted to the House, has been considered by some of his friends one of 
the best of his Legislative efforts. With this appropriation the Trustees 
of the Institution have erected two large and attractive recreation halls 
for the male and female patients. Also' a handsome amusement hall for 
the convalescent, as well as two commodious buildings for colored patients. 
Mr. du Bignon has frequently said that should he accomplish nothing 
else in life, his successful effort in behalf of "these unfortunates " would 
more than repay him for all the annoyances and sacrifices which he had 
suffered in public life. 

At the same session of the Legislature he introduced and passed a bill 
appropriating five thousand dollars ($5,000,) for the repair of the old 
capitol building at Milledgeville and to fit it for the use of The Middle 
Georgia Military and Agricultural College. . This college is a depart- 
ment of the State University and is in a most flourishing state. Mr. du 
Bignon is a member of its Board of Trustees. 

In 1882 at the end of his term in the House, Mr. du Bignon was 
elected without opposition to the State Senate from the 20th Senatorial 
District, comprising the counties of Baldwin, Hancock and Washington. 

Upon the organization of the Senate, Mr. du Bignon's friends urged 
him to allow the use of his name for President of that body, but he pre- 
ferred to be upon the floor and declined. He was appointed Chairman 
of the Judiciary Committee which is the most important committee in 
the whole Legislature. It is to this committee that all important Legis- 

606 History of Savannah. 

lation is referred before enacted into laws. After the organization of the 
Senate a poll of its members was made and it was found that there was 
but one vote's difference between Mr. du Bignon's following and that of 
Mr. Boynton who was elected President. Should Mr. du Bignon have 
been elected, he would have succeeded to the Gubernatorial office upon 
the death of Gov. A. H. Stephens, which occurred shortly afterwards and 
would have been the youngest man who ever entered that high office. 
Both in 1882 when elected to the Senate for the 20th District and in 
1888 when elected for the 1st District, Mr. du Bignon ran ahead of the 
entire State ticket. The republican convention which met in Savannah 
to nominate candidates for the Legislature in 1888, and which was com- 
posed almost entirely of colored men, declined to nominate any one 
against Mr. du Bignon although they nominated three candidates for the 
House. They intended by their action to convey to Mr. du Bignon their 
appreciation of his fear/ess and impartial administration of the law while 
in the office of solicitor- general, and Mr. du Bignon is said to have been 
very much touched and pleased by their action. 

After a residence of a few years in Milledgeville Mr. du Bignon re- 
turned to Savannah and was directly afterwards elected solicitor-general 
of the Eastern Judicial Circuit which embraces the counties of Chatham, 
Bryan, Liberty, Mcintosh and Effingham. Here in Savannah, in the 
Superior Court of Chatham County, he won a splendid and a deserved 
reputation as a fearless and successful prosecuting attorney for the State. 
No influence was strong enough to deter him from prosecuting to the 
full extent of his ability a violator of the law. No offender was high 
enough to escape through position. The Solicitor's purpose was to ad- 
minister his office without fear, favor or affection. The years of 1885 
and 1886 were fruitful of crime in the city of Savannah. Tragedies all 
but trod upon each other's heels, numerous assaults were frequent, the 
gambler flourished and there were constant complaints of mal-adminis- 
tration in the offices of the justices of the peace. When the Court was 
in session, convicted prisoners day after day struck terror into the hearts 
of the criminally minded. An attempt to particularize would be out of 
place. But of all the trials, the most noted case was the prosecution of 
John Walsh for the murder of Dawson. The strong influences of nation- 
ality and religion were set at work for the defendant. It was a brilliant 

Biographical. 607 

trial concluding with a magnificent speech by Solicitor-General du Big- 
non who spoke three hours in a densely crowded court room, and the 
jury convicted. Then came a request from the United States govern- 
ment to Mr. du Bignon to assist in the prosecution of a (notorious) 
moonshiner, Johnson, from Montgomery County. Johnson was indicted 
for shooting at a deputy-marshal. There were especial reasons why the 
government desired a conviction in that case and Mr. du Bignon con- 
victed him. Still later and most dramatic of all, so recent that it is yet 
fresh in the minds of every one, was the trial of Thomas Cassidy for the 
murder of George Smith. Eminent counsel defended the prisoner, the 
trial was a long one and when the arguments by counsel began the 
Superior Court room in the old Court- House was thronged. On the 
last day Mr. du Bignon made an able and eloquent speech and the jury 
convicted on circumstantial evidence. There are scores of other cases 
which might be cited for their strong prosecution. This is a matter of 
record throughout his career as solicitor-general. Mr. du Bignon rarely 
lost a case. When he resigned after being re-elected, murders, in the 
words of the newspapers, were a rarity, aggravated assaults were less 
frequent than for years, the gambling dens were broken up and the mag- 
istrates offices were more satisfactorily conducted than in many years. 

• Mr. du Bignon took an active part in local politics and in 188S he was 
elected a member of the State Senate without opposition. He resigned 
the office of solicitor-general and on the assembling of the Senate was 
unanimously elected its President. He filled the chair with dignity, im- 
partiality and ability. Legislation was in a great measure in his hands 
and as those who are acquainted with the secret history of the two ses- 
sions know, the designs of certain foreign corporations to mulct the 
State's treasury were thwarted mainly through his efforts. All during 
1889 a sentiment kept spreading and deepening in favor of Senator du 
Bignon for Governor to succeed Gen. John B. Gordon. From all parts of 
Georgia he received proffers of aid if he would accept and these proffers 
came from the most influential men whose combined influences no other 
candidate could defeat. Those kindly offers he declined and stated pos- 
itively that he intended to retire from public office and practice his pro 
fession. This he did and accepted a partnership in the law firm of Chisholm 
& Erwin, the counsel for the Plant system of railways and steamships and 

608 History of Savannah. 

for the Southern Express Company and Western Union Telegraph Com- 
pany. The firm name is now, Chisholm, Ervvin & du Bignon. 

As a conversationalist Senator du Bignon is of the most entertaining 
of men. He has a vast fund o( anecdote reminiscence and a keen per- 
ception of the ludicrous. As a lawyer he is aggressive, thoroughly fa- 
miliar with the rules of practice, quick to catch the fatal flaw of the opposing 
side, a sharp cross-examiner, dramatic and effective before a jury. His 
wide experience as a criminal lawyer has equipped him in that branch of 
his profession as thoroughly as any lawyer in Georgia. 

BALLANTYNE, THOMAS.— The subject of this sketch was born in 
Glasgow, Scotland, August 5, 183 I, and is the son of Thomas Ball- 
antyne, whose strong integrity, indomitable industry, and genial charac- 
teristics he inherited. Thomas Ballantyne, the younger, was educated at 
Hutchinson's Academy, a school of renown in Glasgow, after which he 
served his apprenticeship as an iron founder. Shortly after having mas- 
tered his trade he enlisted in the Scottish Greys, or Second Royal Dra- 
goons, famous in song ami story for its celebrated charge at Balaklava. 
Mr. Ballantyne was on shipboard on the way to his regiment when the 
charge was made " into the jaws of death by the gallant three hundred." 
He participated in the Crimean War, and was at the capture of Sebasto- 
pol. After serving two years in that historic corps Mr. Ballantyne bought 
his discharge and returned home, and after working eight months at his 
trade in Glasgow, he sailed tor New York in 1856, and it was not long af- 
ter his arrival when his superior excellence as an iron moulder led to his 
being put in charge as foreman of the Newark machine works, one of the 
largest establishments in this country. In 1859 he was sent for to come to 
Savannah to do a piece of work which no other could do here, and he was 
persuaded to remain, and was given charge of the late Alvin N. Miller's 
foundry and machine works. While here the war broke out and he was re- 
tained as superintendent ami manufacturer of ordnance for the gun boats 
of the Confederate Navy, and during the last two years of the war he was 
in charge of the Confederate States' Foundry at Habersham and Taylor 
streets, which turned out orvinance work for the late Confederate Gov- 
ernment. With the fall of Savannah the Federal government confis- 
cated the Miller machine shops and foundry, and Mr. Ballantyne was 

Biographical. . 609 

put in charge to superintend the repairing of government property for the 
steamships and gunboats of the government. In 1 866 Mr. Ballantyne and 
John McDonough started a foundry at Arnold and Liberty streets under 
the firm name of McDonough & Ballantyne, and a year later built ex- 
tensive machine and boiler shops and foundry at East Broad, Perry and 
McDonough streets, which are the largest and best shops of the kind in 
Savannah, employing fifty men and turning out engines, boilers and ma- 
chinery of all descriptions, and which has made for many years, and is still 
making, all the iron castings for the Central railroad. The firm still bears 
the name of McDonough & Ballantyne, Mr. J. J. McDonough having 
succeeded to the partnership after the death of his father. 

While the war was in progress Mr. Ballantyne commanded a com- 
pany of men recruited from the machine shops for heme defense. He is 
an honorary member of the Georgia Hussars, the oldest troop of cavalry 
in the United States of which, in the days of his active service, he was 
second sergeant. He went to join his company the first year of the war 
but was turned back at Richmond ; the Confederate government consid- 
ered his services more valuable in the manufacture of ordnance, and sent 
him back to Savannah, 

Mr. Ballantyne is one of the jury commissioners for the selection of 
jurors for the courts. He served as alderman on the board for several 
years, and was chairman of markets, and chairman of the health and san- 
itation committee during the epidemic of 1876, having charge of the san- 
itation of the city, and he labored zealously and earnestly during that 
afflicting period until he himself was stricken down near the close of the 

Mr. Ballantyne is connected with many enterprises of a public char- 
acter, and he is always foremost in promoting every industry calculated 
to advance the growth and prosperity of the city in which he has long 
been one of its most conspicuous and industrious citizens. He has sub- 
scribed to all enterprises looking to the promotion of Savannah. 

He is a member of the Independent Presbyterian Church and has 
served on its board of trustees. He has also been the president of the 
St. Andrew's society, and is one of the most pleasant and genial members 
that sits around its board. 

Mr. Ballantyne has been a Free Mason for about a quarter of a cen- 

610 History of Savannah. 

tury, and is recognized by the fraternity outside, as well as inside of its 
assemblies, as one of its most zealous members ; in whatever is best cal- 
culated to advance the interest of the craft he is ever ready to devote his 
time and means. He is a proficient worker in the temple, having the 
rare gift of expounding the rituals of the several degrees in a perfect and 
impressive manner. This gift and his devotion to the principles of Free- 
masonry have won for him the well deserved preeminence which he en- 
joys with his brethren. Mr. Ballantyne has held nearly, if not all, the 
honors that can be conferred by the fraternity. Early in his masonic 
career he filled the various offices in the lodge, Zurubbabel No. 1 5, holding 
the office of worshipful master for five or six years. He was high priest 
of Georgia Chapter No. 3, R. A. M., for twelve years, and filled the office 
of thrice illustrious master in Georgia Council No. 2, R. and S. M. during 
the same period. He now holds the position of eminent commander of 
Palestine Commandery No. 7, Knights Templar, having recently been 
re-elected against his earnest protest, though he had held the office for 
seven years. In addition to the honors conferred upon him by his breth- 
ren in Savannah, Mr. Ballantyne was for two years grand commander of 
Knights Templar for the State of Georgia, and was also deputy grand 
master of Royal and Select Masters of Georgia. He is now deputy 
grand high priest of the Grand Royal Arch Chapter of Georgia. 

Mr. Ballantyne is a celibate and has one brother, William Ballantyne, 
employed at the foundry, and one sister, Mrs. Margaret Hunter, residing 
in Glasgow, Scotland. 

LESTER, DANIEL B., one of the most prosperous wholesale and re- 
tail grocers of Savannah, largely interested in real estate and other 
interests in which he is connected, and which bring him a very large rev- 
enue, affords an example of what a young man of energy, industry and 
integrity can do when thrown upon his own resources. 

Mr. Lester was born June 18, 185 1, in Bulloch county, Ga , and is 
the son of the late Malcom B. Lester, a prosperous farmer of that county 
who responded to the call of his section and enlisted in the Confederate 
army and lost his life during the war. Mr. Lester's family, like many 
other families in the South, found itself in straitened circumstances, but this 
did not discourage the subject of this sketch, who determined to replace 


f* 9 

fer \ 

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'7 tyFOK ■■■ ■■ ... -'• 

Biographical. 6ii 

the losses occasioned by the war, and with this determination in view 
he started out single-handed to battle with adversity, and by strength of 
character he has nobly succeeded. 

With only the rudiments of a common school education, he educated 
himself at Lookout Mountain Educational Institution, having first ob- 
tained a situation as clerk in a general store at Marietta, Ga., where, after 
close application to business for several months, he found it necessary to 
get something more than the schooling he had obtained in the primitive 
country school-house. After a year spent in earnest study at Lookout 
Mountain he came to Savannah, and for over six years was occupied as 
clerk in the grocery business, and having, by a life of frugality, husbanded 
his means, he went into business for himself, being associated in the firm 
of Lester & Harmon, grocers, at No. 31 Whitaker street. In 1876 he 
disposed of his interest, and established a grocery of his own, which he 
now conducts. 

With a shrewd business foresight Mr. Lester saw that real estate in 
and about Savannah would soon rapidly appreciate in value, and in 1879 
he began to buy real estate, in which he has ever since been, and is now 
largely interested. He was one of the original twenty-five who built the 
Belt Line Street Railroad, the longest and best equipped line of street 
railroad in the South, all of its street cars being of the celebrated pattern 
of the Broadway cars of New York. He is connected with various com- 
mercial, industrial, and railroad enterprises, to all of which lie has been 
a liberal subscriber, and in many of which he is a director. He was one 
of the organizers of the Merchants' and Mechanics' Loan Association, and 
served as director for a long while. He is a director of the Home Build- 
ing Company, and president of the Savannah Plumbing Company, in 
which he was one of the moving spirits. 

Mr. Lester is one of the most genial and pleasant gentlemen, and 
always easy of access to the most humble, no matter how pressing the 
demand which his varied interests make upon his time. He married Miss 
Margaret I. Russell, daughter of the late Judge Levi S. Russell, from 
which union there were two children, a son and daughter; the latter, an 
interesting child, died quite recently. Mr. Lester resides in an elegant 
mansion on one of the principal residence streets of the city, fronting 
Park Extension, and all the surroundings show the cultured and refined 
taste of himself and his estimable wife. 

612 History of Savannah. 

MELDRIM, Hon. PETER W. Hon. Peter W. Meldrim, the son of 
Ralph and Jane Meldrim was born in Savannah, December 4, 1848. 
His education was acquired at the Chatham Academy, under a private 
tutor and at the State University. He graduated from the academic de- 
partment in 1868, and from the law department in 1869. Returning 
home he began the practice of law, and in his profession he went steadily 
and rapidly to the front. While at the University he gained a reputation 
as a close student and a promising orator. In the wider fields of his 
profession he continually added to his laurels as an eloquent speaker, and 
for a decade and a half has shared honors on many public occasions with 
Savannah's oldest and best orators. 

Two days before the state election in 1881, Mr. Meldrim was nomi- 
nated for the Senate from this district and he was elected. A writer in 
summing up Mr. Meldrim's senate career says that it " was active, high- 
toned and brilliant. He was ever ready to give his vote and his voice 
to those measures of policy, or to the statutes which seemed to him 
essential to individual and public welfare. In all his acts he reflected the 
liberality and intelligence of his constituents, and for this was beloved 
and admired by all who witnessed his course. His efforts in debate 
sustained his reputation as an orator. As chairman of the committee 
of military affairs, he was indefatigable in his labors in behalf of the per- 
fect organization, equipment and discipline of the volunteer troops of 
the State. His speeches on this subject before the committees and in 
the Senate were models of eloquence and logic. Then when the bill to 
make tuition forever free at the State University was put upon its pas- 
sage and the measure was violently opposed, he came to the rescue fear- 
lessly and grandly, aiding materially in bringing about the happy result 
of its triumphant passage. His constituents and the people of Georgia 
have reason to be proud of his talents and character." 

For several years Mr. Meldrim has been associated with Col. William 
Garrard in the practice of law. These gentlemen have long had the 
reputation of enjoying a large practice, larger than any other firm in Sa- 
vannah. Mr. Meldrim is the court-house lawyer of the firm and unlike 
many attorneys he is as successful in criminal cases as in civil suits. 

He is widely read, not only in law but in literature, and even his 
speeches to judges and juries often glitter with allusions or pictures which 

Biographical. 613 

relieve the tedium of sheep-bound authorities, he always goes into court 
thoroughly prepared, knowing not only his own case but that of the 
other side. In many of the Georgia decisions where Mr. Meldrim's 
cases appear, there are high compliments from the Supreme Bench. 

In all things appertaining to Irish affairs, Mr. Meldrim takes a deep 
interest. He has been president of the Hibernian society for years and 
that organization excels in every respect any similar association in this or 
neighboring States. Every year the honorable society is extending its 
reputation, and the lustre of its name is spreading farther and farther by 
reason of its President's efforts. It is Mr. Meldrim's ambition to give his 
society a national reputation and no one who knows him well doubts that 
he will succeed. Once a year he brings about its board the brightest schol- 
ars, the most learned lawyers and the ablest men in various professions. 
In the erection of the monument to Sergt. Jasper in Madison Square 
Mr. Meldrim has no small share of the credit. The Jasper Monument 
Association had no more earnest and tireless worker than he. 

Every political canvass brings Mr. Meldrim to the front. Candidates 
need his aid and influence which is far-reaching, being a good planner 
and organizer his friends invariably get him interested. He is too busy 
with pressing professional business to aspire to office himself, but every 
two years he is urged to become a candidate for Congress. The Volun- 
teer military interests him too, and he is the Major of the First Volunteer 
Regiment of Georgia Cavalry to which position he was promoted from 
lieutenancy in the Georgia Hussars. 

Mr. Meldrim is a delightful speaker, whether at the Bar or in response 
to a toast on some formal occasion. As a read)- debater he is the equal 
of the best. His sarcasm is a weapon which opponents dread. 

Mr. Meldrim is known from one end of Georgia to the other. The 
cause of State aid to education has no warmer friend, and his influence 
and his zeal in this direction were recognized by a place on the State 
University's Board of Trustees. 

DUNCAN, WILLIAM, M.D., the subject of this sketch, was born in 
Savannah, Ga., January ,, 1840, and is of Scotch and Irish parent- 
age. His elementary studies began in the Chatham Academy, Savan- 
nah, Ga., one of the oldest institutions of learning in this country, fol- 

6 14 History of Savannah. 

lowed by a course of studies at the Springfield Academy in Effingham 
county, Ga. He completed his academic course at Oglethorpe Univer- 
sity, near Milledgville, Ga., in 1857. In 1 858 he commenced the study 
of medicine under the late Dr. Richard D. Arnold, matriculated at the 
Savannah Medical College in November of the same year and received 
his diploma from that institution in March, 1861. Soon after receiving 
his degree in medicine, Dr. Duncan was appointed assistant surgeon in 
the provisional army of the Confederate States, and was stationed at 
Fort Jackson (now Fort Oglethorpe) in the spring of 1861 with Captain 
Jacob Read, of company D, First Georgia Regulars. In the summer and 
fall of 1861 he was with the First Georgia Regulars in Virginia; in 1862 
he was assigned to the Savannah Medical College hospital where he 
served until the spring of 1S63 when he was assigned to duty with the 
Fourth Alabama Regiment, Law's Brigade, Hood's Division, Long- 
street's Corps of the army of Northern Virginia. Later in the spring of 
1863 he was stationed temporarily at Mississippi Hospital No. 2, corner 
of Seventh and Carey streets, Richmond, Va., and at the Army Hospital 
at Harrisonburg, Va... while convalescing from an attack of smallpox 
covering a period of six weeks, rejoining his regiment immediately after 
the Pennsylvania campaign. In 1864, he was relieved from duty in the 
field, and assigned to duty at Howard's Grove Hospital, Richmond, Va., 
where he remained until the fall of the Confederate capital in April, 1865, 
which virtually terminated the war. After the war Dr. Duncan spent 
one year abroad in the prosecution of his medical studies and returned 
to Savannah in the summer of 1S66, when he entered upon the active 
practice of his profession, in which he is still engaged. 

Dr. Duncan is a member of the State Medical Association of Georgia 
nd of the Georgia Medical Society (local) of Savannah, and was dean 
of the faculty of the Savannah Medical College until the suspension of 
the exercises of that institution several years since, which was necessita- 
ted in consequence of the death of several of the professors, and an ina- 
bility to fill satisfactorily the vacancies thus occasioned. 

Dr. Duncan was one of the surgeons of the Atlantic and Gulf Railroad, 
and is now connected in the same capacity with the Savannah, Florida 
and Western Railway, under the Plant system; he held the position of 
surgeon of the cavalry squadron reorganized soon after the war under the 

Biographical. 615 

late Colonel E. C. Anderson, jr., having been commissioned by the gov- 
ernor of Georgia under the law regulating such appointments. He is 
superintendent, and one of the medical staff, of the Savannah Hospital, 
which positions he has held since 1867. He was secretary and treasurer 
of the board of trustees of the Georgia Infirmary for colored persons, 
from the year of its organization 1870, to 1887, and is still one of the 
members of the board of trustees. He has been a member of the board 
of sanitary commissioners of the city of Savannah from the period of its 
organization until two years since, and author of the ordinance of the 
city providing for the organization of said board in 1877, immediately 
after the epidemic of yellow fever in 1876. 

In an active professional life Dr. Duncan has not manifested any am- 
bition for preferment, but has served on the board of aldermen during 
the incumbency of Captain J. F. Wheaton, as mayor, and during two 
terms of the incumbency of Hon. Rufus E. Lester, embracing a period 
of ten years. 

Dr. Duncan has always taken an interest in educational affairs, as in 
other matters looking to the advancement and progress of the commun- 
ity in which he resides; he is a member of the board of education of the 
city of Savannah and county of Chatham, also a member of the hoard of 
trustees of Chatham Academy, is past master of Ancient Landmark 
Lodge No. 231, F. and A. M., Savannah, Ga., member of Georgia Chap- 
ter No. 3 Royal Arch Masons, member of Georgia Council No. 2 Royal 
and Select Masons, member of Palestine Commandery Knights Templar 
No. 7, and sublime prince of the Royal Secret, thirty-second degree An- 
cient and Accepted Rite of Scottish Masons. 

DORSETT, CHARLES HENRY, was born in Savannah, Ga., No- 
vember 29, 1845, an d is the son of John and Sarah R. Dorsett. The 
father of the subject of this sketch was a master ship carpenter, and had 
charge of the largest ship yards in Savannah. He died in 1S46, and his 
wife survives him. 

Mr. Dorsett was educated at Chatham Academy, Savannah, Ga., and 
immediately after leaving the academy accepted a clerkship, in his six- 
teenth year. He enlisted as a member of Major Shellman's battalion for 
the defense of the city during the late war when the forces were 

616 History of Savannah. 

investing the city. Mr. Dorsett married Miss Josie Gross, a daughter of 
Charles Gross, a merchant of Savannah; the fruit of this union is a beau- 
tiful daughter now in her tenth year. 

Although Mr. Dorsett is comparatively a young man, his life has been 
one of great activity, energy and industry. Entering, as we have seen, 
commercial life before he had attained his seventeenth year, he has from 
a small clerkship risen to his present commanding position in the com- 
mercial and monetary circles of Savannah. To attempt to follow him 
from the humble position he occupied when a boy in the counting-room 
up to his present position as a wealthy land-owner and financier, would 
require greater space than has been assigned the writer of this sketch. 
During his earlier years he was employed as a book-keeper for leading 
grocery, banking and cotton houses. He was for ten years cashier of 
the late A. S. Hartridge, one of the prominent cotton factors of his day, 
managing Mr. Hartridge's business for the ten years preceding his death. 
In December, 1876, Mr. Dorsett embarked in business for himself, estab- 
lishing the firm of Dorsett & Kennedy, auctioneers and real estate dealers. 

The business proved to be a lucrative one from the start. The partner- 
ship was dissolved in 1879, since which time Mr. Dorsett has conducted, 
and still conducts the business on his own account. He has disposed of 
most of-the city and suburban property sold in and about the city for the 
last ten years, and his counsel is daily sought by those seeking invest- 
ments, as his judgment is unerring in matters pertaining to real estate. 
He has an extensive real estate interest of his own, owning as he does a 
great deal of city and suburban property, and a summer residence at the 
Isle of Hope. He organized the Savannah Real Estate Company, which 
marked the period of the first activity here in real estate transactions, and 
which proved to be a most profitable investment for those who were con- 
nected with the company. Mr. Dorsett also organized the Savannah In- 
vestment Company, which buiit the I3elt Line Railway, which company 
not only has one of the best roads of the kind in the South, but owns 
nearly five hundred lots in the extended city limits, now rapidly building 
up. Mr. Dorsett is a director in and treasurer of both companies; he is 
vice-president and director of the Chatham Real Estate and Improvement 
Company which he organized; he was also active in the organization of 
the Citizens' Loan Association, which has since been succeeded by the Cit- 

Biographical. 617 

izens' Bank, and of which Mr. Dorsett is vice-president and a director. He 
is a charter member and director of the Title Guarantee Company, and 
Dime Savings Bank, and he has extensive interests in" all the principal real 
estate and financial agencies in the city. His superior judgment in mat- 
ters pertaining to finance was exemplified in the purchase of the Pritch- 
ard plantation for the county while a member of the board of county 
commissioners. This plantation was being cultivated in rice by tide- wa- 
ter culture, and materially interfered with the proper drainage of that 
section of the county. There was but one way to obviate this, and that 
was the purchase of the plantation of 1,300 acres by the county, which 
Mr. Dorsett not only suggested, but strongly advocated, until he carried 
his point, Mr. Dorsett claiming that the county would not only solve the 
problem of drainage in that section, but would be able to thus provide the 
county with an extensive tract of land for the poor farm, and at the same 
time could dispose of enough land to pay for the original cost of the en- 
tire tract By subsequent appreciation of the lands in that portion of the 
county, due to the opening of new roads which Mr. Dorsett advocated, 
the county will be able to sell two-thirds of its purchase for more than 
the entire tract cost, and will still have left 350 acres of the most fertile 
agricultural lands in the county, and situated only five miles distant from 
the city. 

Mr. Dorsett was appointed one of the board of county commissioners 
by Governor Gordon, "and at once took rank as a thorough, energetic 
and conscientious public servant. It was by his earnest endeavors that 
the Waters road was opened to the Montgomery cross road, and Estill ave- 
nue from the White Bluff road to Waters road. These highways brought 
into notice large areas of lands which had before been almost inaccessible. 
This important public improvement was accomplished without cost to 
the county other than the labors of the convict force. The opening of 
these roads demonstrated the value of such improvements, and since then 
the public sentiment has been strongly in favor of better highways and 
more of them. It is not saying too much to assert that through Mr. 
Dorsett's foresight and energy the value of land in Chatham county has 
largely increased, and in consequence a large sum has been added to the 
public revenues. If Mr. Dorsett had done nothing more than to in- 
augurate a system of roads from which the people and the county are 

618 History of Savannah. 

daily receiving benefit, his name should stand high on the roll of public 
benefactors. He is better known and his worth appreciated more to-day 
than when he was a commissioner, and it can therefore be well understood 
that the clear-headed business man that he is known to be, rendered val- 
uable service to the public in his official capacity. In the reappointment 
of county commissioners in 1888 Mr. Dorsett declined to permit his 
name to be presented. The large and costly jail and jailer's residence was 
built while Mr. Dorsett was on the board, and the court-house completed 
in the summer of 1890 was determined upon while he was a member. 

Mr. Dorsett has been a liberal subscriber to almost every enterprise 
which has been started in this city for the past ten years, and this includes 
subscriptions to real estate, financial, railroad, hotel and other industrial 
and public-spirited enterprises, calculated to further the progress of the 
city, and in most of these enterprises he has taken a leading part to in- 
terest others in this direction. 

He is a member of Wesley Monumental Methodist Episcopal Church 
and chairman of its board of trustees, and was chairman of the board of 
stewards, and superintendent of its sunday-school for many years. He 
is a member of Landrum Lodge, Master Masons. Mr. Dorsett ranks very 
high in the society of Odd Fellows, and has held all the positions in the 
order in the State of Georgia but that of grand master. He is a mem- 
ber of De Kalb Lodge No. 9, I. O. O. F. with which he has been connected 
for over twenty-one years ; he has held all the offices up to that of grand 
representative. He is now serving his sixth year as one of the three rep- 
resentatives of the State of Georgia to the Sovereign Grand Lodge of the 
world. He is lieutenant-colonel on the staff of General John C. Under- 
wood, grand sire and generalissimo of the order of Independent Odd Fel- 
lows throughout the world. 

LOVELL, EDWARD, the subject of this sketch, was born in Med- 
way, Mass., March 4, 1816 He located in Savannah in 1835 anc ^ 
two years later opened a gun store, and in 1840 he added to his already 
increasing business a line of hardware. In 1857 he established the firm 
of Lovell & Lattimore, admitting his brother, Nathaniel Lovell, and Will- 
iam Lattimore into partnership; in 1868 he retired from the firm and 
formed a co-partnership with his son, Edward F. Lovell, and William C. 

Biographical. 619 

Crawford under the firm name of Crawford & Lovell, which partnership 
was terminated by the death of Mr. Crawford in 1884. After the death 
of Mr. Crawford, Mr. Lovell admitted his son, Robert P. Lovell, into the 
firm of Edward Lovell & Sons, under which name a very large and ex- 
tensive business was conducted until the death of the senior member, 
which occurred August 25, 1S8S. After a continued illness during the 
winter and spring of 1888, he was taken north in the hope that a change 
of air and scenery would restore his health, but the best medical skill was 
unavailing, and he died at Ballston Spa., N. Y. The sons Edward F. 
and Robert P. Lovell still continue the business under the firm name of 
Edward Lovell's Sons, which is one of the largest hardware houses in the 

The deceased was a man of great industry, of the most charitable im- 
pulses, and a public-spirited citizen, ready at all times to forward and 
foster every commercial and manufacturing enterprise calculated to ad- 
vance the interest and prosperity of the city in which he was an honored 
citizen for over half a century, and at the time of his death he left a large 
estate, the result of a long life of industry and business integrity. 

Edward Lovell was married May 4, 1845, to Miss Mary A. Bates, of 
Boston, Mass., who survives him as do their four children; Edward F., 
Ellen M., Grace B., and Robert P. 

Mr. Lovell was a man who had little ambition for political preferment 
but one whose domestic ties and commercial life kept him out of the 
arena of politics, although frequently solicited to enter the public ser- 
vice. He served on the aldermanic board of Savannah for six years 
rom considerations of public duty and was one of its most efficient and 
conservative members. He was one of the directors of the Atlantic and 
Gulf Railroad; president for many years of the Savannah and Ogeechee 
Canal Company; president of the Savannah Brick Manufacturing Com- 
pany, and at the time of his death was vice-president of the Oglethorpe 
Savings and Trust Company. No higher recommendation was required 
to lend confidence to an enterprise than to know that Mr. Lovell was 
connected with it in some capacity, as his well-known integrity and fidel- 
ity and careful methods of doing business were well known in this com- 

During the war Mr. Lovell was in the detached service and assisted 

620 History of Savannah. 

in the plans and construction of the artillery defenses for the defense of 
the city. He served his time as an active member in the Chatham Ar- 
tillery, the oldest artillery company in the country, and at the time of his 
death was an honorary member. The deceased was a member of Live 
Oak Lodge, I. O. O. F. 

OLMSTEAD, COLONEL CHARLES H., was born in Savannah, Ga., 
in 1837, an d is the son of Jonathan and Eliza (Hart) Olmstead. His 
father, a native of Connecticut, and of English descent, early in life re- 
moved to Savannah, where he was married and for many years engaged 
in the banking business. 

Young Olmstead was educated at the Georgia Military Institute, grad- 
uating in the class of 1856, being at the time adjutant of the corps of ca- 
dets. After leaving school he commenced a business career as clerk in 
the mercantile house of Brigham, Kelly & Co., of Savannah, but his pro- 
gress in commercial life was soon arrested by the war between the States. 
For some time before actual hostilities commenced, many foreseeing the 
drift of affairs, were convinced that the questions involved could not be 
settled except by an appeal to arms. The greatest interest was revived 
in military organizations all over the South, and especially in Savannah ; 
old companies were strengthened, new ones were formed, and every prep- 
aration was made for the impending conflict. In these preparations young 
Olmstead took an enthusiastic part as a member of the first volunteer reg- 
iment of Georgia. In i860 he was appointed adjutant of the regiment by 
Colonel A. R. Lawton (afterward general and quartermaster-general in 
the Confederate States Army, and late United States Minister to Vienna), 
and in that capacity served at Fort Pulaski when it was seized by order 
of Governor Brown on the 3rd of January, 1861. 

In the spring of 1861 the First Regiment was reorganized and mus- 
tered into the Confederate service. Soon after Colonel Lawton was pro- 
moted to a brigadier- generalship, and Hugh W. Mercer was elected col- 
onel of the regiment; W. S. Rockwell, lieutenant- colonel, and Charles H. 
Olmstead, major. During the following summer the regiment was scat- 
tered to various points along the Georgia coast, being stationed at Forts 
Pulaski and Jackson and other points on the Savannah River, Tybee Isl- 
and, Causton Bluff, Thunderbolt, Green Island and St. Catharine Island. 

Biographical. 621 

In December, 1861, Colonel Mercer was promoted to a brigadier- 
generalship, and Major Olmstead was elected colonel of the regiment. 
At this time with the resources at command it was deemed impracticable 
to defend all of the outlying islands of the Georgia coast. Tybee Island 
was evacuated and Fort Pulaski garrisoned by the First Regiment under 
Colonel Olmstead became the outwork of the line of defense. In Janu- 
ary following the Federals seized Tybee Island and commenced the erec- 
tion of batteries with the intention of besieging the fort. A few weeks 
thereafter the enemy succeeded in passing their vessels through Wall's 
Cut and entered the Savannah River above the fort, thus cutting it oft 
from all communication with Savannah. Thus isolated without hope of 
assistance from any quarter, the little garrison with its 400 men on the 
ioth of April was confronted with eleven land batteries mounted by 
thirty- six well protected heavy guns. Early on the morning of the ioth 
General Gilmore, commanding the besieging force, sent, under a flag of 
truce, an order " for the immediate surrender and restoration of Fort Pu- 
laski to the authority and possession of the United States," to which Col- 
onel Olmstead commandant of the fort, after acknowledging the receipt 
of the order, heroically and laconically replied: "I am here to defend the 
fort, not to surrender it." A few minutes after the return of the flag of 
truce the bombardment of the fort commenced, and was continued all 
day with great danger to the fort. The firing was resumed on the follow- 
ing morning, and at midday all the guns of the fort bearing upon Tybee 
except two were disabled. It was seen that further resistance was use- 
less, and under the circumstances Colonel Olmstead believing the lives of 
his command to be his next care, gave the necessary order for a surren- 
der. Colonel Olmstead and the other officers of the garrison were taken 
as prisoners of war to Governor's Island, New York harbor, and finally to 
Johnson's Island, near Sandusky, O., where they remained until their ex- 
change was effected in September, 1S62. 

At the reorganization of the First Regiment in October, 1862, Col- 
onel Olmstead was again placed in command. For many months it con- 
tinued to do service at various points along the coast, being stationed at 
battery Wagner, James Island, and Charleston Harbor. 

In the spring of 1864 the scattered companies of Colonel Olmstead's 
command were brought together and joined General Joseph S. Johnston's 

622 History of Savannah. 

army in Northern Georgia, being assigned to General Mercer's brigade, 
in Walker's division, Hardee's corps. From that time until the close of 
the war the First bore an honorable part in the history of the army, suf- 
fering its first severe loss in the battle of Kenesaw Mountain. 

The summer of 1864 was a period of almost constant fighting, and at 
Smyrna Church, Peachtree Creek and the battles around Atlanta, the 
First did heroic service. Colonel Olmstead was wounded on July 22, 
1864, on the same day that General Walker was killed. After the death 
of General Walker, General Mercer's brigade was assigned to the divis- 
ion of General Pat. Cleburne, at the same time General Mercer being as- 
signed to duty elsewhere, the command of the brigade fell upon Colonel 
Olmstead as senior colonel, and he continued in command until the fall 
of Atlanta. General J. Argyle Smith was then placed in command of the 

At the time of the battle of Nashville Colonel Olmstead was. on de- 
tached service with the brigade under General N. B. Forest, who was 
then operating against Murfreesboro. At this time General Smith had 
succeeded to the command of the division, and from this time until the 
close of the war the command of the brigade fell to Colonel Olmstead. 
After the defeat of Hood at Nashville the force under General Forrest 
made a forced march to rejoin Hood, reaching his army at Columbia, 
Tenn., from which point Smith's brigade formed a part of the rear guard 
of General Hood's retreating army to the Tennessee River. 

After a short rest the army was called to the east and Smith's brig- 
ade once more came under its old leader General Joseph E. Johnston, at 
Smithville, N. C, what was left of Colonel Olmstead's old command, the 
First Volunteer Regimeut of Georgia, was consolidated with the Fifty- 
seventh and Sixty-third Regiment under the name of the First Regiment, 
and placed under Colonel Olmstead's command. A short time there- 
after it surrendered with General Johnston's army at Greensboro, N. C. 

After the war Colonel Olmstead returned to Savannah and became a 
partner in the shipping and commission house of Brigham, Hoist & Co. 
In 1873 he was made treasurer of the Citizens Mutual Loan Company, 
and in 18S3 with Henry Hull and Francis S. Lathrop, under the firm 
name of C. H. Olmstead & Co., succeeded to the business of Henry Hull 
& Co., private bankers, a business in which he is still engaged. 

Biographical. 623 

Colonel Olmstead is an active member and has taken a deep interest 
in the welfare of the Georgia Historical Society, of which he is now sec- 
ond vice-president and for several years has been curator. He is also 
vice-president of the Georgia Infirmary. He is a member of and for the 
last twenty years has ' been an elder of the Independent Presbyterian 

Colonel Olmstead's career viewed from all sides has been an eminently 
honorable one, such as befits the well-rounded, symmetrical character of 
the man. He has been content to go modestly along doing his duty as 
he understood it without fear or favor. As a military leader he was faith- 
ful to every trust, never shirked a responsibility, and discharged every 
duty laid upon him with high credit to himself and the cause he es- 
poused. He is quiet and retiring in disposition, and one to whom public- 
ity in any form is distasteful. He is literary in his taste, is a great reader, 
and a graceful writer. His pen has done much to preserve the military 
history of Savannah soldiers during the war. One of his recent articles 
" Savannah in War Time," published in Historic and Picturesque Savan- 
nah is a striking example of his concise and powerful grouping of facts, 
combined with smoothness and elegance of diction. He is public spir- 
ited and progressive in his ideas, and warmly espouses every project 
which promises to advance the material interest of Savannah. He is 
genial and social in nature, and is ever ready to aid with his time and his 
labor, his presence and his counsel whatever tends to social, moral or in- 
tellectual advancement. As a business man his course has ever been 
marked with the strictest integrity, and no one holds more securely the 
confidence and respect of Savannah's commercial community. 

Colonel Olmstead was married in 1859 to Miss Florence L Williams, 
daughter of Peter J. Williams, of Milledgeville, Ga. They have three 

SCREVEN, JOHN. A history of Savannah would be lacking incom- 
pleteness, if the life and character of the subject of this sketch were 
not included. He comes from a patriotic parentage on bo'h sides of the 
family tree : — The Screvens and Bryans, of whom he is a lineal descen- 
dant, having been conspicuous during the war for American Independence. 
Colonel John Screven was born in Savannah, September lS, l S J 7 , 

624 History of Savannah. 

and is the eldest son of Doctor James Proctor Screven and Hannah 
Georgia Bryan. His first American ancestor, the Rev. William Screven 
emigrated from England in 1640, settling at Kittery, Maine, but the re- 
ligious persecutions, which marred the history of that day, led him to 
come South, where he founded the first Baptist church in South Carolina. 
Colonel Screven is also a lineal descendant of Thomas Smith, one of the 
landgraves and governor of the province of South Carolina. Collaterally 
he is a descendant of General James Screven, for whom Screven count}-, 
in Georgia, is named. 

On the mother's side, Colonel Screven is a lineal descendant of Jona- 
than Bryan, who figured conspicuously in the early settlement of Savan- 
nah and the Georgia colony, and being one of the fathers and principal 
founders of the colony, Bryan county was named in his honor and to 
perpetuate his memory. Although an associate justice of the general 
court of the province of Georgia, and a member of the Royal Governor's 
Council, Jonathan Bryan resigned those places of honor'to range himself 
with the patriots, with whom he took an active and distinguished part. 
He was for a time acting governor of Georgia. When Savannah was 
surrendered to the British in 1778, Mr. Bryan was made a prisoner, and 
although in advanced age, long and cruel imprisonment was the penalty 
paid for his patriotic course. 

The father of Colonel Screven was one of the most successful physi- 
cians of his day. He was a man of distinguished character and attain- 
ments, and had a firm hold upon the affections of the people. He held 
many positions of public trust and honor, in which his services were 
marked by fidelity and integrity, characteristics inherited by the sons. 
Doctor Screven was mayor of Savannah, was a State senator, and the 
founder and first president of the Atlantic & Gulf Railway. He died in 
July, 1859, in his 60th year. His wife survived him until March, 1SS7, 
when she fell asleep in her 80th year. They were the parents of Colonel 
John Screven, Captain Thomas Forman Screven, George Proctor Screven, 
and Mrs. Sarah Ada Henderson. George Proctor Screven, the youngest 
son, is deceased, but his wife and children survive him and reside in 

There are many events in the life of Colonel John Screven which are 
remarkable coincidents, taken in connection with a review of his father's 

Biographical. 625 

life. In fact, the son seems to have followed closely in the honored path 
which his father trod, being like the father courteous and obliging and 
with his stern virtues and intellectual endowments, has filled nearly every 
position of honor and trust held by the father. 

John Screven commenced his studies in Savannah. At Edgehill 
School, Princeton, N. J., he was taught, 1839-1841, by the Rev. John 
S. Hart, LL. D., an eminent teacher of literature and rhetoric, an author 
of several text-books in that department, and finally professor of rhetoric 
and English in Princeton College. The last school Colonel Screven at- 
tended was that of Antoine Bolmar, at Westchester, Pa. Bolmar had 
been a captain of cavalry in the army of Napoleon the First, and was a 
survivor of the famous Russian expedition. His school was a model of 
discipline and careful tuition, and he was himself the editor of a number 
of standard text-books for teaching the French language. 

From Bolmar's school, Colonel Screven entered Franklin College, 
Athens, Ga., but leaving before he had completed his course, he finished 
his collegiate studies at home under private instruction. While at Frank- 
lin College he divided the first honor, gold medal, awarded for declam- 
ation, to Sophomore speakers. This was the first medal ot the kind ever 
given in the college. 

Colonel Screven then turned to the study of law, under the tuition of 
the late Judge William Law. After remaining with him about one year, he 
was sent to Europe, February, 1848, to extend his professional studies 
in a broader field. Under the advice of Hon. George Bancroft, then 
United States Minister at London, a personal friend of his father, he was 
sent to Heidelberg with letters to Schlosser and other eminent professors 
in the university, from whom he received much kindness. His health 
giving way before he could be fairly prepared by sufficient knowledge of 
the German language to become a matriculate in the university, he was 
compelled to return to Savannah. Here his law studies were rcMimed, and 
early the following year he was admitted to the bar by the late Judge 
William B. Fleming, but remained in the practice of the profession a few 
months only. Leaving the bar, he devoted himself, at his father s wish, 
to the management of the latter's large landed estate. 

On the 3rdof July, 1849, he married Miss Mary White Footman, the 
youngest daughter of the late Dr. Richard Footman of Bryan county. 


626 History of Savannah. 

To this marriage eight children were born, of whom three now survive : 
Georgia Bryan Screven, Mrs. Elizabeth Woodbridge Arnold, and Captain 
Thomas Screven. Mrs. Screven died on the 3rd of July, 1863. 

In 1852 Colonel Screven was elected one of the Justices of the Inferior 
Court of Chatham county. This court had concurrent jurisdiction in 
civil matters only, with the superior courts of the State, and had also 
charge of the affairs of the county. He remained in this office until 1866, 
when the court was abolished, and its duties as to county affairs trans- 
ferred to commissioners. In 1857, upon the resignation of his father 
from the same office, he was promoted from the ranks and elected cap- 
tain of the Savannah Volunteer Guards, the oldest and one of the most 
distinguished infantry corps of the State. Retaining his command when 
the war broke out between the States, he was commissioned major of 
artillery in the Confederate States' army, and assigned to the command 
of the battalion to which his company was attached. This battalion 
was afterward designated as the Eighteenth Georgia Battalion. He 
served with it on the outer sea defences of Savannah, superintended the 
erection of fortifications, and was in charge of the obstructions to the 
water approaches of the Savannah River below Fort Oglethorpe. 

He remained in strict military service until the close of December, 
1862, when at the request of the board of directors of the Atlantic & 
Gulf Railroad Company, he was ordered back to his place as president 
of the company. He had been elected to this office, after the death of 
his father in 1859, and had been granted this prolonged leave of absence 
from railroad duty in consideration of his being under military obligation 
when the war began. While he was in actual service with his command, 
the Atlantic & Gulf Railroad had become a more important agent in the 
military affairs of the Confederacy. The increasing transportation of 
troops and supplies, and the internal affairs of the company itself, imper- 
atively demanded the presence and direction of the president of the com- 
pany. Believing that he could so best serve the Confederate cause, he 
returned to his railroad duties and there remained during the war. In 
1864. however, he raised for local defence, from railroad and government 
employees within the city of Savannah, a battalion of five companies of 
which he was appointed lieutenant-colonel commanding, and for a time 
was intrusted with the charge of the inner line of defences of Savannah. 

Biographical. 627 

Ordered by General Hardee, when Savannah was closely threatened by 
General Sherman, he moved south of the Altamaha with the trains and 
effects of the Atlantic & Gulf Railroad. He returned to Savannah late 
in May or in June, 1865, and at once commenced the restoration of the 
railroad, which had been destroyed by the enemy from Savannah be- 
yond the Altamaha. 

In 1859 he was elected from Chatham county a member of the House 
of Representatives in the State Legislature, and served during two ses- 
sions. It was this legislature which called the secession convention of 
1 861. His colleagues were General A. R. Lawton in the Senate, and 
the Hon. Julian Hartridge in the House. 

Continuing in the presidency of the Atlantic & Gulf Railroad Com- 
pany, he retained that position until 1880, over twenty years, when this 
company was succeeded by the Savannah, Florida & Western Railway 

In December, 1865, he married Mrs. Mary Eleanor Brown, second 
daughter of Dr. Hugh O'Keeffe Nesbitt, and a niece of the late Hon. 
John Macpherson Berrien. The two children of this marriage are Mrs. 
Lila Screven Atkinson, wife of Samuel Carter Atkinson, of Brunswick, 
Ga., and Martha Berrien Screven. Mrs. Screven died at Savannah June 
30, 1883, in her 39th year. 

In 1859 he was elected mayor of Savannah, and was thrice success- 
fully elected to that office. 

In 1877 he was elected one of the delegates to the convention which 
formed the present constitution of Georgia. He took a prominent part 
in resisting that clause of the constitution which, he believed would ex- 
tend unnecessary and unjust powers to the legislature in limiting the 
vested rights and privileges of the railway corporations of the State. 

In 1880 he was elected an associate arbitrator of the Southern Rail- 
way and Steamship Association, and still continues in that office. 

Early after the war he was elected one of the board of trustees of the 
University of Georgia; and when under the act of 1889 the old board 
was dissolved, he was appointed for the long term, one of the new board 
from the first congressional district. In 1SS3 he was appointed one of 
the commissioners to erect the new capitol of the State, but declined the 
office. He has held various other offices; among them he is now pres- 

628 History of Savannah. 

dent of the University Club of Savannah, is one of the trustees of Chat- 
ham Academy, Fellow of the Geographical Society of New York, and 
first vice-president of the Georgia Historical Society. 

No citizen of Savannah commands, to a greater degree, the respect 
and esteem of those who know him. He belongs to the type of an old- 
time hospitable southern gentleman. It may be said of him that while 
not a man of brilliancy or dash, he is a man of great intellectual capacity, 
with a mind well poised, and while some men might for the time attract 
a greater following, none would retain it so long as would the subject of 
this sketch, whose deeper reasoning, pleasantly modulated voice, and 
depth of sincerity would far outweigh the short-lived eloquence of an 

Colonel Screven is the last man who can be flattered by panegyrics. 
The latent mental force of the man is known to those who have watched 
his career and know how thoroughly equipped he is in dealing with 
questions upon which he is called upon to express his views. 

Colonel Screven is a man of high literary attainments, and has one of 
the most valuable private libraries in Savannah. In the companionship 
of his books many hours of his leisure are spent. He has many warm 
personal friends. Some of these friendships began in the school- room 
and have deepened with the eventful years of Colonel Screven's life, that 
most crucial test of a man's character ; for such kindly ties are riveted 
only where the objects are deserving. In the community where Colonel 
Screven has lived for more than half a century, it may be truthfully said 
of him that he enjoys, to the fullest degree, the admiration of those who 
know him intimately and well, and the universal respect of all. His af- 
fable manners, the valuable services rendered his native state, his county, 
and his city, with courage, wisdom and prudence, and often when the 
gravity of the occasion was pronounced, the fidelity and integrity which 
has been characteristic of his public services, and his proverbial honesty 
and sincerity, all have combined to fix him firmly in the affections of his 
people as one of their honored landmarks and a man " sans penr et sans 

Biographical. 629 

YOUNG, JOHN REMER, the subject of this sketch, was born in 
Thomas County, Ga., April 7, 1856, and is a son of the late Remer 
Young, who was one of the largest and most successful planters in Lowndes 
County, to which county he removed in 1859, where the earlier years in 
the life of John R. Young were spent. From estimable and cultured pa- 
rents the son inherited splendid traits of character. He was educated at 
Valdosta Institute, and at the University of Georgia. After completing 
his education he spent a few years on his father's plantation, and in the 
management of the plantation of J. W. Lathrop & Co., in Lowndes Coun- 
ty, after which, with an associate, he began the manufacture of naval 
stores, a business venture, which proved to be successful, but which he 
disposed of to accept a position with the large naval-stores house of Pea- 
cock, Hunt & Co., in 1888. After two years with this firm, Messrs F.l!is 
and Holt, the junior partners, withdrew from the company, and formed a 
copartnership under the firm name of Ellis, Holt & Co., and offered Mr. 
Young an interest in the business, which he accepted. Subsequent to the 
death of Mr. Holt, Mr. C. B. Parker was admitted, and the firm became 
Ellis, Young & Co., under which it has built up, and now conducts one 
of the largest trades in turpentine and rosin in the world. That the 
present high standing and immense naval-stores trade of the firm of F.llis, 
Young & Co., is largely due to the energy and business foresight of Mr. 
Young, cannot be doubted; this young man of 34, who came to Savannah 
seven years ago an entire stranger, is to-day president of the Hoard of 
Trade, and so thoroughly identified with every enterprise of a public 
character, that no one is better known on 'change and throughout Geor- 
gia and Florida. In seven years Mr. Young has stamped the impress of 
his sterling business qualities and infectious zeal upon every project 
looking to the advancement and progress of not only his own city and 
State, but it has been extended to the peninsula State of Honda. 

In addition to his share of the active management of the naval stores 
and general merchandise interest of the firm of Ellis, Young <S: Co., Mr. 
Young organized the Georgia Pine Investment Company, oi which he is 
president. This corporation has a capital of $75,000, owns i 00,000 acres 
of the best pine lands of the South, and an interest in five ot the largest 
turpentine farms in the South. No man has a more abiding faith in the 
continued prosperity and future grandeur of this sea-port, whose every 

630 History of Savannah. 

industrial, commercial and railroad interest he has aided to foster, and to 
the development of which he has brought to bear individual enthusiasm 
which has been infectious. 

Mr. Young's success and ability as a business man, so widely attracted 
attention throughout the commercial channels of Savannah, that four 
years after he settled in Savannah he was elected vice-president of the 
Board of Trade, and was at the following election promoted to the presi- 
dency by the Board, and the next year was re-elected, and is now serv- 
ing his second term. Mr. Young's address in 1890, reviewing the trade 
of Savannah for 1889, was one of the ablest documents of its kind ever 
presented for the consideration of the Board, and showed that all the ram- 
ifications in the city's commerce had been thoroughly canvassed by him, 
and that he was familiar with every statistical detail of the most prosper- 
ous commercial year known to the city of Savannah. In that report he 
showed that Savannah had done a naval stores business for that year of 
nearly $6,OOO,0O0, an increase of $1,500,000 over the year previous, and 
that the grain, provision and grocery trade had increased 25 per cent., 
and this in the light of the fact that prices on nearly all the leading ar- 
ticles were lower than for several years before, showing that there was an 
increase in bulk considerable in advance of the percentage in value. His 
recommendations on the increase of industrial industries and increasing 
railroad facilities, not only commanded attention at home, but has at- 
tracted the attention of capitalists elsewhere. 

Mr. Young is a director of the Metropolitan Loan Company of Savan- 
nah, a director of the Citizens' Bank, and is directly interested in many 
other enterprises which have been established in Savannah within the last 
five years. 

GUCKENHEIMER, SIMON, who stands at the head in the commer- 
cial ranks of the city of Savannah, was born April 6th, 1 830, of Jew- 
ish parents at Burghaslach, a town in Bavaria, Germany, thirty miles south 
of the ancient city of Nuremberg, where in his childhood days he received 
a common school education which proved to be the foundation of a sub- 
sequent stirring and prosperous life. He eagerly seized every opportu- 
nity for self advancement and prosecuted his studies with a zeal and. 
fixedness of purpose which have characterized his commercial and financial 


operations in later years. His parents were people of moderate circum- 
stances, and at the age of thirteen years young Simon was withdrawn from 
school, and at fifteen was apprenticed by his father to a merchant weaver, 
where he learned his trade, and assisted in the store connected with the 
factory, where his ability soon attracted the attention of his employer, 
and it was here that the young weaver and clerk formed an attachment in 
his youth by losing his heart to the daughter of his employer, whom, in 
later years, he made his wife. 

A few years satisfied young Guckenheimer that he was designed to be 
more than an apprentice boy, and after having served four years with Mr. 
Haas, was called home ; his elder brother was taken sick, and he took 
his place in assisting his father, who farmed and also kept a small dry 
goods store, and two years later signified his intention of going to Amer- 
ica. Having obtained the consent of his parents he bade them and the 
object of his heart's affection farewell and embarked March 1, 1S51, in 
the sailing vessel, Meta, at Bremenhaven, bound for America. He ar- 
rived in New York six weeks later unable to speak the English language, 
and a stranger in a strange country. His capital was fifty florins, or 
twenty dollars, out of which he invested $12 in notions, and started out 
as a peddler. Many young men would not have overcome the difficulty 
he experienced and the hardships of his occupation which his ignorance 
of the language and manners and customs of the people in a strange 
country occasioned, but the persevering young man bad but one pur- 
pose, and that was to succeed, and to carve out a fortune from this small 
beginning, which he has so thoroughly done. He continued in this oc- 
cupation until August 5, when by his industry and frugality he had so tar 
increased his capital as to enable him to pay his passage to Savannah, 
where he arrived August 8, 185 1, with the capital increased from ^20 to 
$40, and again he took up his country travels, having invested his cap- 
ital in another stock of goods, which he replenished from time to time, 
journeying from place to place, until the spring of [852, when his earn- 
ings enabled him to purchase a horse and wagon, not only to facilitate his 
travels, but to enable him to carry a larger stock,, which his business re- 
quired — soon after a larger wagon, drawn by two hor>es, was necessary. 
His increasing trade demanded more frequent visits to larger markets, and 
in 1853, two years after his arrival South, his trade had so largely increased 

632 History of Savannah. 

that it was necessary for him to visit New York to purchase his supplies. 
In 1855 Mr. Guckenheimer discontinued peddling and opened a general 
store in Centre Village, Charlton county, Ga., where for five years he con- 
ducted a most profitable business, his courteous dealings with the trad- 
ing public marked by a scrupulous integrity having been the foundation 
which made his business venture there so profitable. 

While at Centre Village the Atlantic and Gulf Railroad and the Flor- 
ida Railway and Navigation Railroad were built, diverting the trade of 
the village to larger markets, and the keen business foresight of Mr. Guck- 
enhiemer led him to prepare to establish himself in one of the larger cities 
of the South. He sold out his store, and after settling up his business he 
turned his face toward the Fatherland, embarking on the steamer for Ger- 
many. During the nine years of absence many changes had taken place 
under the old roof tree ; his father had died, and the longing desire to see 
his widowed mother, and those near and dear to him, led Mr. Gucken- 
heimer to return home, but probably no magnet was so attracting as that 
of his young sweetheart, Miss Sarah Haas, who was but a child of thir- 
teen years when he left home, but who, during the nine years of absence, 
had grown into womanhood with her child love deepened into that firmer 
affection which led her to become his wife October 23, i860. In No- 
vember of that year the happy bridal pair took passage for Savannah by 
steamer via New York, arriving December II, i860. 

When Mr. Guckenheimer returned to Savannah he began the jobbing 
tobacco business, which was the foundation of the present enormous es- 
tablishment now conducted by himself and sons. This tobacco business 
was succeeded by the wholesale grocery store conducted under the firm 
name of Guckenheimer & Selig. In 1870 Mr. Selig, the junior partner 
died, but the business continued until 1872 under the same name in ac- 
cordance with the last request of Mr. Selig, Mr. Guckenheimer's part- 
ner, between whom there was more than an ordinary business relation- 
ship, the two partners being firm and fast friends. In 1872 Mr. Gucken- 
heimer conducted the business in his own name, subsequently S. Guck- 
enheimer & Co., and in 1S82 he admitted his son Samuel into the busi- 
ness, the firm becoming S. Guckenheimer & Son, under which name the 
extensive business has been conducted up to May 1, 1890, when his sec- 
ond son, Abraham S., was admitted, the firm becoming S. Guckenheimer 
& Sons. 

Biographical. 633 

The rapid development of the South bringing increasing business to 
the firm it necessitated more extensive quarters, and in 1888 Mr. Guck- 
enheimer erected one of the most imposing mercantile structures in the 
South, suitably and conveniently arranged for the business of his firm, and 
which might well be called a mercantile palace, which is not only an in- 
dex to the steady growth of Savannah, but is a monument to the name 
of Guckenheimer, Savannah's most princely merchant 

A recital of Mr. Guckenheimer's early experience of his lonely trips 
through the country would fill a volume ; his name is familiar in almost 
every household throughout the territory in which the large trade of his 
house extends; many of the older citizens remember him in his early 
days; his representations could be relied upon, and some of the largest 
and best customers of his present extensive business are those who bought 
goods from him in a small way nearly forty years ago. These early pat- 
rons and their children, many of whom are now engaged in mercantile 
pursuits in the interior, never fail to call on Mr. Guckenheimer when they 
visit Savannah. His business integrity has been a household word with 
them for nearly half a century. Honest and straightforward dealings 
have been the characteristic traits of the man, and by reason of which he 
enjoys the confidence of the people. 

Such a man necessarily fills a prominent position in a progressive city 
like Savannah, where constant demands are being made to advance public 
enterprises, none of which find a more liberal patron and advocate than 
Mr. Guckenheimer. He is pre-eminently a public-spirited citizen, and 
his connection with financial enterprises is a sufficient guarantee for pub- 
lic confidence. He occupies many prominent positions in various organ- 
izations, being a director in the Merchants' National Bank, in the Savan- 
nah and Western Railroad, and in many other such institutions. He is, 
and has been one of the Sinking Fund Commissioners of the city ol Sa- 
vannah ever since that office was created. He is a prominent member ol 
the Cotton Exchange and of the Board of Trade. He worships at the 
Temple Mickva Israel, has been its president for many years, and is now 
one of its trustees. 

Mr. Guckenheimer's family consists of his wife, three sons and two 
daughters; the children are Samuel S., Abraham S., Moses S., Mrs. Al- 
bert Gerst, of Danville, Ya., and Mrs. L. Adler. 

634 History of Savannah. 

While Mr. Guckenheimer still exercises a supervision of his large busi- 
ness, he does not so actively engage in it as in former years, as his sons, 
who have received under him a careful business training, relieve him of 
his exacting duties, and enable him to enjoy many of the pleasures which 
were denied him in his earlier days when he was applying himself to lay 
the foundation for what is now the most extensive grocery establishment 
in the State. 

PURSE, DANIEL G. Captain Daniel G. Purse, capitalist, was born 
in Savannah, November 14, 1839, his father, Hon. Thomas Purse, 
being a prominent citizen, mayor of the city, a member of the Georgia 
Senate, one of the original projectors of the Central Railroad, and hold- 
ing various positions of public and private trust, and the son has inher- 
ited many of the characteristic traits of the father. 

Captain Purse received his education in Savannah. His collegiate 
studies were prosecuted at Emory College, Georgia, and he took a bus- 
iness course at a commercial college in Pittsburgh, Pa. After completing 
his studies, he became a teacher, and later took up the study of law, 
which he thereafter abandoned to enter commercial life. The outbreak 
of the war in 1861 terminated his commercial pursuits, and he enlisted 
with the second company of the Oglethorpe Light Infantry ; was trans- 
ferred to the War Department, and at the close of the war was con- 
nected with the engineering department of the Confederate States, with 
the rank of captain. After the war, and in July, 1865, he renewed the 
commercial life which had been interrupted by the war, and established 
a commission business under the firm name of Cunningham & Purse. 
His next business venture was as senior partner of the firm of Purse & 
Thomas, in the fertilizer and coal trade, a business connection which 
lasted for twelve years, when the firm was dissolved, Captain Purse contin- 
uing the fertilizer branch of the business on his own account until 1885, 
since which time Captain Purse has been interested in various financial 
enterprises, chiefly that of the development of Tybee Island as a pleas- 
ure resort, and after the successful development of which he conceived 
the idea and carried to a practical finish the construction of a railroad 
from Savannah to Tybee. 

Captain Purse is a man of versatile genius, and his restless, tireless 

Biographical. 635 

brain is never idle. Many of the enterprises which he has brought to a 
successful termination were, at the inception, ridiculed by men whose 
conservative views always did much to chill what were considered doubt- 
ful enterprises and vagaries of a restless mind. Among ?ome of these 
may be mentioned the development of artesian water in Savannah, as 
the result of which pure artesian water, for domestic purposes, has taken 
the place of the muddy and contaminated waters of the river, and the in- 
troduction of which has tended largely to the increasing healthful sanita- 
tion of the city, and to bringing its mortality list to the minimum, and 
to such a remarkable degree, that it has arrested the attention of sani- 
tarians throughout the South, and has resulted in the adoption of the ar- 
tesian well system in all the principal cities and towns of Georgia, South 
Carolina and Florida, a far-reaching benefit which can only be appreci- 
ated by those who live in a semi-tropical country, where pure water is 
the great desideratum. When Captain Purse first originated the idea of 
bringing the supply of pure artesian water from a deep under-lying 
strata of water-bearing formation, he was not only subjected to the good- 
natured levity of those residing in his immediate community, but the 
Charleston News and Courier, and other papers outside of the State, ar- 
gued in a lofty way to convince Captain Purse of the utter futility of 
what they termed "a chimerical vagary." Charleston, situated at a dis- 
tance of but a little over one hundred miles from Savannah, had attempted 
to develop its subterraneous artesian water supply but unsuccessfully, 
and this fact added great weight to the criticism of the Charleston paper, 
and would have tended to discourage almost any other man but Captain 
Purse in his explorations, and when he had obtained a flow of pure ar- 
tesian water in the southwestern portion of Savannah, at a depth of le^s 
than six hundred feet, the fact was discredited by the Charleston critics. 
To-day a population of sixty thousand people in Savannah are supplied 
with pure artesian water from more than twenty wells, anording a flow 
of seven million gallons; and the city council, in the spring oi 1890, be- 
gan to lay the foundation for a more extended water plant, which will 
more than double the supply of the city furnishing it with twenty mil- 
lion gallons of pure artesian water daily, and the doubting Charleston is 
now being supplied with artesian water, and is, at the time this sketch is 
written, sinking other artesian wells to increase its water supply. 

636 History of Savannah. 

Following his successful water developments in Savannah, Captain 
Purse next turned his attention to the water supply of the sea-coast 
islands contiguous, and at a depth of two hundred and forty feet on Ty- 
bee Island, within six hundred feet of the mighty waves and roaring 
thunder of the ocean, he struck a vein of pure artesian water, which 
flowed fifteen feet above the surface of the ground, and since that time a 
system of water- works has been established on the island, and on all the 
sea coast islands of South Carolina and Georgia, the sluggish, brackish, 
and unhealthful surface water has given way to the artesian water sup- 
ply. Not only did this development of artesian water by Captain Purse 
have its sanitary influences, but it also had an influence upon the agri- 
cultural and industrial enterprises of this section, as all the ice manufact- 
ories have since sunk their own wells and manufactured ice of pure ar- 
tesian water. Truck farmers have sunk artesian wells, irrigating their 
crops with the waters which appear to be as healthful to plant life as they 
have been eminently so to animal life. If Captain Purse had done noth- 
ing else in a stirring and eventful life, his developments in this direction 
entitle him to be placed high on the list of public benefactors. 

In the narrow confines of a sketch of this character one cannot deal 
so fully with the man as he deserves, but this can be said here in brief — 
that few of the enterprises he has undertaken have ever been begun 
without the opposition of those who do not enjoy the keen foresight of 
Captain Purse, but there are those characteristics of the man, that as op- 
position becomes more intense, the zeal of Captain Purse increases in 
proportion, and as a result of this, no enterprise which he has begun ha?, 
in any instance failed His project of building a railroad from Savannah 
to Tybee was ridiculed even more generally than his project to supply 
the city with artesian water, and for this reason long sweeps of marsh 
over which the Atlantic tides rise seemed to present obstacles, and it was 
predicted that even if the roadbed could be constructed from Savannah 
to Tybee, if the first locomotive did not sink from sight in the marsh the 
spring tides and storms on the Atlantic would wash away its roadbed ; 
but, nothing discouraged, Captain Purse organized his company for the 
construction of the road, and on the 9th day of August, 1886, he 
and a few friends of the enterprise assembled on his Deptford Plantation, 
near Savannah, and a divine blessing having been invoked by Rabbi I. P. 

Biographical. 637 

Mendes, of the Congregation Mickva Israel, Master Thomas Purse, son 
of the Captain, stepped forward with a miniature silver spade and lifted 
the first dirt of what is now the Savannah and Atlantic Railway, that 
safely carries thousands to Tybee Island. A half century before the 
grandfather of Master Thomas Purse performed the same service for the 
Great Central Railroad of Georgia. The steel rails and solid roadbed 
are not to be excelled by any other road in the South, and the road has 
withstood the tempest as its projector said it would four years ago. 
Captain Purse is the president of the road, a position he has held ever 
since the road was constructed. 

As one of the two owners of the Barnard & Anderson Railroad 
which has felt the impetus of his farsightedness in the development of 
Battery Park and the Liberty street branch, Captain Purse was largely 
instrumental in the consolidation of the Barnard & Anderson street rail- 
way with the Savannah, Skidaway & Seabrook railroad under the name 
City & Suburban, and was until 1885 one of the four owners of this cor- 

To no man is more credit due than to Captain Purse for the intro- 
duction of electric lighting in Savannah and it was through his efforts 
that Savannah was the first city of any size in the world to entirely dis- 
card gas for electricity in street lighting. The organization of the Brush 
Electric and Power Co., one of the strongest corporations of the city, 
was the result largely of his perseverance and energy, and of which com- 
pany he has been vice- president. There is no enterprise for the advance- 
ment and progress of Savannah with which Captain Purse is not prom- 
inently identified. He is vice-president of the Board of Trade, president 
of the Merchants' and Mechanics' Loan Association, a member of the Cot- 
ton Exchange, a director in the Tybee Beach Company, and chairman 
of its managing committee, a director in the Southern Mutual Insurance 
Company, of Athens, Georgia, fellow of the American Geographical 
Society, and an extensive rice planter, and manager of landed estates for 
foreign owners at Augusta and other points in Georgia and Florida. 

To Captain Purse the city is indebted for the successful funding of 
its seven per cent, city bonds in 1877. These bonds at that time were 
rated at forty cents on the dollar, but were funded by Captain Purse 
for five per cent, bonds, which are now rated on the market at 105 and 

638 History of Savannah. 

106. There was serious objections on the part of the original bond-hold- 
ers to any funding of the debt, and when the plan was suggested by Captain 
Purse, then chairman of the Finance Committee of the City Council, his 
utter failure was predicted ; but with that energy which has always char- 
acterized his eventful enterprises, he visited Augusta, Charleston, Balti- 
more, and other cities where the bonds were held, and addressing meet- 
ings of the bond-holders, succeeded in getting their unanimous consent 
that the bonds should be funded. In this connection, it may be re- 
marked that when Captain Purse visited Baltimore on that errand, he was 
met at thedoor of a leading bankinginstitution in thatcity wherethe bonds 
were held, and told that there was no use to attempt to effect any such 
arrangement with the Baltimore bond-holders. His reply was that all 
he wanted was a respectful hearing. They could give him no less, and 
after addressing the bond-holders they were so thoroughly impressed 
with the facts as presented by him that when he left the bank building 
he took with him the written consent of all the bond-holders of Balti- 
more for the refunding of the old seven, in new five per cent, bonds. 

To Captain Purse the county is also largely indebted for the law es- 
tablishing the board of county commissioners of Chatham County, which 
was enacted in 1873. There was great apprehension at that time that 
unscrupulous elements might control the county's affairs, and voting pre- 
cincts be scattered broadcast, and in localities where unscrupulous men 
could easily control the large colored element in the country settlements, 
and, as a result, the county's finances would be mismanaged and the pro- 
gress and prosperity of the city, which is the greater part of Chatham 
County, would be retarded. In the face of a vigorous opposition, Cap- 
tain Purse, foreman of the grand jury, recommended the passage of the 
bill, and interested himself in the enactment of the law the wisdom of 
which has been so abundantly established by the wise and competent 
management of the county's affairs by the board of county commissioners 
appointed by the governor under the law which had its origin with Cap- 
tain Purse in the grand jury room. 

Captain Purse was united in marriage to Miss Laura Ashby, of Fau- 
quier County, Virginia, who is a near relative of General Turner Ashby, 
a famous Confederate cavalry officer, and the fruit of this union is five 
sons. Their home is one of elegance and refinement, situated on one of 

Biographical. 639 

the most beautiful avenues in the city, and under the shadows of that 
magnificent pile of architecture — the De Soto Hotel, to secure the 
site of which Captain Purse took a leading part. 

Captain Purse, in addition to his many enterprises of an agricultural, 
commercial, financial, railway, and industrial character, is so methodical 
in the conduct of his business as to find much time in his library, which 
is composed of one of the most valuable collections of books in Savannah. 
He is a patron and member of the Georgia Historical Society. He is a 
member of St. John's Episcopal Church, and has been its treasurer, and a 
vestryman for over twenty years. He was one of the moving spirits in the 
collection of a fund for the building of St. John's Chapel, and chairman 
of the building committee which executed the work. 

Captain Purse ranks high in the Masonic order. He has taken every 
degree up to and including the Scottish Rites thirty-second degree. He 
has been a mason for thirty years, and has for the past nine years been 
chairman of the committee on property of Solomon's Lodge No. 1, F. & 
A.M., and a recent report written by him upon the lodge's affairs has 
greatly added to his reputation as a writer upon financial subjects. 

In the study and acquaintance of such a character and man as Cap- 
tain Daniel G. Purse, many points are to be considered, for he is a many- 
sided man. He has a touch of genius about him, with decided talent. 
Captain Purse belongs to that class which is known as the mental san- 
guine temperament, that gives mental activity, aggressiveness, vim and 
energy in a great degree. Such a mind is suggestive, and planning, 
and is never demoralized by defeat or failure, but asserts itself by 
new suggestions, greater energy and fuller resources. Broad ideas, com- 
prehensive plans and brilliant projects play through his brain. He is 
never content to work in the common rut or to confine his thoughts to 
only one idea. The many successful undertakings of Captain Purse are 
tokens of his peculiar mentality ; and his success in whatever he has un- 
dertaken display his mental resources. For this reason he is more san- 
guine than the average man. because of that peculiar mental activity. 
With his seeming visionary mind he is in truth and facta cautious man ; 
he is first a thinker, then an actor. He wants time to reason, to see, to 
weigh facts, and then, when his mind has laid out his plans, he throws 
his whole soul, temperament and mental resources into what he under- 

640 History of Savannah. 

takes. He first knows what is to be accomplished, and then he plans in 
his own way for the accomplishment ; when he is convinced in his own 
mind that he is right, then he becomes the embodiment of a mental cy- 
clonic dash, before which obstacles disappear, opposition is crushed and 
success assured. It is such characters, with such brain force and tem- 
peraments who become leaders among men, who are known as public- 
spirited men, fathers of great projects, and leaders in all great enter- 
prises. Captain Purse is not a man given to doubt himself, for his nat- 
ural energy and grasp of mind sees farther, grasps more and will accom- 
plish more than men with great brains who are wanting in mental ac- 

In all the enterprises and public and private trusts, and Captain Purse 
has held many such, his official conduct has been characterized by the strict- 
est fidelity of purpose and a scrupulous integrity. No citizen of Savannah 
Js imbued with deeper public spirit than Captain Purse, and the prosper- 
ity of this section is due to just such a class of men, who have not only 
been benefited and enriched by their unerring judgment, their unflag- 
ging zeal, and their superior financial ability, but at the same time while 
enriching themselves they "have added to the wealth, the prosperity and 
the progress of the communities in which they live. 

MCDONOUGH, JOHN J., is one of the representative manufactur- 
ers and business men of his city and State. He was born in Au- 
gusta, Ga., August 3, 1 849, and is the third oldest son of John and Mary 
McDonough, who were the parents of eight children, four of whom sur- 
vive. The father was a native of Ireland, and was brought to Savannah 
in infancy. At the time of his death he was a prominent lumber man- 
ufacturer and dealer in lumber and conducted extensive foundry and ma- 
chine works in Savannah, having moved thither from Augusta in 1866. 
John McDonough was educated in the public schools in Atlanta, Ga., 
and completed his education at St. Francis Xavier College, New York city. 
In 1866 he was given a clerical position in one of his father's lumber 
yards in Savannah ; three years later he was appointed superintendent 
of his father's mills in the interior, and was admitted to the firm in 1870, 
which became that of John McDonough & Son. Ten years later he 


, *v 



V T ." - wr '--* '• 


Biographical. 641 

bought out his father's local interest in Savannah, since which time he 
has been engaged in all branches of lumber manufacture. In 1877 he 
purchased his father's interest in the foundry and machine works of Mc- 
Donough & Ballantyne, which interest he still retains. 

He has an extensive lumber and planing mill in Savannah, which 
does an annual business of $100,000. Here everything in the line of 
doors, sash, blinds, and all kinds of interior finish, including hard woods 
for the finest classes of buildings, are manufactured. The inside finish of 
the new hotel "De Soto" and that of the new courthouse of Savannah was 
turned out at Mr. McDonough's factory. In addition to the Savannah 
mill, he owns two of the largest and finest saw- mills in Georgia which 
are located in Clinch and Pierce Counties. They turn out about 25,000.- 
000 feet of lumber annually for domestic and foreign markets. With 
them are connected forty miles of railroad, laid with steel rails. 

These roadways are equipped with locomotives and cars for the mov- 
ing of logs from the timber lands to his mills. 

Mr. McDonough manufactures and builds cars for his own railroads. 
Machine shops are connected with his mills where locomotives and ma- 
chinery of all kinds are rebuilt and repaired. With his out-of-town mills 
are connected large stores or commissaries from which the necessaries for 
his five hundred employees and their families are supplied. 

Mr. McDonough is now serving his second term as Alderman of the 
City of Savannah. He has been Chairman of the Harbor and Wharf 
Committee and that on Assessments, which latter he resigned in the 
spring of 1 890 to accept the Chairmanship of the Water Commitee, as a 
more extensive water plant was then contemplated and he was urged to 
accept the first place on that Committee, in view of his practical mechan- 
ical fitness for that important position. Mr. McDonough was one of the 
directors of the Savannah and Tybee Railroad and when it was reor- 
ganized under the name of the Savannah and Atlantic Railway Co., be- 
came a director in the same. 

He is largely interested in the Tybee Beach Co., of which he is the Presi- 
dent and has taken a decided interest in the improvements of this favorite 
southern sea-side resort. Mr. McDonough is a member of the Cotton 
Exchange and of the Board of Trade and is connected with many en- 
terprises of a progressive character. He is a stockholder in the South 

642 History of Savannah. 

Bound Railroad and the Savannah Construction Co., which was organ- 
ized in the spring of 1890 to build the railroad from Columbia, S. C, to 
Savannah, Ga. Mr. McDonough is a member of the Roman Catholic 
Church, and is a liberal supporter of a number of benevolent and civil 
societies. He is also connected, as honorary member, with many of the 
military organizations, for which Savannah has been famous for more 
than a century. 

In his domestic relations he is most happy. He was united in mar- 
riage November 5, 1869 with Miss Ellen M. Cullen, of Savannah, by 
whom he has two children, Marie and John. He is a kind and indul- 
gent husband and father. His social qualities are many and well known 
to all who enjoy his personal acquaintance. 

He is liberal as an entertainer and his host of friends who frequent 
his pleasant home always enjoy his large-hearted hospitality. 


ACADEMIES and schools, 511 et seq. 
of Georgia, early, 513. 
Adjustment of Mary Musgrove's claim, 299. 
African Baptist Church, First, 510. 
Agriculture, society for improvement of, 321 
Allies, loss of, at seige of Savannah, 283. 
Anderson, Dr. Hugh, 43G. 
Anderson Street Church, 507. 
Arms, first passage of, 224. 
Arnold, Dr. Richard D , 439 
Arrest of Governor Wright, 220. 
Artillery company, organization of 314. 
Assault upon Savannah by allied army, 275. 
Assembly, address of both Houses of, to the 

King, 185. 

royalist, called together by Governor Wright, 

Attorney-General, arrival, and measures of, 

Attorneys, leading, at close of last century, 


BAILIFFS, and their works of office, 418. 
Ballantvne, Thomas, biography of, 608. 
Banks, 488. 

Merchants' National, 4S9. 
Savannah Bank and Trust Co., 489. 
Southern Bank of the State of Georgia, 

National Bank of Savannah, 489. 
■ Oglethorpe Savings and Trust Co., 490. 
Citizens' Bank, 490. 
Charles H. Olmstead & Co., 490. 
Henry Blun. 490. 
Baptist Church, 508. 
Bar, post-bellum members of the, 430. 
prominence of the early, 418. 
roster of, 435. 
Barracks, erection of, 347. 
Bartow, General, sketch of. 362 note. 
Battalion, ordered to be raised by Continen- 
tal Congress, 217. 

officers of, on organization, January 7, 
1776, 218. 
Battery Park, 538. 

Bonaventure Cemetery. 539. 
Bulloch, President, death of, 236. 
Bulloch, Dr. William G„ 442. 
Burr, Aaron, visit of, 331. 
Beaulieu, 535. 

Benevolent Association, the Savannah. 551. 
Berrien, Judge John McPherson, 426. 
! Bethesda, Whitefield's, 512, 546. 
j Bills of exchange, 146. 
1 Biography of, 

Ballantyne, Thomas, 608. 
Dorsett, Charles Henry, 6i5. 
du Bignon, Fleming G., 603. 
Duncan, Dr. William, 613. 
Estill, Col. John H. T 562. 
Flannery, John, 596. 
Guckenheimer, Simon, 630. 
Hartridge, Alfred Larnar, 565. 
Jones, Colonel Charles O. 585. 
Lawton, Gen. Alexander R., 575. 
Lester. Daniel B., 610. 
Lovell, Edward, 618. 
McDonough, John J., 640. 
McMahon, Captain John, 570. 
Meldrim, Peter W., 612. 
Mercer, Col. George A., 567. 
Olmstead, Charles H.. 620. 
Purse, Daniel G., 634. 
Screven, John, 022. 
Thomas, Daniel R., 594. 
Young, John R., 629. 
Blues, the Republican, 416. 
Bosomworlh enters Savannah with belligerent 
Indians, 125. 

result of influence of. over his wife, 125. 
Rev. Thomas, villainy of, 122 et seq. 
Mrs. final settlement of claim of, 129. 
treacherous compact with Mahttche, 123 
et seq. 
Boston Port bill, 197. 
Boundary conference in 1768, 188. 
Boundaries, extension of, in 1763, 173. 
Brandt, Dr. C. N., 453. 
British outrages at Savannah, 247. 
ships of war, arrival of, 238. 



Brown, Governor, order of, to Colonel Law- 
ton, in 1861, 358. 
Bryan, Hon. Jonathan, notice of death of, in 
" Georgia Gazette," 320. 

motion to expel from council, McCall's 
account of, 198 

CADETS. Savannah. 415. 
Calamitous year, 353. 
Campbell, report of Lieut.-Col., 238. 
Capital, efforts to remove the, to Hardwick. 

Capture of vessels at wharf of Savannah, 232. 
Cathedral Cemetery, the, 542. 

of St. John, the, 509. 
Catholic Library Hall Association, the, 491. 
Catholics, exclusion of, 492. 
Causton, Thomas, affairs entrusted to, during 
absence of Oglethorpe, G4. 

charge of the colony reposed in, 66. 
charges against, 100. 
death of, 102. 
defalcation of, 99. 
dismissal of, 101. 

malignity towards John Wesley, 92.' 
offenses, as stated by Oglethorpe, 104. 
Oglethorpe's arraignment of, 101. 
John, usurpation of power by, 419. 
Cemeteries, 539. 
Cemetery, mutilation of Catholic, by Federals, 

Central Railroad, the, 479 et seq. 

absorption of other lines by the. 483. 
and Banking Company, 486. 
effect of opening of, 471. 
synopsis of growth of, 484. 
Ceremonies of Indians at landing of Colonists. 

upon promulgation of Declaration of In- 
dependence, 234. 
Charlton, Dr. Thomas J., 447. 
Charlton, Judge R. M„ famous decision of, 

Charlton, Judge T. U. P., 425, 427, 429. 
Charlton, Waller G., 433. 
Charters, Dr. William M.. 445. 
Chatham Academy, 513, 514. 
Chatham Artillery, guns presented to. by 

Washington, 325. 
Chatham Real Estate and Improvement Com- 
pany, the, 490. 
Chisholm, Judge Walter S., 431. 
Cholera, 353. 

Christ Church, 49, 159, note, 495. 
founding of, 492. 

Christian Church, 511. 

Churches, establishment of, 161, et seq note. 
Churches of colored people, 511. 
Church of the Sacred Heart parish, 509. 
Citizens Bank, the. 490. 
City Court judges, 43-5. 
Civil government, establishment of, 152. 
Civil war, events immediately preceding the, 
356 et seq. 

Olmstead's account of opening of, 359. 
Clifton, William, 433. 
Colding, Dr. C. H., 453. 

Colonies, determination of, 'to resist English 
taxation, 189. 
joy of, upon repeat of Stamp Act, 185. 
Colonists, accessions to, in 1733, 44. 

benefits accruing to, from friendship of 

Oglethorpe and Tomo-chi-chi, 32. 
causes for complaint of, 107. 
English, not successful agriculturists, 120. 
favor shown to, by South Carolina, 19. 
first arrival of, 17 r 21. 
first labors of, 22. 
Hebrew, 50. 

petition of, to trustees, 107 et seq. 
precarious condition of, 32. 
worthiness of, 18. 
Colony, business of, in 1760, 170. 

depressed condition of the finances of, 99. 
practical failure of, 142 
rapid advance of, (VJ. 
Colonization, commissioners of, in conflict with 
the trustees, 50. 

strange fatality attending attempts at, in 
the swamp region, 46. 
Commerce, early efforts to develop, 458 et seq. 
resumption of, at close of civil war, 472. 
revival of, after the Revolution, 465. 
Commercial house, first in Georgia, 459. 

statistics of the first quarter of the present 
century, difficulty m\ collating, 4<>7. 
Committee on resolutions, expressive of the 
sentiments of Georgia regarding England's 

course, 198. 
to solicit subscriptions for suffering poor 
of Boston, 200. 
Communication, tardiness of. with England, 

Confederate Veterans' Association, 562. 
Conference between Oglethorpe and Indians, 
graphic account of, ?,7y et seq. 
witli Indians, in 1757, 164. 
Congregational Church, 511. 
Congregation of B'nai B'ritk Jacob, the, 498. 
of Chebrah Talmud Torah. the, 498. 



Congregation of Mickva Israel, 497. 
Congress, Georgia not represented in first 
American, 204. 
of Indians in 1774, 196. 
response of delegates to American, 182. 
Constitution, adoption of temporary, 221. 

first regular, 224. 
Constitutional Convention of 1776, 236. 
Continental and militia officers killed and 
wounded at assault upou Savannah, 286. 
Congress, parishes that approved resolu- 
tions of, 205. 
Convention to discuss the Stamp Act, 176. 
Correspondence between General Prevost and 

Count D'Estaing, 256. 
Cotton, competition in trade in, between 
Charleston and Savannah, 467.' 
confiscation of, after surrender of Savan- 
nah, 386. 
first foreign shipment of. 462. 
gin, stimulus imparted to cotton raisin? 
by the, 466. 
Whitney's, 465. 
Sea Island, 466. 

small shipments of, in 178S, 320. 
trade, importance of the establishment of, 
Council of safety, members of, appointed in 
1775, 217. 

resolutions of, 224 et seq. 
Court, clash of authority between city and 
Superior, 425. 
date of the first, 4 IS. 
establishment of, 155. • 
extraordinary proceeding in early, 422. 
in 1751, 420. 
the first, 418. 

of inquiry in case of General Howe, 248. 
account of, by Francis Moore, 420. 
discontinuance of, after the Revolution, 

incidents in early, 422. 
the, immediatelv after the Revolution. 
Creeks, trouble with, the, 122. 
Cronk, Joseph. 433. 
Cunningham, Captain Henry, 434. 
Custom-house, erection of, 353. 

possession taken of, by patriots, 216. 

Daniel, Dr.. 438. 
Daufuskie Island, 538. 
Declaration of Independence, 234. 
Declaration of rights, 182. 

I Deed, text of original, conveying lands in Sa- 
vannah, 55. 
j Deed, change of conveyance in. after surrender 
of charter by trustees, 61. 
D'Estaing, Count, attack upon Savannah, 252 
et seq. 

appreciation of services of, by General As- 
sembly, 293. 
estimate of character of, 292. 
fatal error, 258. 
outwitted by Prevost, 260. 
summons to the British to surrender, 255. 
Delegates elected to Continental Congress, 

election of, to provincial congress in Christ 
Church parish, 204. 
De Lyon. Levi S.. 428. 
Denmark, Adams & Adams, 431. 
Difficulties, threatened, between Georgia and 

South Carolina. 105. 
Disagreements, effects of, between the Liberty 

party and loyalists, 201. 
Disappointment of Americans at failure to cap- 
ture Savannah, 292. 
Disease, tempest and tides of 1854, 355. 
Dorsett, Charies II., biography of, 615. 
du Bignon, Fleming G.. 432, 603. 
Duncan, Dr. William, 450, 613. 
Dunn, Dr. Matthew F., 453. 
Duties, feeling over, 464. 

of provincial assembly, 149. 

I EIGHTEENTH Century, close of, 328. 
li Elbert, Hon. Samuel, death of, 319. 
Elliott, Dr. William H„ 451. 
Ellis, Governor, arrival of, 158. 
death of, 1G8. 

fitting out of a war ship by, 163. 
good will and harmony under administra- 
tion of, 158. 
health of, affected by climate, 166. 
regrets of people at departure of, 168. 
resignation of, 167. 
English Church prestige accorded to, 161. 
forces defending Savannah, 282. 
garrison, exaltation of, 2'J3. 
losses at siege of Savannah, 284. 
Equitable Building and Loan Association, the 

E-iates purchased for Generals Wayne and 

Greene, 307. 
"Evening Express," 526. 
"Evening Journal,' 526. 
"Evening Mirror.'' 526. 
Estill, Col. John II., 562. 



Events, stirring, of 1777 and 1778, 236. 
Evergreen Cemetery, 539. 
Excelsior Loan and Savings Company, 491. 
Exports for twenty years prior to civil war, 

in 1773, 464. 

of cotton since the war, 473. 

1 FAITHFULNESS of Tomo-chi-chi, 34. 
False charge against Savannah, 18. 
" Familien Journal," 526. 
Female Orphan Asylum, 550. 
Fillmore, President, visit of, to Savannah, 353. 
Financial stringency, effect of, caused by Caus- 

ton's mismanagement, 102. 
Fire of 1820, destructive, 340 et seq 460. 

of November, 1796. 326. 
First Presbyterian Church, 506. 

provincial assembly, 150. 
Fish, Dr. John D.,441. 
Flag, the secession, 357. 
Flannery, John, biography of, 596. 
Forces engaged in defending assault on Sa- 
vannah, 285. 
Forsyth Park, 533. 
Fort Argyle, building of, 45. 
Bartow, 364. 
Boggs, 365 
Brown, 365. 
McAllister, 364. 

account of capture of, by Major Ander- 
son, 377. 
account of final siege of, by Colonel 

Jones, 379. 
attack upon, 371. 
final capture of, by Sherman, 377. 
last attack upon, 372 et seq. 
Mclnto.^h. capture of 236. 
Pulaski, bombardment of, 367. 
erection of, begun in 1831, 347. 
incidents of siege of, 370. 
occupation of by Savannah military 

companies, 360. 
summons for surrerder of. 367. 
surrender of, 368. 
troops surrendered at, 369. 
Fourth of July toasts in 1787. 326. 
Francis, Dr. John Wakefield, 447. 
Franklin, Benjamin, services of, secured by 

Georgia, 188. 
Franklin Savings and Security Companv, 491. 
Fraser, Wallace W., 433. 
Frederica, 61, 76,78. 118, 140. 
Freedom, growing spirit of, 196. 
Free Masonry, 555. 

French army before Savannah, strength of 


assistance and its results, 251. 

officers killed, and wounded at assault on 
Savannah, 285. 
Frost, great, of 1769, 187. 

(1 ARRARD & MELDRIM, 433. 
T General Assembly dissolved by Haber- 
sham, 196. 
Georgia, a body politic independent of the 
crown, 218. 

amounts received by, from royal treas- 
ury, 209. 
Central Railroad, 348. 

Col. Stephens made president of, 140. 
condition of, as stated by Capt. McCall, 

cost of maintaining province of, in 1772, 

deplorable condition of, at close of Revo- 
lution, 307. 
division of. into church parishes, 159 et 

division of. into two counties, 140. 
enmity of South Carolina towards, on ac- 
count of Stamp Act, 184. 
entire coast of, open to the British, 250. 
exhibit of productions of, from 1755 to 

1767, 187. 
fearful condition of, after fall of Savan- 
nah, 297. 
first secession convention of, 215. 
" Georgia Gazette," 516. 
"Georgia Gazette" in 1774, 201. 
Georgia Historical Society, 348, 528. 
Georgia, marked improvement in condition of, 

pitiable condition of sea-coast of. after 

D'Estaing's retreat, 294. 
planting colony of, 25. 
population of, in 1760, 167. 
population of, in 1774, 197. 
population of, in 1783, 308. 
rapidly evincing republicanism in 

" Georg'a Republican." 516. 
Georgia, re-establishment of eovernment of, 
troops of, at beginning of Revolution. 233. 
universal welcome to the Declaration of 

Independence throughout, 235. 
Upper, in the hands of the Federals, 29! 
Germain, Lord George, military plans of, 
Glen, Dr. James, 438. 





Governor and Council, disagreements between, 

Grand Army Post, 562. 
Graham, Patrick, appointed president, 157. 
Grantees of lands, 50. 

schedule of, and numbers and locations of 
lots, 59. 
Grants, conditions of, 57. 
Greene, General Nathanael, interment of, 314. 

inability to locate grave of. 316. 

tradition concerning remains of, 318. 
Greens, the Irish Jasper, 416. • 
Grover, William, extraordinary conduct of, 

Guckenheimer, Simon, biography of, 630. 
Guerard, Captain John M., 430. 
Gun Clubs, 555. 

HABERSHAM, Dr. Joseph C, 443 et seq. 
Habersham. James", letter of, 142. 
affiliations of, 195. 

as acting governor during Wright's ab- 
sence, 194. 
his argument in favor of importing ne- 
groes, 144. 
statement of regarding Stamp Act, 184. 
Habersham, Hon. John, death of, 327. 
Harden, Judge Edward J., 430. 
Harden, Judge William D., 432. 
Harris & Habersham, 147. 
Harris, Dr. Raymond B., 452. 
Harris, Dr. Stephen P., 442. 
Hartridge, Alfred Lamar, biography of. 565. 
Hartridge, Hon. Julian, 431. 
Healthfulness of Savannah endangered by rice 

culture, 173. 
Hebrew Benevolent Society, the, 551. 

colonists, acts of trustees concerning the, 
51 et setj. 
Herbert, Dr. Heniy, 17,21. 

first clergyman, 492. 
Hibernifui Society, the. 550. 
Highlanders, arrival of, 67. 
Hopkins, punishment of, for opposition to lib- 
erty, 213. 
Hopkins, Sophia, 91 et seq. 
Horrors of the bombardment of Savannah, 

Horton, General William, succeeds to com- 
mand of Oglethorpe's regiment, 119. 
Hospital, Savannah, 552. 
Houstoun, Dr. J. P. S., 453. 
Howe, retreat of General, 246. 

severe criticism of General. 247. 
Hussars, the Georgia, 416. 

INCIDENTS, interesting, at the assaul' upon 
Savannah, 287. 
Incomprehensibility of trustees' land tenure 

resolutions, 1 15, 
Independent Presbyterian Church, 500. 
Indian delegates, 36. 
grave-mound, 319. 
friendship of, for Oglethorpe, 30. 
intrigues of, with the French, 164. 
theory of prayer. 84. 
Wesley's catheehwm of the, 85. 
Industrial Relief Society and Home for the 

Friendless, the, 551. 
Infantry, Oglethorpe Light, 416. 
Infirmary, S,t. Joseph's, 553. 

the Georgia, 553. 
Important enterprises, inauguration of, 348. 
Irvine, Dr. John, 437. 
Isle of Hope, 536. 
Italians, arrival of, in 1733, 44. 

encouraging success of, in silk culture, 

JACKSON, Andrew, day of mourning for, 
Jackson, General Henry R., 430. 
James, ship, first to arrive at Savannah, 44, 45 

Jasper Greens, the, in the Mexican War, 349. 
Jasper, monument to, 2SS. 
Jasper Mutual Loan Association, the, 490. 
Jasper, Sergeant, death of, 287. 
Jasper Springs, 536. 

Jones, Colonel Charles C, biography of, 585. 
Jones, Dr. Noble W., 437. 

elected speaker of the Lower House, 193. 
Governor Wright refuses to saction elec- 
tion of, 193." 
Jones, Thomas, 100 et seq. 
Johnson square, 48. 

Judges, fees of. at close of Revolution, 421. 
Judicial Act of 1799, part taken in by Savan- 
nah bar, 418. 

annals, meagerness of early, 417. 
Jury, first, 50. 

the first grand, 418. 
Justice, success in administration of. 425. 

KENT, Captain Richard, 118. 
King George, burial of, in effigy 235. 
Knights of Pythias, 561. 
Knights Templar, 559. 


AFAYETTE, house occupied by, when 
visiting Savannah, 347. 



LaFayette, laying of corner-stone of monu- 
ments by. 347. 

visit of, 342 et seq. 
Landtenures, enlargement of, 114. 
Lands, allotment and deeding of, 54. 
Laurel Grove Cemetery 541. 
Lawton, Gen. Alexander R., 430, 575. 

appointed brigadier-general, 362. 

ordered to General Lee, 371. 
Law firms, principal, for period adjacent to 

1840, 428. 
Lawyers of fifty years ago, 429. 
Lee, General R. E., arrival of, in Savannah in 

1861, 365. 
Legislation affecting Savannah, 309, et seq. 

lack of, during Revolution, 219. 
Legislature, acts of immediately succeeding 

close of Revolution, 306 et seq. 
Legislative enactment concerning Christ 

Church, 159. 
LeHardv. Dr. J C, 451. 
Lester, Colonel Rufus E , 434. 
Lester, Daniel B.. biography of. 610. 
Lexington, effect of the news from, 210. 
" Liberty Boys," toasts of, 212. 
Liberty county, 208. 
Liberty, new spirit of, engendered, 185. 
Liberty pole, first erected, 212. 
Library Society, Savannah, 527. 
Lighthouse, first, on Tybee, 459. 
Lincoln, Dr. Frank, 452. 
Little Minnie Mission. 553. 
Loan Associations. 490. 
Lodges Masonic, 560. 
Lovell, Edward, 618. 
Lower House, opposition and aggression of, 

Lutheran Church, 499. 

McCALL, Captain, letter of, concerning 
healthfulness of Georgia. 166. 
statement of. regarding the opposition to j 
the committee of 1774, 202. 
MacDonell, Alex. R., 433. 
McDonough, John J., biography of, 640. 
Mcintosh, Colonel James, death of, 350. 
McMahon, Captain John, biography of. 570. 
Magistrates, commissioning of, for the province 
dismissal of. 113. 
Malatche, fickleness of, 127. 
Malcontents forced to leave the province, 110. 

scurrilous tract, of the, 110. 
Marlow, Nicholas. 498. 
Martin, Dr. John D., 452. 

Mary Telfair Home, the, 557. 

Masonic lodges, 555 et seq. 

Masons, organization of Grand Lodge of, 313. 

Means, Dr. Alexander, 448. 

Medical College, 453. 

Medical Society, 455. 

Meeting to discuss the coercive measures of 

England, 197. 
Meldrim, Peter W., biography of, 612. 
Mercer, Col. George A., 434, 567. 
Mercer General Hugh W., 371. 
Merchants' and Mechanics' Loan Association, 

Merchants' National Bank, the, 489. 
Methodist Church, beginning of, in America, 

Metropolitan Savings and Loan Company, the, 

Military operations at the begining of the 

Revolution, 226 et seq. 
Military incidents at Fort Pulaski in 1861, 360. 
Military organizations: 

Chatham Artillery, 390 etseq. 

become a part of the First Regiment, 

entrance of, into the Confederate ser- 
vice, 392. 
escort to General Wa^hinyton, 390. 
first public service of, 390. 
reorganization of after the civil war, 

395 etseq. 
consolidation of companies into the 
First Volunteer Regiment, 407. 
First Georgia Regiment, the, 388. 
Georgia Hussars, the, 416. 
German Volunteers, 416. 
Independent Volunteer Battalion, 406. 
Irish Jasper Greens, 416. 
Oglethorpe Light Infantry, the, 407, 416. 
Regiment, roster of the companies of the 

First Volunteer, 408. 
Regiment, service of First Volunteer, 409 
et seq. 

representation in, of colored citizens, 
Republican Blues, 416. 
Savannah Cadets. 
Sav. Vol. G'ds, Lafavette's compliment to 

the, 399. 
Savannah Volunteer Guards, monuments 
erected by, 405. 
muster of, into the Confederate service, 

ordered to Virginia under Lee, i02. 
organization of, 397. 



Military organizations: 

reorganization of, 403. 
roster of officers of, 404. 
second enlistment of, 401. 
Military spirit, Olmstead's account of the early, 

Militia, first muster of, 150. 
Millen, John, 428. 

Mistakes of the siege of Savannah. 291. 
Monroe, President, visit, of at Savannah, 337 

et seq. 
Monuments, 542 et seq. 

corner-stones of, laid by Lafayette, 317. 
Moore, Francis, account of early courts by, 420. 
Moravians, arrival of, 67. 
" Morning News," 519. 
Musgrove, Mary, Coosaponakesee, 33. 

marries Bosomworth, 122. 
Myers. Dr. Robert P., 449. 

lyTATION A.L Bank of Savannah, the, 489. 
ll Naval stores, trade in, 473. 
Naval engagement, the first, 226, et seq. 
Newspaper, first,. 516. 
Nitschnian, Moravian bishop, 89. 
Non-importation resolutions, effect of, 192. 

resolved upon, 189. 
Norwood, Thomas M., 431. 
Nunis, Dr., 430. 
Nunn, Dr. Richard J.. 450. 

OATH of allegiance to King George,, 249. 
Ocean Steamship Company. 485. 
Odd Fellows, 561. 

Oglethorpe, Governor, 17-29, 31, 33-40, 44, 
45, 47-49. 51, 53-55. 61, 63-66, r,«j-70 
76-H4, 99-102, 105-111, 113 115-119 
122, 127-129, 131, 140, 147. 389. 
account of visit of South Carolinians to 

action of, relative to Israelite colonists, 

address of, on declaration of war between 

England and Spain, 115. 
advanced to rank of colonel, 100. 
aid extended bv, 105. 
and Charles Wesley, 79. 
and the Hebrew Colonists. 51, 53. 
and the Indians, meeting of, 35. 
arrival of, at Charlestown, 19. 
call of, for convocation of colonista to 

form village, 47. 
club, the, 554. 

dealings of, with the Indians, 30 
delegation of powers to others by, 49. 

! Oglethorpe, differences between, and Charles 
Wesley, 78. 

extension of military posts by, 45, 
first letter of, to trustees, 23." 
fitness of, for the head of the colony, 18. 
informs trustees of effect of their reply to 

colonists' petition, 113. 
justice of, 10G. 
letter of, 25, 26. 

letter of, on' the slavery question, 109. 
letters of, on the introduction of slaves, 

108 et seq. 
Light Infantry the first in the field, 362. 
measures of, for retrenchment, 102. 
methods of maintaining his influence over 

the Indians, 31. 
orders citizens to do police duty, 116, 
part taken by, in the Causton affair, 100 

et seq. 
peaceful relations with Indiana due to, 44. 
preparations of, for final return to Eng- 
land, 118. 
promotion of, 106. 
protest of, against change of land tenures 

return of, from second trip to England 

Savings and Trust Company, the, 490. 
second visit to England, 99. 
takes Tomo-chi-chi and other Indians to 

England, 64. 
to originator of the colonization of Geor- 
gia, 18. 
to the trustees on financial needs, 103 et 

treatment of Indian.-, by, 30. 
visits England. 04. 
visit of, to Charlestown, 29. 
visit of. to limits of province, 61. 
Olmstead, Charles EL, biography of, 620. 
Opposition to celebration of the Kind's birth- 
day, 212. 
Orphan house, ( collection for, 134. 

routine of. 130. 
Order, memorable, of Governor Brown to Col- 
onel Lawton, 358. 
Outposts, extension of, 45. 
Owens, Dr. W. \V., 45::. 

1>Al;KKl:. Henry, appointed president, 148. 
succeeds Stephens, 141. 
Parliament, s> t> f, declared unconstitutional 

at meeting of merchants in 1769, 189. 
Parties the two, count no-es. 203. 
Penfield Mariner's Church, 510. 



Physicians deceased since 1850, 444. 
Pinckney, General, plans of, for defense of 
Savannah, 333. 
letter of, 289 note. 
Polk, President, visit of. to Savannah, 351. 
Poorhouse and Hospital Society, the, 552. 
Population of Georgia in 1774, 197. 
Portrait of Tomo-chi-chi, 33. 
Port Royal, effect of bombardment of, in Sa- 
vannah. 365. 
Posey, Dr. John F., 443. 
Powder, large amount of, captured by citizens 

of Savannah, 214. 
President and assistants of Savannah appoint- 
ed for entire colony, 118. 
Prevost's disposition of his troops, 263. 
general order of, 264. 
refusal of, to permit General Mcintosh's 

family to leave Savannah, 266. 
reply of, to D'Estaing's summons to sur- 
render, 256. 
temporizing successfully, 259. 
Priber, Christian, frustration of scheme of, 122. 
Proclamations of Colonel Campbell and Sir 

Hyde Parker, 249. 
Province, serious condition of, in 1772, 196. 
Provincial Assembly, 149. 

congress, adjournment of, 207. 
of 1775 at Savannah, 204, 214. 
of 1776, 221. 
reading of Declaration of Independence 

before, 234. 
resolutions of, submitted to General As- 
sembly, 206. 
Provisions of temporary constitutions of 1776, 

222 et seq. 
Public buildings, account of, in 1738, 420. 
roads about 1764, 175. 
Thanksgiving, day of, appointed by Gov- 
ernor Wright, 295. 
Pulaski, fatally wounded, 279. 
Pulaski Loan Association, 491. 
Pulaski, monument to, 288. 
Puritan element, effect of, in the rebellion 

movement, 208. 
Purse, Daniel G., biography of, 634. 

RAILROAD Loan Association, the, 490. 
Read, Dr. J. Bond, 449. 
Rebellion, spirit of, exhibited on announce- | 

ment of Stamp Act, 177. 
Regiment, First, 363. 
Religious efforts of the Wesleys, 493. 
Noted, leaders, 494. 
opinions, 83. 

" Republican and Savannah Evening Ledger 
The," 516. ' 

Republican council of safety, 216. 
Resolutions against importations, 190 et seq. 
of city council, bestowing thanks for serv- 
ices during epidemic of 1854, 355. 
of condemnation against importers, 190. 
of council of safety relative to vessels sail- 
ing from Savannah, 224. 
of council unon American naval victories, 

of delegates to Continental Congress, 215. 
of provincial congress thanking South 

Carolina troops, 232. 
recommending association of Georgia with 

other colonies, 212. 
of the committee of 1774, 199. 
of the Lower House relation to Dr. Jones, 

to encourage American Manufactures 

upon death of General Greene, 316. 
Retaliatory acts of royalist assembly, 297. 
Reward for Georgia committee and assembly 

men, 249. 
Reynolds, Governor, administration of, not 
provocative of peace, 158. 
arrival of, 153. 
earliest impressions of, concerning; the 

province, 154. 
inauguration of administration of, 154. 
military enterprise of, 156. 
proposal of to establish capitol at Hard- 
wick, 155. 
Richards, R. R. 434. 
Richardson, Dr. Cosmo P.. 442. 
Rioting on account of Stamp Act, 177. 
River obstructions, 477. 
Royalist party, strength and influence of, 201. 

plundering and stealing by, 306. 
Rum, abrogation of laws against introduction 
of, 145. 

ST. ANDREWS Society, 549. 
St. Augustine, General Lee's plan to cap- 
ture, 235. 
St John's Church, 497. 

St John's parish faithful to the liberty caus«, 

firmness of, 207. 
the head of the Rebellion, 208. 
St. Patrick's parish, 509. 
Saltzburgers, colony of, 62. 

location assigned to, 64. 
Saussy, J. R., 432. 



Savannah, aceount of evacuation of, in " His- 

Savannah, first century of commercial history 

torical Record," 381. 

of, 470. 

act incorporating, as a city, 311. 

first foreign shipment of cotton from, 462. 

American los* at capture of, 246. 

first newspaper in, 516. 

.arrival of General Sherman in, 3S3. 

first Sea Island cotton raised near, 466. 

arrival of first ship at, 45 note. 

first seal of, 332. 

assault upon, October 9, 1779, 275. 

first use* of steam in, as an aid to com- 

attack upon by British, 237 et seq. 

merce, 46J. 

attention received by, from General As- 

fortifications of, attention directed to in 

sembly, 162. 

1760, 171. 

banks of, 488 et seq. 

General Howe's blunder at defense of, 

bar of, 435. 


Board of Trade, 478. 

General Moultrie's censure of General 

breaking up of allied camp before, 290. 

Howe, relative to defense of, 242. 

British proclamation at 248. 

generous aid of South Carolinians to first 

capture and occupation of, by the British 

settlers of, 25. 


Georgia Medical Society of, 455 

capture of vessel in harbor of, by patri- 

great fire in, in 1865, 386. 

ots, 213. 

great loss at, assault upon, 280. 

celebration of ratification of treaty of 

growth of commerce of, at end of second 

peace of 1815 at, 337. 

decade of present century, 469. 

churches of, 492 et seq. 

healthfulness of, affected by rice culture, 

commercial history of, 457. 


condition of, under Habersham's rule, 195. 

hospital, 552. 

convention at to discuss the Stamp Act, 

Howe's line of battle at, 243. 


importation of ice in, 469. 

Count D'Estaing's siege of, 252 et seq. 

in 1800, 467. 

county, Col. Stephens made president of, 

in 1760, 170. 


introduction of the cotton gin in, 466. 

convocation for the formation of the vil- 

investment of by the Federal forces. 366. 

lage of, 47. 

investment of by Sherman's army, 376. 

damages to by bombardment, 296. 

isolated situation of, during the War of 

dearth of historic events in, up to 1812, 

the Revolution. 250. 


lack of manufactures in, 478. 

defeat of allies at the siege of, 280. 

leading citizens of. publish protest against 

defeat of the Americans at, 244 et seq. 

resolutions of committee of 1774, 201. 

description of by Moore, 69 et seq. 

Library Society, 527. 

destructive fire in, in 1820, 340. 

Lord Germain's pcan of attack upon, 237. 

details of attack upon, 240. 

measures for defense of, in 1812, 333. 

details of siege of, 264 et seq. 

Medical College, 453. 

disastrous fire in, in 18'iO, 469. 

military companies of, at beginning of 

division of, into wards, 310. 

War of 1812, 334. 

early description of, 27. 

military companies of, in 1860. 358. 

early legislation affecting, 309. 

military organizations of, 388 et seq. 

early military spirit in, 388 et seq. 

military protection afforded to by South 

early steamboat lines of, 467. 

Carolina, 24. 

early vineyard at, 120. 

military works around, in the civil war, 

effect of repeal of Stamp Act at, 185. 

363 et seq. 

efforts to remove State capitol from, 461. 

named as seat of provincial congress, 204. 

evacuation of, 304. 

naming of wards, streets and squares of, 

evacuation of, ordered by Sir Guy Carle- 

by Oglethorpe, 47. 

ton, 302. 

Oglethorpe's dreams of commercial su- 

evacuation of, under General Elardee, 380. 

premacy of, 45S. 

exports from, in 1773, 464. 

Oglethorpe's efforts to develop the com- 

exodus of royalists from, 305. 

merce of, 458. 



Savannah, order of attack by Lincoln at siege 
of, 272. 

order of battle at defense of, 241. . 
outrages by British at, 247. 
plans of citizens of, for defense, 370. 
plantations in vicinity of, in 1733, 46. 
population of, at beginning of present 

eentury, 330. 
population of, in 1760, 462 
powder magazine at, broken open by rev- 
olutionists, 210. 
proclamation of mayor, on approach of 

Sherman's army, 375. 
progress of from 1855, 356. 
prominence of delegates from in the Amer- 
ican Congress, 182. 
real beginning of the commerce of, 460. 
reason for not attempting recapture of, 

by Republicans. 290. 
record of first day's bombardment of. 267. 
release of military restrictions upon, at 

close of the war, 3S8. 
resolutions of submission after surrender 

of, 385. 
salaries of city officials of in 1801, 331. 
school advantages prior to the Revolution, 

Sherman's demand for surrender of. and 

Hardee's reply, 380. 
Sherman's general order upon occupation 

of, 383. 
siege of, as related by Colonel Jones, 376. I 
slow commercial growth of, 461. 
suffered from attempted removal of seat 1 

of government to Hard wick, 172. 
sympathy of, with patriots in New Eng- j 

land, 211. 
the objective point of Sherman's march, ! 

topographical and natural characteristics ' 

of site of, 20. 
vineyard in colonial days. 120. 
visit of Aaron Burr to. 331. 
visit of Lafayette at, 342. 
visit of President Munroe at, 337. 
visit of Washington to, 321 et seq. 
yellow fever in. in 1820, 341, 460. 
Savannah and Tyliee Railroad Company, 488. 
Savannah Bank and Trust Company, the 489. 
"Savannah Daily Courier," 526. 
" Savannah Daily Times," 525. 
Savannah, Florida and Western Railway, 486. 
"Savannah Georgian," 518. 
" Savannah Independent and Brotherhood," 

"Savannah Local," 526. 
"Savannah Museum," 519. 
Savannah, the first steamboat, 468. 
" Savannah Tribune," 527. 
Saw-mills, absence of, 29. 
Schools and academies, 511 et seq. 

private, 515. 
School teachers, early, 512. 
Screven, Dr. James P., 438. 
Screven, John.622. 
Seal, public, adopted, 153. 
Secession, effect of announcement of, 357. 

ordinance of. result of adoption of, 361. 
Secret societies, miscellaneous, 561. 
Sense of curiosity experienced by Governor 

Wright. 297. 
Sherman's, General, march from Atlanta, 375 

order sending families of Confederate of- 
ficers out of the city, 3S7. 
Shipping, statistics of, 478. 
Siege of Savannah resolved upon, 261. 
Silk culture and wine producing, disappoint- 
ment in, 120. 

culture, 458, 460, 463. 

first result of culture of, 67. 

production, failure of, 187. 
Slavery, admission of, a question of policy, 
113. ' 

and rum, 6G. 

believed to be politic. 142. 
, evasions by Colonists to introduce, 143. 

excitement over introduction of, 144. 

introduction of, 145. 

necessity for, 113. 

Oglethorpe's protest against, 109. 

the exclusion of, detrimental to the pro- 
gress of the colony, 1 13. 

the question of the introduction of, 108. 
Slaves owned by governor and council, 192. 

purchases of, openlv made, 143. 
Smith, Dr. Thomas, 446*. 

Societe Francaise de Bienfaisance de Savan- 
nah, Ga., 552. 
Solicitor-general*!, 435. 
"Sons of Liberty," 204. 

first engagement between, and the King's 
troops, 224. 
South Carolina and Georgia, threatened inter- 
ruption of friendly relations between, 1 05. 

troops at Savannah in 1776, 231. 
Southern Bank of the State of Georgia, the, 

Southern Mutual Loan Association. 491. 
Spain and England, war between. 115. 
Spaniards, 25, 32, 82, 117. 



Stamp act, calm succeeding repeal of, only 
temporary, 1S6. 

effect of, 176. 
Stamp duties, opposition to, 188. 
Standard Club, the, 554. 
Starr, Dr. E. P., 446. 
State Capitol removed to Augusta, 313. 

government, first steps towards, 235. 

records removed for safety, 238. 
Statistics of exports and imports, 475. 
Steamship, the first, sent across the Atlantic, 

Stephens, Colonel William, 102. 

appointed president of Savannah, 118. 

death of, 141. 

extract from journal of, 120. 

made president, 140. 

speech of, to Indians deceived bv Bosom- 
worth, 128. 

succeeds Oglethorpe, 119. 

trustees directions to. 119. 
Streets and wards, establishment of, 48 et seq. 
Stone, Dr. George H., 453. 
Storm of 1854, 355. 

of September, 1804, 331. 
Sufferings of the French navy at siege of Sa- 
vannah, 265. 
Sunbury, importance of, 175. 
Sunday-school, the first, 493. 
Superior Court judges, 434. 
Surrender of Fort Pulaski, terms of, 368. 

of Savannah, 302. 

TAILFER, Dr. Patrick, 110, 436. 
and companions leave the colon v, 113. 
chief of malcontents, 110. 
Taylor, Zachary, death of, 352. 
Telfair Academy of arts and sciences, 533. 
Telfair Hospital" the, 553. 
Thomas, Daniel R., biography of, 594. 
Thomas, Dr. James G., 447. 
Thunderbolt, 536. 

Title Guarantee and Loan Company of Savan- 
nah, the. 490. 
Toasts at the banquet given President Monroe, 

Tomo-chi-chi and Wesley, Q 3. 

beneficial results of visit, of, to London 

concerning monument to, 117. 
death of, 1 1 6. 

first visit of Oglethorpe to. 20. 
gratitude due, 34. 
idea of Christianity, 83. 

Tomo-chi-chi, letter describing death and 
funeral services of, 116. 

influence of, in securing friendship of oth- 
er Indians, 34. 
sketch of, 31, et seq. 
Trade, growth of naval stores, 474. 
rice and lumber, 474. 
the fertilizer, 474.. 
the fruit and vegetable, 475. 
Treaty between Oglethorpe and Indians, text 
of, 40 et seq. 
boundaries, 39. 
of 1733, influence of, upon other tribes, 

of Oglethorpe and Indians, ratification of, 

39 note, 
pacific relations established by, 43. 
with Indians, consummation of, 39. 
Trial, the first notable, 419. 
Trinity Methodist Church, 50l->. 
Troops, landing of British, before Savannah, 

Truce granted before Savannah. 257. 
Trustees approve Habersham's suggestions, 

care and prudence of, and administration 

of colonial affairs, 147. 
extracts from journal of, relative to He- 
brew colonists, 52 et seq. 
forced to admit slavery and distilled 

liquors, 145. 
obdurate against introduction of slavery, 

original deed of, 54. 
reply of, to petition of colonists, 111. 
surrender their charter, 151. 
timely financial relief to, 62. 
Turn Verem Club, the Savannah, 554. 
Tybee Island, 535. 
light-house, 172. 
occupation of, by the Federals, 367. 

TTNION Society, 547. 

\J ESSELS captured by the French before 
Savannah, 290. 
of war under D'Estaing, 291. 
Vigilance committee, powers of, 336. 
Villages, establishment of, 45 

laying out of, 45. 
Visit of Washington to Savannah, graphic ac- 
count of, S'SA et seq. 



Volunteers, the German, 416. 
Von Reck, Baron, impressions of, of Savan- 
nah, 63. 

WARING. Dr. J. J., 444. 
Waring, Dr. W. R., 438. 
Washington's visit to Savannah, 321 et seq. 
Wayne, General, general order of, 304. 

investment of Savannah by, 31)1. 

sent to Georgia, 300. 

terms of surrender offered to British at 
Savannah, 303. 
Webster, Daniel, visit of, to Savannah, 350. 
Wesleys, arrival of the, 6&. 
Wesley, Charles, animosity of colonists to- 
wards, 78. 

departure of for London, 81. 

failure of, as a business man, 77. 

private secretary to Oglethorpe, 76. 

resignation of, 82. 

statement of his reconciliation with Ogle- 
thorpe, 80. 
Wesley, John, abrupt and notorious conclusion 
of services of, 91 et seq. 

and Charles, 492. 

and Tomo-chi-chi, 82. 

and Tomo-chi-chi dine with Oglethorpe. 

arrival of. at Savannah, 82. 

charges against, 94. 

conference between, and Indian chiefs, 
85 et seq. 

criticisms of, 89. 

decides to return to England, 96. 

detention of, 97. 

final departure of, 98. 

findings of grand jury in case of, 95. 

first impressions of, of Savannah, 87. 

his intolerance, 89. 

his services, 88. 

loss of influence and power by, 90. 

warrant of arrest for, 92. 

unclerical steps of, 90. 
Wesleys, the, as school teachers, 512. 
West, Charles N-, 432. 
Workingmen's Benevolent Association, the, 

Workingmen's Literary and Relief Associa- 
tion, the, 554. 
Workman's and Traders' Loan and Building 

Association, the, 492. 
Worth of Highlander colonists, 68. 
Wharfage rates in 1774, 464. 
Whatley, J. L., 433. 

White, Rev. George, 514. 

Whitefield, Rev. George, arrival of, 494. , 

as school-teacher, 512. 

Bethesda Orphan House the outcome of 
efforts of, 130 et seq. 

death of, i38. 

energy and labors of, 134. 

financial difficulties of, 135. 

grant of land to, for orphans' home, 133. 

his argument in favor of importing ne- 
groes, 144. 

in favor slavery, 132. 

journeys to England, 133. 

labors of, to establish orphans' home, 132 
et que. 

conduct of, approved by the king, 185. 

contradictor)' accounts sent by, to Eng- 
land, 298. 

efforts of, to suppress provincial congress. 

endeavors of, to quell excitement over 
Stamp Act, 179. 

escape of, 220. 

failure of, to enforce Stamp Act, 183. 

faithful to loyal cause, 170. 

fitness of, for position, 169. 

goes on leave of absence to England in 
1771, 194. 

inability of, to control the " Liberty peo- 
ple," 216. 

lamentations of, 216. 

letter of, after his escape, 221. 

letters to, from John Wesley, 131. 

loyalty of, to home government, 183. 

merits of administration of, 209. 

military force of Georgia at inception of 
administration of, 170. 

offers reward for despoilers of the pow- 
der magazine, 213. 

perseverance of, in building defenses for 
Savannah, 298. 

personality of, 131. 

pitiable plight of, 217. 

return of, in 1773, 196. 

return of, in July, 1779, 250. 

satisfaction of, at refusal to oppose the 
Stamp Act, 176. 

second letter of, to Secretary Conway, 

severe measures of, against rebel inhabi- 
tants of Savannah, 295. 

statement of, relative to military force. 

statement of, relative to stamped papers, 

" 178. 



Whitefield, stormy administration of, 169. 

strenuous exertions of, to overcome ris- 
ing sentiment for freedom, 202. 
want of prudence of, 137. 
will of, 138. 

Widows' Society, the Savannah, 551. 

Williams, Robert, land agitator, 109. 

Wine producing and silk culture, disappoint- 
ment in, 120. 

Wright, Governor, alarm of, at action of com- 
mittee, 198. 

Wright adjourns the General Assembly to pre- 
vent action on resolutions of provincial 
congress, 206. 

Wright, arrest of, 219. 
arrival of, 167. 

communication of, to Secretary Conway, 

\7"ACHT Club, the Savannah, 555. 
JL Yamacraws, 33. 
Yellow fever, 341. 
in 1820, 469. 
in 1854, 354. 

in 1854, labors of physicians during the, 
Young, Dr. Thomas, biography of, 437. 


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